[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that microglia originate from immature progenitors in the yolk sac. After birth, microglial populations are maintained under normal conditions via self-renewal without the need to recruit monocyte-derived microglial precursors. Peripheral cell invasion of the brain parenchyma can only occur with disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Here, we report an autopsy case of an umbilical cord blood transplant recipient in whom cells derived from the donor blood differentiated into ramified microglia in the recipient brain parenchyma. Although the blood-brain barrier and glia limitans seemed to prevent invasion of these donor-derived cells, most of the invading donor-derived ramified cells were maintained in the cerebral cortex. This result suggests that invasion of donor-derived cells occurs through the pial membrane.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Qing fei tang, which is used for various respiratory diseases, is useful for reducing relapse of aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in stroke, but the effect remains unknown in Parkinson's syndrome. We report two cases of Japanese patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and relapsing aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia, which was successfully prevented by qing fei tang.
Two Japanese men with progressive supranuclear palsy and receiving total enteral feeding (patient one (66-years-old) and patient two (76-years-old)) had experienced recurrent aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia, which was unresponsive to conventional therapy. The respiratory infection developed twice at intervals of two months in patient one, and nine times at almost monthly intervals in patient two. Thereafter, they were given qing fei tang. After administration of qing fei tang, the respiratory infection reoccurred only once; after 5.5 months for patient one, and six months for patient two. Both of our patients clearly showed a reduced incidence of respiratory infection.
Both of our patients clearly showed a reduced incidence of respiratory infection after the administration of qing fei tang. Qing fei tang could be useful for the prevention of recurrent aspiration pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in progressive supranuclear palsy.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Slowly progressive cognitive decline is the most frequent initial manifestation in MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Agraphia has never been noted in patients with this type of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, however, we report the case of a Japanese patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in whom agraphia of Kanji was an initial cardinal symptom.
A 59-year-old right-handed Japanese woman complained of agraphia of Kanji (Chinese characters) as an initial symptom. A neurological examination revealed mild word-finding difficulty, constructive disturbance, hyperreflexia in her jaw and lower limbs, and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes. An examination of her cerebrospinal fluid revealed increased levels of 14-3-3 and total tau proteins, and abnormal conformation of the proteinase K-resistant prion protein. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in bilateral cerebral cortices. Single-photon emission computed tomography scans revealed hypoperfusion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral parietal and occipital lobes. An analysis of the prion protein gene demonstrated no mutation with homozygous for methionine at the codon 129. We diagnosed our patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Although a histological examination was not performed, it was assumed that our patient could be the MM2-cortical type according to the clinical findings and the elevated levels of 14-3-3 protein in her cerebrospinal fluid. The left posterior inferior temporal area, which was affected in our patient as a hypoperfusion area, is associated with selecting and recalling Kanji characters.
Focal signs as an early symptom and hypoperfusion areas in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are critical to recognize initial brain lesions damaged by the proteinase K-resistant prion protein accumulation.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein describe the case of an 81-year-old Japanese woman with neuroleptic malignant syndrome that occurred 36 days after the initiation of combination therapy with tiapride (75 mg/day) and tetrabenazine (12.5 mg/day) for Huntington's disease. The patient had been treated with tiapride or tetrabenazine alone without any adverse effects before the administration of the combination therapy. She also had advanced breast cancer when the combination therapy was initiated. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to combination therapy with tetrabenazine and tiapride has not been previously reported. Tetrabenazine should be administered very carefully in combination with other neuroleptic drugs, particularly in patients with a worsening general condition.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) due to V180I mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) is of great interest because of the differences from sporadic CJD and other genetic prion diseases in terms of clinical features, as well as pathological and biochemical findings. However, few systematic observations about the clinical features in patients with this unique mutation have been published. Therefore, the goal of this study was to relate this mutation to other forms of CJD from a clinical perspective.
Design We analysed clinical symptoms, prion protein genetics, biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MRI of patients.
Participants 186 Japanese patients with the V180I mutation in PRNP.
Results Our results indicate that the V180I mutation caused CJD at an older age, with a slower progression and a lower possibility of developing myoclonus, cerebellar, pyramidal signs and visual disturbance compared with classical sporadic CJD with methionine homozygosity at codon 129 of PRNP. Cognitive impairment was the major symptom. Diffuse hyperintensity of the cerebral cortex in diffusion-weighted MRI might be helpful for diagnosis. Owing to the low positivity of PrPSc in the CSF, genetic analysis was often required for a differential diagnosis from slowly progressive dementia.
Conclusions We conclude that the V180I mutation in PRNP produces a late-developing and slow-developing, less severe form of CJD, whose lesions are uniquely distributed compared with sporadic and other genetic forms of CJD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To examine whether there are clinical features in Japanese patients with both neurodegenerative diseases and cancers.
We analyzed the clinical characteristics of consecutive Japanese patients with neurodegenerative diseases during the past 5 years, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA).
Out of 292 patients, 39 patients had cancers, including a past history, as follows: ALS, n = 16; PD, n = 8; PSP, n = 7; CBD, n = 1, and MSA, n = 7. About 10% of patients with neurodegenerative diseases developed cancer after onset of the disease; about 30% of patients with ALS, PD, or PSP occurring with cancers died of cancer. Gastric cancer was most common before the onset of ALS (62.5%) but did not develop after the onset of ALS. Conversely, PD patients frequently developed gastric cancers after the onset of neurological signs (60.0%) in spite of no cancer before the onset of PD. The proportion of breast cancer in MSA (45.5%) was significantly higher than in other neurodegenerative diseases.
ALS, PD, or MSA patients with cancer showed clinical characteristics unique to each neurodegenerative disease in Japan compared to other countries.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · European Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Details of abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) propagation in the human central nervous system (CNS) are unclear. To assess the spread of PrP(Sc) through the human CNS, we evaluated dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (dCJD) cases focusing on sites of grafting and dCJD pathological subtypes.
A cross-sectional study.
nationwide surveillance data of human prion diseases in Japan over the past 12 years were applied for the study.
Clinical data were obtained from 84 dCJD patients.
The clinical courses in cases of dCJD were analysed according to the grafting sites (supratentorial and infratentorial groups) and the pathological subtypes (non-plaque and plaque types).
Of the 84 cases of dCJD in this study, 36 (43%) were included in the supratentorial group and 39 (46%) were included in the infratentorial group. As initial manifestations, vertigo (p=0.007) and diplopia (p=0.041) were significantly more frequent in the infratentorial group than in the supratentorial group. During their clinical course, cerebellar signs appeared more frequently in the infratentorial group than in the supratentorial group (p=0.024). In the non-plaque type cases (n=53), the infratentorial group developed vertigo more frequently than the supratentorial group (p=0.017); moreover, cerebellar signs appeared more frequently in the infratentorial group (p=0.014). However, there was no significant difference between groups in the plaque type (n=18).
The high frequency of clinical manifestations related to brain stem and cerebellar dysfunction in the non-plaque type dCJD with infratentorial grafting suggests that PrP(Sc) commonly shows direct propagation into the CNS from contaminated dura mater grafts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective More than 60% of patients worldwide with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) associated with dura mater graft (dCJD) have been diagnosed in Japan. The remarkable frequency of dura mater grafts in Japan may possibly contribute to the elevated incidence of dCJD, but reasons for the disproportionate use of this procedure in Japan remain unclear. We investigated differences between dCJD patients in Japan and those elsewhere to help explain the more frequent use of cadaveric dura mater and the high incidence of dCJD in Japan.
Methods We obtained data on dCJD patients in Japan from the Japanese national CJD surveillance programme and on dCJD patients in other countries from the extant literature. We compared the demographic, clinical and pathological features of dCJD patients in Japan with those from other countries.
Results Data were obtained for 142 dCJD patients in Japan and 53 dCJD patients elsewhere. The medical conditions preceding dura mater graft transplantation were significantly different between Japan and other countries (p<0.001); in Japan, there were more cases of cerebrovascular disease and hemifacial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia. Patients with dCJD in Japan received dura mater graft more often for non-life-threatening conditions, such as meningioma, hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia, than in other countries.
Conclusions Differences in the medical conditions precipitating dura mater graft may contribute to the frequent use of cadaveric dura mater and the higher incidence of dCJD in Japan.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A national system for surveillance of prion diseases (PrDs) was established in Japan in April 1999. Here, we analyzed the relationships among prion protein gene (PRNP) mutations and the clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers, and pathological characteristics of the major genotypes of genetic PrDs (gPrDs). We retrospectively analyzed age at onset and disease duration; the concentrations and incidences of 14-3-3 protein, tau protein, and abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the CSF of 309 gPrD patients with P102L, P105L, E200K, V180I, or M232R mutations; and brain pathology in 32 autopsied patients. Three clinical phenotypes were seen: rapidly progressive Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which included 100% of E200K cases, 70% of M232R, and 21% of P102L; slowly progressive CJD, which included 100% of V180I and 30% of M232R; and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, which included 100% of P105L and 79% of P102L. PrP(Sc) was detected in the CSF of more than 80% of patients with E200K, M232R, or P102L mutations but in only 39% of patients with V180I. V180I was accompanied by weak PrP immunoreactivity in the brain. Patients negative for PrP(Sc) in the CSF were older at disease onset than positive patients. Patients with mutations associated with high 14-3-3 protein levels in the CSF typically had synaptic deposition of PrP in the brain and a rapid course of disease. The presence of small PrP protein fragments in brain homogenates was not correlated with other clinicopathological features. Positivity for PrP(Sc) in the CSF may reflect the pathological process before or at disease onset, or abnormality in the secretion or metabolism of PrP(Sc). The amount of 14-3-3 protein in the CSF likely indicates the severity of the pathological process and accompanying neuronal damage. These characteristic features of the CSF in cases of gPrD will likely facilitate accurate diagnosis and clinicopathological study of the various disease subtypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant form of hereditary amyloidosis. Several studies reported coagulation factor X deficiency and excessive fibrinolysis in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis. However, few have investigated coagulation and fibrinolysis in FAP. The objective of this study was to determine abnormalities in plasma biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in FAP.
We prospectively recruited eight FAP patients with transthyretin mutations and ten age-matched control patients with other neuropathies in our university. We examined plasma biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, D-dimer, α2-antiplasmin, antithrombin, plasminogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and coagulation factor X. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed for statistical comparisons between FAP and control groups.
FAP patients exhibited significantly decreased levels of coagulation factor X, plasminogen and α2-antiplasmin, and significantly increased levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2 compared to control patients.
Our results indicate abnormalities of coagulation and fibrinolysis in FAP patients.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total tau protein (t-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (CSF-tau) are markedly elevated in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Some CSF-tau may leak into the blood. We evaluated t-tau levels in serum (serum-tau) as a possible marker for the differential diagnosis of CJD from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other rapidly progressive dementias (RPD). Serum- and CSF-tau levels were determined in patients with sporadic CJD (n = 12), AD (n = 10) and RPD but no CJD (non-CJD-RPD; n = 9) who showed RPD fulfilling the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for possible CJD at onset and had a final diagnosis other than CJD. We also analyzed serum-tau levels in healthy volunteers as a control group (n = 10). Serum- as well as CSF-tau levels were significantly elevated in CJD group compared to those in AD, non-CJD-RPD and healthy control groups. Serum-tau would be a simple and useful marker to distinguish CJD from AD and non-CJD-RPD, requiring further large study to confirm this.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a pair of monozygotic twins with an attenuated form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I). At age 24, they both developed cervical myelopathy as a cardinal manifestation. They each also had mild valve abnormalities and both inguinal and umbilical hernia, however, other characteristic features of MPS-I were absent or very mild. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cervical cord compressed by pachymeningeal hypertrophy. Surgery with dural plasty and laminoplasty resulted in decompression of the cervical cord with clinical improvement, revealing marked thickening of the dura mater. Both patients showed a marked decrease of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity with c.252insC (p.P55fsX62; known) and c.1209C>A (p.T374N; novel) mutations of the IDUA gene (IDUA). Patients with MPS-I have been reported to present with various clinical phenotypes and severities even if they have identical mutations of IDUA. The quite similar, unique phenotype in monozygotic twins suggests that not only IDUA mutation but also other genetic factors than IDUA markedly influence the clinical manifestations of MPS-I.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of the neurological sciences