[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Bordetella pertussis colonizes the human respiratory mucosa. Most studies on B. pertussis adherence have relied on cultured mammalian cells that lack key features present in differentiated human airway cells or on animal models that are not natural hosts of B. pertussis. The objectives of this work were to evaluate B. pertussis infection in highly differentiated human airway cells in vitro and to show the role of B. pertussis fimbriae in cell adherence.
Primary human airway epithelial (PHAE) cells from human bronchi and a human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line were grown in vitro under air-liquid interface conditions.
PHAE and HBE cells infected with B. pertussis wild-type strain revealed bacterial adherence to the apical surface of cells, bacteria-induced cytoskeleton changes, and cell detachment. Mutations in the major fimbrial subunits Fim2/3 or in the minor fimbrial adhesin subunit FimD affected B. pertussis adherence to predominantly HBE cells. This cell model recapitulates the morphologic features of the human airway infected by B. pertussis and confirms the role of fimbriae in B. pertussis adherence. Furthermore, HBE cells show that fimbrial subunits, and specifically FimD adhesin, are critical in B. pertussis adherence to airway cells.
The relevance of this model to study host-parasite interaction in pertussis lies in the striking physiologic and morphologic similarity between the PHAE and HBE cells and the human airway ciliated and goblet cells in vivo. These cells can proliferate in vitro, differentiate, and express the same genetic profile as human respiratory cells in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whooping cough, or pertussis, incidence has reached levels not seen since the 1950s. Previous studies have shown that antibiotics fail to improve the course of disease unless diagnosed early. Early diagnosis is complicated by the non-diagnostic presentation of disease early in infection. This review focuses on previous attempts at developing novel host-directed therapies for the treatment of pertussis. In addition, two novel approaches from our group are discussed. Manipulation of the signaling pathway of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid involved in many immune processes, has shown great promise, but is in its infancy. Pendrin, a host epithelial anion exchanger upregulated in the airways with B. pertussis infection, appears to drive mucus production and dysregulation of airway surface liquid pH and salinity. In addition to detailing these potential new therapeutic targets, the need for greater focus on the neonatal model of disease is highlighted.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pathogens and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis toxin (PT) is a multi-subunit protein toxin secreted by Bordetella pertussis, the bacterial agent of the disease pertussis or whooping cough. PT in detoxified form is a component of all licensed acellular pertussis vaccines, since it is considered to be an important virulence factor for this pathogen. PT inhibits G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling through Gi proteins in mammalian cells, an activity that has led to its widespread use as a cell biology tool. But how does this activity of PT contribute to pertussis, including the severe respiratory symptoms of this disease? In this minireview, the contribution of PT to the pathogenesis of pertussis disease will be considered based on evidence from both human infections and animal model studies. Although definitive proof of the role of PT in humans is lacking, substantial evidence supports the idea that PT is a major contributor to pertussis pathology, including the severe respiratory symptoms associated with this disease.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pathogens and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis disease, characterized by severe and prolonged coughing episodes, can progress to a critical stage with pulmonary inflammation and death in young infants. However, there are currently no effective treatments for pertussis. We previously studied the role of pertussis toxin (PT), an important Bordetella pertussis virulence factor, in lung transcriptional responses to B. pertussis infection in mouse models. One of the genes most highly upregulated in a PT-dependent manner encodes an epithelial transporter of bicarbonate, chloride and thiocyanate that contributes to asthma pathology named pendrin. In this study we found that pendrin expression is upregulated at both gene and protein level in the lungs of B. pertussis-infected mice. Pendrin upregulation is associated with PT production by the bacteria and with IL-17A production by the host. B. pertussis-infected pendrin knockout (KO) mice had higher lung bacterial loads than infected pendrin-expressing mice but had significantly reduced levels of lung inflammatory pathology. However, reduced pathology did not correlate with reduced inflammatory cytokine expression. Infected pendrin KO mice had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than infected pendrin-expressing mice, suggesting that these inflammatory mediators are less active in the airways in the absence of pendrin. In addition, treatment of B. pertussis-infected mice with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide reduced lung inflammatory pathology without affecting pendrin synthesis or bacterial loads. Together these data suggest that PT contributes to pertussis pathology through the upregulation of pendrin, which promotes conditions favoring inflammatory pathology. Therefore pendrin may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of pertussis disease.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Throughout infection, pathogenic bacteria induce dramatic changes in host transcriptional repertoires. An understanding of
how bacterial factors influence host reprogramming will provide insight into disease pathogenesis. In the human respiratory
pathogen Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, pertussis toxin (PT) is a key virulence factor that promotes colonization, suppresses
innate immune responses during early infection, and causes systemic disease symptoms. To determine the full extent of PT-associated
gene regulation in the airways through the peak of infection, we measured global transcriptional profiles in the lungs of
BALB/c mice infected with wild-type (WT) or PT-deficient (ΔPT) B. pertussis. ΔPT bacteria were inoculated at a dose equivalent to the WT dose and at a high dose (ΔPThigh) to distinguish effects caused by higher bacterial loads achieved in WT infection from effects associated with PT. The results
demonstrated that PT was associated with a significant upregulation of immune and inflammatory response genes as well as several
other genes implicated in airway pathology. In contrast to the early, transient responses observed for ΔPThigh infection, WT infection induced a prolonged expression of inflammatory genes and increased the extent and duration of lung
histopathology. In addition, the administration of purified PT to ΔPThigh-infected mice 1 day after bacterial inoculation exacerbated and prolonged inflammatory responses and airway pathology. These
data indicate that PT not only is associated with exacerbated host airway responses during peak B. pertussis infection but also may inhibit host mechanisms of attenuating and resolving inflammation in the airways, suggesting possible
links between PT and pertussis disease symptoms.
Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiological and pathogenic relationship between Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, the two causes of whooping cough (pertussis), is unclear. We hypothesized that B. pertussis, due to its immunosuppressive activities, might enhance B. parapertussis infection when the two species were present in a coinfection of the respiratory tract. The dynamics of this relationship were examined using the mouse intranasal inoculation model. Infection of the mouse respiratory tract by B. parapertussis was not only enhanced by the presence of B. pertussis, but B. parapertussis significantly outcompeted B. pertussis in this model. Staggered inoculation of the two organisms revealed that the advantage for B. parapertussis is established at an early stage of infection. Coadministration of PT enhanced B. parapertussis single infection, but had no effect on mixed infections. Mixed infection with a PT-deficient B. pertussis strain did not enhance B. parapertussis infection. Interestingly, the depletion of airway macrophages reversed the competitive relationship between these two organisms, but the depletion of neutrophils had no effect on mixed infection or B. parapertussis infection. We conclude that B. pertussis, through the action of PT, can enhance a B. parapertussis infection, possibly by an inhibitory effect on innate immunity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis (whooping cough) is frequently complicated by concomitant infections with respiratory viruses. Here we report the effect of Bordetella pertussis infection on subsequent influenza virus (PR8) infection in mouse models and the role of pertussis toxin (PT) in this effect. BALB/c mice infected with a wild-type strain of B. pertussis (WT) and subsequently (up to 14 days later) infected with PR8 had significantly increased pulmonary viral titers, lung pathology and mortality compared to mice similarly infected with a PT-deficient mutant strain (ΔPT) and PR8. Substitution of WT infection by intranasal treatment with purified active PT was sufficient to replicate the exacerbating effects on PR8 infection in BALB/c and C57/BL6 mice, but the effects of PT were lost when toxin was administered 24 h after virus inoculation. PT had no effect on virus titers in primary cultures of murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs) in vitro, suggesting the toxin targets an early immune response to increase viral titers in the mouse model. However, type I interferon responses were not affected by PT. Whole genome microarray analysis of gene expression in lung tissue from PT-treated and control PR8-infected mice at 12 and 36 h post-virus inoculation revealed that PT treatment suppressed numerous genes associated with communication between innate and adaptive immune responses. In mice depleted of alveolar macrophages, increase of pulmonary viral titers by PT treatment was lost. PT also suppressed levels of IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, KC, MCP-1 and TNF-α in the airways after PR8 infection. Furthermore PT treatment inhibited early recruitment of neutrophils and NK cells to the airways. Together these findings demonstrate that infection with B. pertussis through PT activity predisposes the host to exacerbated influenza infection by countering protective innate immune responses that control virus titers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiological and pathogenic relationship between Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, the two causes of whooping cough (pertussis), is unclear. We hypothesized that B. pertussis, due to its immunosuppressive activities, might enhance B. parapertussis infection when the two species were present in a coinfection of the respiratory tract. The dynamics of this relationship were examined using the mouse intranasal inoculation model. Infection of the mouse respiratory tract by B. parapertussis was not only enhanced by the presence of B. pertussis, but B. parapertussis significantly outcompeted B. pertussis in this model. Staggered inoculation of the two organisms revealed that the advantage for B. parapertussis is established at an early stage of infection. Coadministration of PT enhanced B. parapertussis single infection, but had no effect on mixed infections. Mixed infection with a PT‐deficient B. pertussis strain did not enhance B. parapertussis infection. Interestingly, the depletion of airway macrophages reversed the competitive relationship between these two organisms, but the depletion of neutrophils had no effect on mixed infection or B. parapertussis infection. We conclude that B. pertussis, through the action of PT, can enhance a B. parapertussis infection, possibly by an inhibitory effect on innate immunity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin are two important virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis, the bacterial cause of the respiratory disease pertussis or whooping cough. In addition to studies on the structure, function and role in pathogenesis of these two toxins, they are both used as cell biology tools for a variety of applications owing to their ability to enter mammalian cells, perform enzymatic activities and modify cell signaling events. In this article, recent data from the research literature that enhance our understanding of the nature of these two toxins, their role in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis infection and disease, particularly in modulating host immune responses, and their use as tools for other areas of research will be outlined.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Future Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a mouse model of respiratory tract infection by Bordetella pertussis, bacteria multiply in the airways over the first week and are then cleared over the next 3-4 weeks by the host immune response. Pertussis toxin (PT), a virulence factor secreted exclusively by B. pertussis, promotes bacterial growth in the airways by suppression and modulation of host immune responses. By comparison of wild type and PT-deficient strains, we examined the role of PT in modulating airway cytokine and chemokine responses affecting neutrophil recruitment during B. pertussis infection in mice. We found that, despite early inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by PT, high numbers of neutrophils were recruited to the airways by 4 days post-infection with the wild type strain, but not with the PT-deficient strain, and that this correlated with upregulation of neutrophil-attracting chemokine gene expression. In addition, there was similar upregulation of genes expressing the cytokines IL-17A (IL-17), TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, indicating a mixed Th1/Th17 response. Expression of IL-6, a cytokine involved in Th17 induction, was upregulated earlier than the IL-17 response. We showed that PT, rather than bacterial numbers, was important for induction of these responses. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the IL-17-producing cells were macrophages and neutrophils as well as T cells, and were present predominantly in the airways rather than the lung tissue. Antibody neutralization of IL-17 significantly reduced chemokine gene expression and neutrophil recruitment to the airways, but only modestly increased peak bacterial loads. These data indicate that PT stimulates inflammatory responses by induction of Th1- and Th17-associated cytokines, including IL-17, during B. pertussis infection in mice, but a role for IL-17 in protection against the infection remains to be established.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis is an acute respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, for which humans are the only known reservoir. During infection, B. pertussis releases several toxins, including pertussis toxin (PT) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), which have both been shown to
play roles in promoting bacterial growth during early infection in a mouse model. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies
suggest that PT and ACT affect neutrophil chemotaxis and/or function, thereby altering the innate immune response. In this
study we depleted animals of neutrophils to investigate whether neutrophils play a protective role during B. pertussis infection in mice. In addition, by infection with toxin-deficient strains, we investigated whether neutrophils are the main
targets for PT and/or ACT activity in promoting bacterial growth. Surprisingly, we found no role for neutrophils during B. pertussis infection in naïve mice. However, in previously infected (immune) mice or in mice receiving immune serum, we observed a significant
role for neutrophils during infection. Furthermore, in this immune mouse model our evidence indicates that neutrophils appear
to be the main target cells for ACT, but not for PT.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis is an acute respiratory disease of humans caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis toxin (PT) plays a major role in the virulence of this pathogen, including important effects that it has soon after inoculation. Studies in our laboratory and other laboratories have indicated that PT inhibits early neutrophil influx to the lungs and airways in response to B. pertussis respiratory tract infection in mice. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that PT can affect neutrophils directly by ADP ribosylating G(i) proteins associated with surface chemokine receptors, thereby inhibiting neutrophil migration in response to chemokines. However, in this study, by comparing responses to wild-type (WT) and PT-deficient strains, we found that PT has an indirect inhibitory effect on neutrophil recruitment to the airways in response to infection. Analysis of lung chemokine expression indicated that PT suppresses early neutrophil recruitment by inhibiting chemokine upregulation in alveolar macrophages and other lung cells in response to B. pertussis infection. Enhancement of early neutrophil recruitment to the airways in response to WT infection by addition of exogenous keratinocyte-derived chemokine, one of the dominant neutrophil-attracting chemokines in mice, further revealed an indirect effect of PT on neutrophil chemotaxis. Additionally, we showed that intranasal administration of PT inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine gene expression and neutrophil recruitment to the airways, presumably by modulation of signaling through Toll-like receptor 4. Collectively, these results demonstrate how PT inhibits early inflammatory responses in the respiratory tract, which reduces neutrophil influx in response to B. pertussis infection, potentially providing an advantage to the pathogen in this interaction.
Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis toxin (PT), an AB5 exotoxin and important virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, is hypothesized to traffic along a retrograde transport pathway in mammalian cells. This pathway includes endosomal uptake, transport to the Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dissociation of the holotoxin in the ER and translocation of the A subunit (S1) to the cytosol, where it ADP-ribosylates its G protein targets. In this study, PT was visualized in the Golgi complex by immunofluorescence microscopy, but transport beyond the Golgi could not be detected by this method. To gain evidence for the retrograde pathway, peptide tags with target sites for tyrosine sulfation (a trans-Golgi network-specific activity) and N-glycosylation (an ER-specific activity) were added to either S1 or a B subunit (S4) of PT. Modified PT retained in vitro enzymatic and cellular activity as assessed by ADP-ribosylation assays. Peptide-tagged PT subunits were found to be modified by tyrosine sulfation, and, at later time points, by N-glycosylation. Appearance of sulfated PT subunits was inhibited by pretreatment of cells with brefeldin A. In some cell types, much of the S4 glycosylation, but not that of S1, was resistant to endoglycosidase H, suggesting that, subsequent to core N-glycosylation in the ER, S4 was transported anterograde to the Golgi, where further glycosylation occurred. When cells were pretreated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, sulfation of PT subunits and PT cytotoxicity were reduced, suggesting that PT transport is dependent on cellular cholesterol content. These data support a retrograde pathway for PT intracellular transport.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Cellular Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis toxin (PT) is an important virulence factor produced by Bordetella pertussis. PT holotoxin comprises one enzymatically active A subunit (S1), associated with a pentamer of B subunits. PT is an ADP-ribosyltransferase that modifies several mammalian heterotrimeric G proteins. Some bacterial toxins are believed to undergo retrograde intracellular transport through the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway involves the removal of misfolded proteins from the ER and degradation upon their return to the cytosol; this pathway may be exploited by PT and other toxins. In the cytosol, ERAD substrates are ubiquitinated at lysine residues, targeting them to the proteasome for degradation. We hypothesize that S1 avoids ubiquitination and proteasome degradation due to its lack of lysine residues. We predicted that the addition of lysine residues would reduce PT toxicity by allowing ubiquitination and degradation to occur. Variant forms of PT were engineered, replacing one, two, or three arginines with lysines in a variety of locations on S1. Several variants were identified with wild-type in vitro enzymatic activity but reduced cellular activity, consistent with our hypothesis. Significant recovery of the cellular activity of these variants was observed when CHO cells were pretreated with a proteasome inhibitor. We concluded that the replacement of arginine residues with lysine in the S1 subunit of PT renders the toxin subject to proteasomal degradation, suggesting that wild-type PT avoids proteasome degradation due to an absence of lysine residues.
Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bordetella pertussis infection of the airways causes the disease pertussis (or whooping cough). The infection can be fatal in infants, but in older children, adolescents and adults usually results in a chronic cough of varying severity that persists long after clearance of the infection. The cause of the cough is unknown, but is presumably a result of the pathogenic effects of one or more of the various virulence factors produced by this bacterium. Accumulating recent evidence indicates that the majority of the virulence-associated effects of these factors is devoted to suppression and modulation of the host immune response, which can be skewed towards the recently described Th17 profile. Although the interplay between virulence factors and immune mechanisms might have evolved to benefit both partners in the host-pathogen interaction, it could also contribute to the severe disease pathology associated with this infection.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Current Opinion in Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis toxin (PT), a secreted virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, ADP ribosylates mammalian G(i) proteins and plays an important early role in respiratory tract infection by this pathogen in a mouse intranasal infection model. To test the hypothesis that PT targets resident airway macrophages (AM) to promote this infection, we depleted AM by intranasal administration of liposome-encapsulated clodronate prior to bacterial inoculation. This treatment enhanced respiratory tract infection by B. pertussis, even though it also induced a rapid influx of neutrophils to the airways. Strikingly, AM depletion also enhanced infection by mutant strains deficient in PT production or activity to the same level as the wild-type infection, indicating that AM may be the primary target cells for PT in promoting infection. The enhancing effect of clodronate-liposome treatment on infection (i) was shown to be due to macrophage depletion rather than neutrophil influx; (ii) was observed for both tracheal infection and lung infection; (iii) was observed during the early and peak phases of the infection but was lost by day 14 postinoculation, during clearance of the infection; (iv) persisted for at least 1 week (prior to bacterial inoculation); and (v) was equivalent in magnitude to the effect of PT pretreatment and the effects were not additive, consistent with the idea that PT targets AM. We found that PT efficiently ADP ribosylated AM G proteins both in vitro and after intranasal administration of PT in mice and that the duration of G protein modification in vivo was equivalent to the duration of the enhancing effect of PT treatment on the bacterial infection. Collectively, these observations indicate that PT targets AM to promote early infection of the respiratory tract by B. pertussis.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We observed a remarkable reduction in the frequency and immunosuppressive activity of splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells in C57BL/6 mice with MOG33-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study revealed that pertussis toxin (PTx), one component of the immunogen used to induce murine EAE, was responsible for down-regulating splenic CD4+CD25+ cells. Treatment of normal BALB/c mice with PTx in vivo reduced the frequency, suppressive activity and FoxP3 expression by splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells. However, PTx treatment did not alter the expression of characteristic phenotypic markers (CD45RB, CD103, GITR and CTLA-4) and did not increase the expression of CD44 and CD69 by the residual splenic and lymph node CD4+CD25+ T cells. This property of PTx was attributable to its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PTx did not inhibit suppressive activity of purified CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells in vitro, but did so in vivo, presumably due to an indirect effect. Although the exact molecular target of PTx that reduces Treg activity remains to be defined, our data suggests that alteration of both distribution and function of splenic immunocytes should play a role. This study concludes that an underlying cause for the immunological adjuvanticity of PTx is down-regulation of Treg cell number and function.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we found that pertussis toxin (PT), an exotoxin virulence factor produced by Bordetella pertussis, plays an important early role in colonization of the respiratory tract by this pathogen, using a mouse intranasal infection
model. In this study, we examined the early role played by another exotoxin produced by this pathogen, adenylate cyclase toxin
(ACT). By comparing a wild-type strain to a mutant strain (ΔCYA) with an in-frame deletion of the cyaA gene encoding ACT, we found that the lack of ACT confers a significant peak (day 7) colonization defect (1 to 2 log10). In mixed-infection experiments, the ΔCYA strain was significantly outcompeted by the wild-type strain, and intranasal administration
of purified ACT did not increase colonization by ΔCYA. These data suggest that ACT benefits the bacterial cells that produce
it and, unlike PT, does not act as a soluble factor benefiting the entire infecting bacterial population. Comparison of lower
respiratory tract infections over the first 4 days after inoculation revealed that the colonization defect of the PT deletion
strain was apparent earlier than that of ΔCYA, suggesting that PT plays an earlier role than ACT in the establishment of B. pertussis infection. Examination of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected mice revealed that, unlike PT, ACT does not
appear to inhibit neutrophil influx to the respiratory tract early after infection but may combat neutrophil activity once
influx has occurred.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Infection and Immunity