T Pohlmann

Institut für klinische Forschung und Entwicklung, Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

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Publications (10)40.05 Total impact

  • T Forst · M Nguyen · S Forst · B Disselhoff · T Pohlmann · A Pfützner
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    ABSTRACT: In a double blind, randomised study, 19 patients suffering from mild-to-moderate symptomatic diabetic neuropathy (Total Symptom Score, NTSS 4-16) received either treatment with the new transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) device "Salutaris" (verum group) or a placebo treatment with an identical but electrically inactive device (placebo group). Stimulation pads were placed at the anatomical localisation of the peroneal nerve and stimulation was performed using a low frequency mode. At baseline (V1), after 6 (V2), and 12 (V3) wk of treatment, the patients' symptoms were registered using the new total symptom score (NTSS-6) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, sensory nerve thresholds (temperature, vibration, pain) and microvascular function were measured at the lower limb at baseline and after 12 wk of treatment. Active TENS-treatment resulted in a significant improvement in NTSS-6 score after 6 wk (-42%) and after 12 wk (-32%) of treatment (baseline: 10.0+/-3.3, 6 wk: 5.8+/-5.0, p<0.05; 12 wk: 6.8+/-3.9, p=0.05; placebo group: baseline: 7.6+/-3.1; 6 wk: 8.1+/-5.1, n.s.; 12 wk: 6.5+/-6.1, n.s.). Subanalysis of the different qualities of the NTSS-score revealed an improvement in numbness (2.2+/-1.0 to 1.6+/-1.3; p<0.03); lancinating pain (1.6+/-1.1 to 0.6+/-0.9; p<0.02) and allodynia (1.4+/-1.6 to 0.5+/-1.0; p<0.05). Also, a significant improvement in the VAS rating was found after 6 wk of TENS therapy (19.8+/-5.0 to 14.4+/-9.6; p<0.05), while no change was observed in the placebo arm. In conclusion, our study indicates that the new TENS device "Salutaris" is a convenient, non-pharmacological option for primary or adjuvant treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Diabetes, nutrition & metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Rheopheresis is a specific application of membrane differential filtration, synonymous with double filtration plasmapheresis, for extracorporeal hemorheotherapy. Safety and efficacy of Rheopheresis for wound healing and skin oxygenation were investigated in patients with ischemic diabetic foot syndrome. Eight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-healing foot ulcers caused by severe ischemic diabetic foot syndrome were treated by a series of seven Rheopheresis sessions in a time span of 11 weeks. Wound healing had not been detectable under conditions of standardized wound care during at least 2 months. Wound status was classified by its morphology, severity and location, according to the criteria of Wagner. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcPO2), laser Doppler flowmetry and vital capillary microscopy were repeatedly performed to monitor the effects of the Rheopheresis treatment series on microcirculation and skin blood flow. Laboratory parameters of blood rheology, endothelial function and inflammatory state were measured in addition to safety parameters. In four patients (baseline Wagner stage 2), Rheopheresis accelerated wound healing of foot ulcers and was associated with an improvement of Wagner stage and a pronounced increase in tcPO2. In two patients (baseline Wagner stage 2), wound healing was unchanged but mean tcPO2 increased, allowing successful minor amputation. Values of tcPO2 remained stable and enhanced for the 3 months follow-up period. In two patients (baseline Wagner stage 4 or 5), no improvements in foot lesions were observed within the treatment period. As an adjunct therapeutic option, Rheopheresis may preserve a functional lower extremity, delay amputation or reduce the extent of amputation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2002 · Diabetes Care
  • T Forst · T Pohlmann · T Kunt · K Goitom · G Schulz · M Löbig · M Engelbach · J Beyer · A Pfützner
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    ABSTRACT: Topical treatment with capsaicin cream has been shown to be successful in the treatment of different symptomatic nerve disorders like diabetic neuropathy. Conflicting data exist on the effect of capsaicin on nerve function and neurovascular control especially in patients with diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of topical capsaicin application on small nerve fibre function and neurovascular control. Capsaicin cream was applied to the feet of 13 patients with symptomatic diabetic neuropathy over a period of 8 weeks. Before and during the treatment period, we investigated the total symptoms score, the vibration, thermal (heat and cold) and pain perception thresholds, and the neurovascular responses to heat and acetylcholine stimuli. In addition, the serum plasma levels of substance P, a neurotransmitter of nociceptor C-fibres, were measured. A significant improvement in total symptoms score was observed during topical capsaicin treatment (18.3+/-3.2 vs. 14.3+/-3.3; p<0.05). An improvement in the heat perception threshold was also found (12.7+/-0.4 degrees C vs. 11.4+/-0.7 degrees C: p<0.05), while other sensory nerve fibre functions remained unchanged. No significant change in neurovascular control was observed, neither after mild thermal injury nor after stimulation with acetylcholine. Serum substance P levels increased after initiation of topical capsaicin treatment (72.9+/-5.8 pg/ml vs. 81.7+/-5.0 pg/ml; p<0.05), but returned to baseline levels during further treatment (77.4+/-8.3 pg/ml: n.s.). In conclusion, topical treatment with capsaicin cream over a period of 8 weeks in patients with symptomatic diabetic neuropathy is effective without adverse effects on nerve fibre function or neurovascular control.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Acta Diabetologica
  • T. Forst · T. Pohlmann · K. Goitom · J. Beyer · T. Klint · A. Pfützner
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    ABSTRACT: C-peptide originates from the processing of protnsulin into insulin and C-peptide. It is released from the pancreatic beta-cells into the circulation in amounts equimolar with insulin. Beside diagnostic indications it has so far received little attention and it was considered to be without biological activity. In addition, investigations within the last ten years have suggested a couple of important biological functions of C-peptide. A recent study has shown a specific binding of C-peptide to human cell membranes. No cross reactions were observed with proinsulin, insulin, IGF 1, IGF2 or neuropeptide Y (NPY). Other studies have shown a Ca++-dependent activation of Na+K+ATPase activity and a stimulation of endothelial NO secretion following treatment with C-peptide. In other investigations, involving experimental and human studies, C-peptide has shown to cause several vascular activities. Besides a direct influence on vascular tonicity it has shown to modulate blood viscosity by increasing erythrocyte deformability and by inhibiting endothelial cell adhesion molecules. It is suggested that these microvascular effects of C-peptide might influence the development of diabetic complications. Preliminary experimental and clinical studies have shown promising results with regard to the development of diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. In addition, some modulatory effects of C-peptide were found on glucose metabolism. Further research is necessary to evaluate the therapeutic significance of the observed findings on diabetic complications.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of proinsulin C-peptide on erythrocyte Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activities in patients with type I diabetes. In a randomized double-blind study design, ten patients with type I diabetes received intravenous infusions of either human C-peptide or physiological saline on two different occasions. C-peptide was infused at a rate of 3 pmol.min(-1).kg(-1) for 60 min, and thereafter at 10 pmol.min(-1).kg(-1) for 60 min. At baseline and after 60 and 120 min, laser Doppler flow (LDF) was measured following acetylcholine iontophoresis or mild thermal stimulation (44 degrees C), and venous blood samples were collected to determine plasma cGMP levels and erythrocyte membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. The LDF response to acetylcholine increased during C-peptide infusion and decreased during saline infusion [18.6+/-19.2 and -13.2+/-9.4 arbitrary units respectively; mean+/-S.E.M.; P<0.05). No significant change in LDF was observed after thermal stimulation. The baseline plasma concentration of cGMP was 5.5+/-0.6 nmol.l(-1); this rose to 6.8+/-0.9 nmol.l(-1) during C-peptide infusion (P<0.05). Erythrocyte Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity increased from 140+/-29 nmol of P(i).h(-1).mg(-1) in the basal state to 287+/-5 nmol of P(i). h(-1).mg(-1) during C-peptide infusion (P<0.01). There was a significant linear relationship between plasma C-peptide levels and erythrocyte Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity during the C-peptide infusion (r=0.46, P<0.01). No significant changes in plasma cGMP levels or Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity were observed during saline infusion. This study demonstrates an effect of human proinsulin C-peptide on microvascular function, which might be mediated by an increase in NO production and an activation of the erythrocyte Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. These mechanisms are compatible with the previous observed microvascular effects of C-peptide in patients with type I diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2000 · Clinical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Morphological and immunohistochemical studies in diabetic subjects have shown a depletion of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) in the central and peripheral nervous system. This is the first study investigating serum levels of substance P in type 1 diabetes patients (n=50) and controls (n=75) by means of an enzyme immunoassay. The serum level of SP was significantly decreased in the diabetic group compared to the control group (10.12+/-0.29 vs. 12.25+/-0.38 pg/ml; p<0.0001). In diabetic patients, there was no correlation of substance P levels with age, serum creatinine, albuminuria, total cholesterol, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA1c, type or duration of diabetes and gender. Furthermore, there was no difference in serum levels of SP in patients with or without retinopathy, but SP was significantly decreased in patients with neuropathy (9.59+/-0.48 vs. 10.78+/-0.83 pg/ml; p=0.04). These data show that SP is decreased in serum of type 1 diabetes patients, especially in those with diabetic neuropathy. Subsequent and already ongoing prospective studies in well validated diabetic patients with neuropathy may characterize the impact of this neurogenic marker in the course of diabetic neuropathy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
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    T Forst · T Kunt · T Pohlmann · K Goitom · M Engelbach · J Beyer · A Pfützner
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    ABSTRACT: 19 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients participated in a randomized double-blind crossover investigation to investigate the impact of human C-peptide on skin microvascular blood flow. The investigation was also carried out with 10 healthy volunteers. Blood pressure, heart rate, blood sugar, and C-peptide levels were monitored during a 60-min intravenous infusion period of C-peptide (8 pmol kg-1 min-1) or saline solution (154 mmol liter-1 NaCl), and 30 min after stopping the infusion. During the same time period, capillary blood cell velocity (CBV), laser Doppler flux (LDF), and skin temperature were assessed in the feet. In the verum arm, C-peptide levels increased after starting infusion to reach a maximum of 2.3+/-0.2 nmol liter-1 after 45 min, but remained below 0. 15 nmol liter-1 during the saline treatment. Baseline CBV was lower in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects (147+/-3.6 vs. 162+/-4.2 micron s-1; P < 0.01). During C-peptide administration, CBV in IDDM patients increased progressively from 147+/-3.6 to 167+/-3.7 micron s-1; P < 0.001), whereas no significant change occurred during saline infusion or in healthy subjects. In contrast to the CBV measurements, the investigation of LDF, skin temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, or blood sugar did not demonstrate any significant change during the study. Replacement of human C-peptide in IDDM patients leads to a redistribution in skin microvascular blood flow levels comparable to levels in healthy subjects by increasing the nutritive CBV relative to subpapillary arteriovenous shunt flow.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Neurovascular inflammation is impaired in patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the distribution of nutritive and total skin blood flow in diabetic patients with and without neuropathy after neurovascular stimulation with acetylcholine. 2. Twenty patients with Type I diabetes, 10 with and 10 without neuropathy, and 10 age-matched non-diabetic control subjects, underwent microvascular investigations before and after neurovascular stimulation by intracutaneous application of acetylcholine. The capillary blood cell velocity in the nailfold of the hallux was measured by videophotometric capillaroscopy, and the total skin microcirculation in the same area by laser Doppler flowmetry. 3. The increase in total skin blood flow was significantly impaired in the group of neuropathic diabetic patients compared with the non-neuropathic diabetic patients (17.5 +/- 8.3 versus 51.0 +/- 16.2; P < 0.05) and the non-diabetic subjects (17.5 +/- 8.3 versus 67.8 +/- 19.7; P < 0.01). The increase in capillary blood flow was not significantly impaired in Type I diabetes patients with neuropathy. 4. The ratio between capillary blood flow and total skin perfusion decreased significantly in the control group (from 0.82 +/- 0.15 to 0.47 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05) and in the Type I diabetes patients without neuropathy (from 0.79 +/- 0.12 to 0.43 +/- 0.12; P < 0.05), whereas the decrease in the neuropathic group was statistically insignificant (from 1.05 +/- 0.19 to 0.72 +/- 0.16). 5. Diminished total skin perfusion in the foot after intracutaneous stimulation with acetylcholine in Type I diabetes patients is associated with diabetic neuropathy, indicating a disturbance in the neurovascular reflex arc. This impaired neurovascular response is caused by a diminished total and subpapillary blood flow and not by a diminished nutritive capillary flow. There is no evidence of a diminished nutritive capillary blood flow during neurogenic inflammation in Type I diabetes patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1998 · Clinical Science
  • T Forst · T Kunt · T Pohlmann · K Goitom · M Löbig · M Engelbach · J Beyer · A Pfützner
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    ABSTRACT: It is expected that microvascular blood flow might be affected by blood glucose, blood insulin and C-peptide levels. In our investigation skin microvascular blood flow (LDF) was measured using laser doppler fluxometry at skin temperatures of 37 degrees C and 44 degrees C during a 75 g oral glucose load (OGT) or water in ten healthy volunteers (6 male, 4 female, age: 28.1+/-4.0) who had fasted overnight. The transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) was measured using a transcutaneous oxygen electrode at a temperature of 44 degrees C. The microvascular response to acetylcholine was investigated before the start of the ingestion period and after 30 minutes. In addition, the capillary blood cell velocity (CBV) was measured using dynamic capillaroscopy. During OGT an increase in LDF could be observed at 37 degrees C (180%, p < 0.005) but only a slight increase was observed at 44 degrees C (86%, n.s.). The microvascular response to acetylcholine increased by 164% (p < 0.05) and the TcPO2 values increased by 30% (p < 0.01) during the OGT investigation. No significant changes in the microvascular measurements could be observed during the water experiment. No significant changes could be observed in the CBV measurements in any phase of the investigation. Plasma C-peptide and insulin levels exhibited an association with the LDF measurements at 37 degrees C (r = 0.22, p < 0.05; r = 0.30, p < 0.05; respectively), whereas blood sugar values showed an association with the TcPO2 measurements (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). After the ingestion of glucose a sophisticated modulation of microvascular blood flow was found in healthy volunteers. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of a disturbed postprandial blood sugar control, insulin and C-peptide secretion in the development of microvascular dysfunction, especially in IDDM.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes

Publication Stats

376 Citations
40.05 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2003
    • Institut für klinische Forschung und Entwicklung
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2000
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • III. Department of Medicine
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany