[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of cats is an animal model for the pathogenesis of CD4+ lymphopenia and thymus dysfunction in HIV-infected humans. Recently, a monoclonal antibody (755) was reported to recognize the feline homologue to CD45RA, allowing the enumeration of naïve T cells in cats. We tested the hypothesis that pediatric FIV infection would be associated with a selective loss of naïve CD4+ lymphocytes by inoculating newborn cats with a pathogenic clone of FIV (JSY3) or a related clone with an inactive ORF-A gene (JSY3-DeltaORFA), and compared the data to age-matched uninfected control cats. Both FIV inocula were associated with a reduction in the CD4-CD8 ratio (p=0.01), which was attributable to a disproportionate loss of naïve CD4+ cells (p=0.01) vs. naïve CD8+ cells. Therefore, the reduced CD4:CD8 ratio in FIV-infected juvenile cats is associated with a selective depletion of naïve CD4+ cells from the blood.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The global incidence of pediatric HIV infection is estimated at 2.3 million children, most acquiring the infection from their mothers in utero, peripartum, or postpartum. Pediatric HIV infection typically causes a rapidly progressive disease when compared with adult infection, due in part to the profound susceptibility of the neonatal thymus to productive infection or degenerative changes. Failed production of naive T-lymphocytes further limits the success of antiviral therapy to restore immunologic function. In this review, we explore the use of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of domestic cats as an animal model for pediatric HIV infection. Cats infected with FIV represent the smallest host of a naturally occurring lentivirus, and the immunodeficiency syndrome elicited by FIV infection is similar to that of HIV-AIDS. The feline-FIV model uniquely reproduces several key aspects of immunosuppressive lentivirus infection of the thymus, allowing investigators to define viral determinants of pathogenicity, influence of host age on disease outcome, and therapeutic strategies to restore thymus function.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Frontiers in Bioscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibody produced by a murine hybridoma obtained from the fusion of SP2/0 plasmacytoma cells with splenocytes of a mouse immunized with feline bone marrow was found to react with 60% of bone marrow cells and 80% of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL); reactivity in the latter tissue was restricted almost entirely to mononuclear cells. Two-color FACScan analyses of this antibody with mAbs specific for feline lymphocytes revealed positive and negative populations of CD4 and CD8 cells. The reactivity for CD4 and CD8 cells was animal age dependent, binding to a higher percentage of the cells in young (2-9 months) versus older animals (> 4 years). In a mitogen driven assay for IgG production by PBL the addition of this antibody to the cultures enhanced the suppressor activity of CD8 cells, a function attributed to activation of a CD4 suppressor-inducer population; removal of CD8 cells negated any induction of suppression. Mild papain digestion of bone marrow and PBL completely removed the antigen detected by this antibody while not affecting reactivity of a pan-T antibody. Western blot analysis showed binding of the antibody to polypeptides of approximately 200 kDa on feline bone marrow and PBL. The data suggest that this mAb is identifying the feline homologue of the leukocyte common antigen of cells with a functional specificity characteristic of a CD45RA isoform.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The domestic cat is an excellent model for the development of therapeutic protocols that target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) because it is relatively resistant to complications related to bone marrow transplantation. To identify a plentiful source of HSC that could be used as targets for gene transduction and transplantation, the livers of 28 mid-gestation fetuses (28-52 days) and late-gestation fetuses (53 days-term) were analyzed for erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid, and uncommitted hematopoietic progenitor cells by flow cytometry. We found that the fetal liver mononuclear cells (FLMCs) contained 57% erythroid progenitors during mid-gestation, but this percentage declined to 43% as gestation progressed. Myelomonocytic cells within FLMC were more numerous in late-gestation (31%) than in mid-gestation (18%). Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), CH 152 and CH 755, which recognize cells with the potential to reconstitute multilineage hematopoiesis in cats, were tested. Approximately, 32% of FLMC from late-gestation fetuses expressed the epitope recognized by mAb CH 152, a significant increase above the 12% positive cells in mid-gestation fetuses. Approximately, 33% of hepatic mononuclear cells expressed the epitope recognized by mAb CH 755 in both mid-term and late-term fetuses. When expressed in absolute numbers, medians of 2.7 x 10(7) CH 152-positive cells and 3.2 x 10(7) CH 755-positive cells were extracted from the late-term fetal livers of individual cats. T-lymphocytes were a minor component (<3%) of FLMC, despite their presence in the thymus and spleen. These data suggest that the late-term feline fetal liver is a suitable source of mutipotential hematopoietic cells that could be used for gene therapy protocols in the cat.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rosette formation of feline peripheral blood leukocytes with guinea pig (GP) and gerbil (G) erythrocytes (E) has been shown in an earlier study to identify T lymphocytes expressing helper and suppressor cell activity, respectively. This T lymphocyte distinction was based on the removal of the E-rosetting populations from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and the subsequent functional evaluation of the remaining cells in a pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced synthesis of immunoglobulin (Ig). In the present study, we demonstrate a direct helper and suppressor function of GPE- and GE-rosetted cells, respectively, wherein the induction of Ig synthesis is altered in a positive or negative way by the addition of the cells to a control target population. A pan-T monoclonal antibody (mAb), CT843, and mAbs to the CD4 (CT248) and CD8 (CT87) subsets are also described; their specificities are established in functional assays, the PWM-induced Ig synthesis and the production of interleukin-2 following Concanavalin A stimulation of PBL, and a biochemical analysis of the surface membrane antigens detected by the mAbs. Immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE analyses showed CT248 to react with a approximately 60-kDa protein under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Under reducing conditions, CT87 reacted with one subunit at approximately 35 kDa; a second faint band at approximately 39 kDa was poorly resolved. mAb CT843 detected a heterodimer of approximately 70 and approximately 60 kDa under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The relationship of the mAbs to E-rosetting was examined in FACScan analyses and rosette inhibition studies. The percentage of GE-rosetting cells agreed with the percentage of cells stained with the CD8 mAb, whereas a comparison of GPE-rosetting and staining with the CD4 mAb showed variability. The binding of GE to PBL was blocked by pretreatment of PBL with the CD8 mAb, whereas no inhibition of GPE rosettes was observed with any of the mAbs. In a previous study, we had shown that an overnight culture of feline PBL at 37 degrees C leads to the development of a second population of GPE-rosetting cells, also having a helper function. The relationship of the two GPE-rosetting populations to the CD4 mAb, CT248, was examined in rosette depletion studies and FACScan analyses. It was found that depletion of the GPE-rosetting cells from fresh, i.e., Day 0 cells, removed only a small percentage of cells reactive with the CD4 mAb, whereas GPE-rosette depletions performed on Day 1 PBL, which contained both populations of GPE-rosetting cells, removed almost all cells reactive with this antibody. The latter study suggests that the GPE-rosetting phenomenon is detecting two subsets of CD4 cells with T helper function, those present in fresh blood and those acquiring the GPE receptor after an overnight culture.
Preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of autologous and allogenic bone marrow transplantations (BMT) in FIV-infected and uninfected cats is a novel therapy for feline hematopoietic diseases and retroviral infections. A total of 13 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats received either autologous or allogenic BMT and seven of these cats were also infected with FIV before autologous or allogenic BMT. All BMT recipients received total body irradiation of 900 cGy just before BMT. Two FIV-infected and four uninfected cats received autologous uninfected BM cells cryopreserved before BMT. Five infected and two uninfected cats received BM cells from allogenic uninfected donors (RBC-, MHC-, and cross-matched). MHC-matching was based on mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) and the donor-recipient combination which was compatible by MLR analysis, was used in this study. Recipients were monitored for hematology, immunology, virology, and clinical signs. All FIV-infected and uninfected recipients of autologous BMT had complete engraftment with minimal complications. Uninfected recipients of allogenic BMT had a more severe clinical episode with slower rate of engraftment. None of these BMT groups had mortality. In contrast, only two of the five infected recipients of allogenic BMT survived for a significant period of time (23 and 50 weeks) and rest of the cats succumbed to transfusion reactions. Both infected BMT groups had persistent CD4/CD8 inversion, low CD4+ cell counts, and FIV infection of engrafted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Overall, successful autologous and allogenic BMTs were performed in FIV-free cats. All infected recipients of autologous BMT had compete engraftment and are currently alive, with thelongest survival time being over 1 year. Thus, BMT in combination with antiviral drug therapies may be an alternative therapy against retroviral infection.
No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline bone marrow cells can be enriched for erythroid and myeloid progenitors by counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) and subsequent treatment of the CCE fractions with the soybean agglutinin (SBA) lectin. Separation of CCE fractions into SBA(-) and SBA(+) populations yielded cells enriched for BFU-E and CFU-GM progenitors, respectively. Differential analyses revealed a high percentage of erythroid lineage cells in the SBA(-) fractions and in the SBA(+) fractions a high concentration of myeloid cells of varying maturation stages. The latter cells, but not the CFU-GM progenitors, could be removed by immunomagnetic depletion from CCE fractions using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for CD13 cells in feline bone marrow, resulting also in a population containing predominantly erythroid differentiating cells. Mice were immunized with CCE fractions enriched for erythroid lineage cells and the splenocytes fused with SP2/O cells for hybridoma development. Supernatant culture fluids from 400 hybridomas were analyzed by flow cytometry with whole bone marrow and select CCE/SBA fractions as the target cells. Those hybridomas suggestive of containing the desired antibodies as indicated by the percentage staining were subcloned and the MAbs utilized in clonogenic assays. Treatment of bone marrow cells or CCE fractions with the MAbs followed by immunomagnetic depletions led to identification of two, K-1 and Q-3, reactive with the BFU-E progenitor and one, K-7, reactive only with late-differentiating erythroid lineage cells. Thus, removal of cells from a CCE/SBA suspension reactive with K-1 or Q-3 led to greater than 80% reductions of the BFU-E progenitors and a population enriched for CFU-GM. Removal of cells reactive with MAb K-7, however, led to a marked enrichment, 5-8-fold, of both BFU-E and CFU-GM progenitors.
No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current use of cord blood (CB) and peripheral blood (PB) stem cells as alternatives or adjunctives to bone marrow (BM) for hematopoietic reconstitution in the treatment of various diseases prompted an examination of the progenitors of these tissues by counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE).
The cells, obtained from normal donors not primed with colony-stimulating factors, were centrifuged at 3000 rpm in a Beckman Sanderson Chamber. Fractions (Frs.) were collected at (1) 18 ml/min, (2) 25 ml/min, (3) 32 ml/min, (4) 40 ml/min, and (5) the rotor-off fraction.
Clonogenic assays revealed differences in the fraction localizations for CB and PB when compared to BM, i.e., recovery of the colony-forming units for CB and PB was greater in the small-medium cell size CCE fractions, and those from BM were found primarily among the medium-large cell size fractions. Thus, although colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage colonies were distributed throughout Frs. 2-5 of BM, CB and PB showed 80% of the total to be in Frs. 2 and 3. Further, although burst-forming unit erythroid colonies of BM were distributed equally in Frs. 2 and 3, greater than 70% of the total burst-forming unit erythroid colonies in CB and PB were found in Fr. 2. Distribution of the CD34 cells in the fractions correlated with the colony-forming units in that these were found primarily in Frs. 2 and 3 of CB and PB, whereas they were present in significant numbers throughout Frs. 1-5 of BM.
We interpret these findings to indicate CB and PB to be qualitatively similar in their hematopoietic lineage development and to contain a greater proportion of early versus late progenitors relative to those found in BM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline bone marrow cells can be enriched for erythroid and myeloid progenitors by counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) and subsequent treatment of the CCE fractions with the soybean agglutinin (SBA) lectin. Separation of CCE fractions into SBA(−) and SBA(+) populations yielded cells enriched for BFU-E and CFU-GM progenitors, respectively. Differential analyses revealed a high percentage of erythroid lineage cells in the SBA(−) fractions and in the SBA(+) fractions a high concentration of myeloid cells of varying maturation stages. The latter cells, but not the CFU-GM progenitors, could be removed by immunomagnetic depletion from CCE fractions using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for CD13 cells in feline bone marrow, resulting also in a population containing predominantly erythroid differentiating cells. Mice were immunized with CCE fractions enriched for erythroid lineage cells and the splenocytes fused with SP2/O cells for hybridoma development. Supernatant culture fluids from 400 hybridomas were analyzed by flow cytometry with whole bone marrow and select CCE/SBA fractions as the target cells. Those hybridomas suggestive of containing the desired antibodies as indicated by the percentage staining were subcloned and the MAbs utilized in clonogenic assays. Treatment of bone marrow cells or CCE fractions with the MAbs followed by immunomagnetic depletions led to identification of two, K-1 and Q-3, reactive with the BFU-E progenitor and one, K-7, reactive only with late-differentiating erythroid lineage cells. Thus, removal of cells from a CCE/SBA suspension reactive with K-1 or Q-3 led to greater than 80% reductions of the BFU-E progenitors and a population enriched for CFU-GM. Removal of cells reactive with MAb K-7, however, led to a marked enrichment, 5–8-fold, of both BFU-E and CFU-GM progenitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline bone marrow cells treated with the soybean agglutinin (SBA) lectin are separated into two populations, the agglutinated SBA(+) fraction containing predominantly cells of myeloid origin and the nonagglutinated SBA(-) fraction consisting of cells primarily of the erythroid lineage. FACScan analyses revealed a clear distinction of the cells based on their light scattering properties, i.e., large cells and cells with high granularity were found in the SBA(+) fraction, whereas cells having a low forward light scatter and side light scatter were found in the SBA(-) fraction. Colony-forming assays showed colony-forming unit-granulocyte/monocyte (CFU-GM) cells to have a strong affinity for SBA because these were found almost entirely in the SBA(+) fraction; in contrast, burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E)-forming cells were concentrated in the SBA(-) fraction. When the marrow was fractionated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE), a differential binding to SBA among the CFU-GM forming cells was found. The SBA(-) fractions of cells collected at 21 and 25 ml/min contained primarily BFU-E forming cells, similar to that observed with whole marrow; the later CCE fractions, those collected at 32 ml/min and the rotor off fraction, when treated with SBA showed a small but significant number of CFU-GM cells in the SBA(-) fraction. T lymphocytes were found predominantly in the SBA(+) fractions of whole bone marrow and the CCE fractions. Successful autologous marrow transplants were performed with the early CCE SBA(-) fractions. The latter cells were used for our initial transplant attempts because ongoing studies in our laboratory had shown these cells to be free of any viral-containing cells when the marrow had been obtained from animals infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus. In summary, although SBA treatment of feline marrow yields a marked separation of CFU-GM and BFU-E progenitors, select CCE SBA(-) fractions contain stem cells capable of providing hematopoietic reconstitution of lethally irradiated animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) has been used to separate nucleated cells from mammalian bone marrow on the basis of size with the resultant isolation of hematopoietic cells in varying stages of lineage development. We examined the feasibility of identifying and isolating such cells from feline bone marrow. CCE was performed with a Beckman J6MI centrifuge and a Sanderson chamber, using a fixed rotor speed of 3000 rpm and collection of cells at (1) 16-, (2) 21-, (3) 25-, (4) 32 ml/min, and (5) a rotor off fraction. Recovery of the total input cells in four replicate experiments averaged 86%, with the maximum number of recovered cells in fraction 4. Analysis by flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies revealed mononuclear cells in fractions 1 and 2 and early and late differentiating myeloid/erythroid cells in fractions 2 through 5. T lymphocytes and alloreactivity in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were restricted to fractions 1 and 2; removal of T cells and MLR activity was accomplished by immunomagnetic depletion. In vitro cultures for clonogenic cells revealed CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies in fractions 2 through 5, with fraction 4 containing the greatest absolute number of myeloid colonies and fractions 3 and 4 the majority of the erythroid colonies. More important, in examining the plating efficiency for clonogenic cells in the different fractions it was found that this increased significantly in fractions 2 and 3 when the culture time was extended from 7 to 14 days; in contrast, fractions 4 and 5 reached their maximum plating efficiency within 7 days with no further increase on day 14. We interpret these findings to indicate the presence of late differentiating progenitors in the large-cell size fractions 4 and 5, while the smaller mononuclear cells in fractions 2 and 3 represent an earlier, more primitive population of hematopoietic cells requiring an extended time in culture for full colony development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding properties of several plant lectins on feline peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were examined by flow cytometry to reveal if any could serve as probes for identifying specific lymphocyte subclasses. Most of the lectins bound > or = 90% of PBL in a uniform manner. The exceptions were the lectins from Glycine max, Phaseolus limensis, and Dolichos biflorus, which bound only a proportion of the PBL. The differential binding of the lectins to lymphocyte subclasses was examined by comparing the staining of control PBL to T cell-depleted PBL. The lectins from Pisum sativum, Lens culinaris, succinylated Triticum vulgaris, and Dolichos biflorus stained T-depleted PBL more brightly than control PBL. Extensive cytofluorometric analyses of the binding properties of Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) on feline PBL and mesenteric lymph node cells indicated that feline B lymphocytes express more higher affinity surface receptors for PSA than do T lymphocytes. The higher affinity binding of PSA to B lymphocytes was further demonstrated by PSA-mediated cellular affinity chromatography. With this procedure it was possible to deplete PBL of B lymphocytes and to obtain pure populations of feline T lymphocytes.
No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · Journal of Immunological Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lethally irradiated rhesus monkeys were treated with autologous bone marrow that had either been (1) nontreated, i.e., normal; (2) depleted of T lymphocytes with a monoclonal antibody directed against rhesus T lymphocytes; (3) fractionated with the soybean agglutinin (SBA- fraction); or (4) fractionated with SBA and further depleted of T cells by E-rosetting. There was no difference in hematologic reconstitution among the animals, but all showed a marked lowering of the T helper/T suppressor ratio during the first 10 months posttransplant and reduced capability of their peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) to produce Ig upon stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. This subnormal ability of PBL to produce Ig, as measured by plaque-forming cells in a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, was not explained entirely by the altered T-H/T-S ratio but was correlated with the functional status of the T-H, T-S, and B lymphocytes. Isolated populations of the different lymphocyte subsets from PBL of the experimental animals were cocultured with normal cells of the appropriate subset to obtain Ig synthesis when stimulated with PWM. Animals treated with normal bone marrow showed recovery of T-H cell function after 5 months, but their T-S cells showed excessive suppressor activity that persisted for 20 months posttransplant. In contrast, those animals receiving treated marrow (mAb plus complement, or SBA) showed a much-delayed (12 months or more) return to normal T-H cell function and an earlier return of T-S cells expressing a normal level of suppressor activity. Since the SBA- fraction of marrow contains very few or no T-H cells and T cell depletion of marrow with mAb also removes these cells, it is suggested that the kinetics of immune recovery of the different lymphocyte subsets of PBL is influenced by the presence or absence of T-H cells in the marrow inocula.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three monoclonal antibodies directed against rhesus lymphocyte cell surface antigens are described. A pan-T mAb, T64, and a T suppressor mAb, T35, showed phenotypic and functional specificity for both human and rhesus cells. In contrast, a third mAb, N42, identifying natural killer cells in rhesus peripheral blood leukocytes, was not crossreactive with the corresponding homologous human cells. N42 reacted with the same cells identified by Leu 11a and Leu 11b in rhesus PBL and in a functional assay decreased NK activity by 80%. N42 precipitated a 50KD protein from rhesus PBL lysates and was reactive with the Fc receptor domain of the NK cell. The T-S functional activity of cells reactive with mAb T35 was demonstrated in a pokeweed-mitogen-driven system for Ig synthesis: removal of the T35 positive cells by complement-mediated lysis led to an enhanced production of Ig by rhesus PBL, and the addition of T35 positive cells to a culture of T helper and B cells resulted in a reduction of this response. T35 was determined to be an IgG2a immunoglobulin and precipitated a 34KD protein from rhesus cell lysates. An IgM immunoglobulin, mAb T64 delineated all T lymphocytes, inhibited E-rosette formation, interfered with the proliferation of cells stimulated with mitogens, and precipitated a 52KD membrane protein. The potential utilization of these mAbs in vivo for organ or tissue transplantation in the rhesus monkey is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-haploidentical bone-marrow transplantation (BMT), B6C3F1 mice (H-2b/k) underwent BMT using syngeneic [B6C3F1 (H-2b/k)], haploidentical [CB6F1 (H-2d/b)], or fully allogeneic [DBA/2 (H-2d)] donor mice. As pretreatment, dimethyl myleran (DMM), an alkylating agent that produces effective myeloablation but little immunosuppression, was used with total body irradiation (TBI). Four conditioning regimens were studied: TBI 800 rads (1 rad = 0.01 Gy), TBI 950 rads, TBI 800 rads plus DMM (0.2 mg per mouse), and TBI 950 rads plus DMM. Survival rates, chimerism, proliferative responses in mixed-lymphocyte culture, specific cell-mediated lympholysis, and in vivo plaque-forming cell responses to several antigens were compared. TBI 800 rads plus DMM was maximally effective. Haploidentical BMT was as successful in inducing long-term survival and immune and hematologic reconstitution as was syngeneic BMT. This regimen plus haploidentical BMT of T-cell-purged marrow yielded survivors tolerant of donor and recipient major histocompatibility complex. Such myeloablation and immunosuppression prevented graft rejection, immunodeficiency due to histoincompatibility, and damage to a radiosensitive cell population. A microenvironmental influence crucial to some antibody responses was thus revealed. Delayed recovery of antibody production after BMT in humans may be due partly to suboptimal myeloablation or excess irradiation.
Preview · Article · Nov 1991 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small population of cells with the ability to form rosettes with human erythrocytes was found in feline peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (10%) and bone marrow (9%), but not in purified granulocyte preparations, thymus, and lymph node tissues. The morphologic appearance and ability to phagocytize latex beads indicated these cells were monocytes. A monoclonal antibody, CM277, with a binding specificity for feline peripheral blood phagocytes was also characterized. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed CM277 to bind specifically to monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The binding of CM277 to monocytes was also shown by human erythrocyte-rosette formation wherein there was a high degree of correlation between these two phenotypic markers for cells ingesting latex beads. Monocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and T lymphocytes of the cat rosette with guinea pig erythrocytes (GPE) and using CM277 we were able to determine the contribution of the former two cell types to the GPE-rosetting population. Monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils comprised the majority of the GPE-rosetting cells in fresh PBL (greater than 60%), but after culturing overnight, there was a substantial decrease in these cells (less than 35%). In contrast, GPE-rosetting T lymphocytes comprised approximately 10% of the cells in fresh PBL, and after in vitro culture for 1 day they constituted 35-45% of all cells. The removal of monocytes by human erythrocyte-rosetting did not affect the pokeweed mitogen-induced synthesis of Ig, but did lead to an increased production of interleukin 2. Removal of the GPE-rosetting population from PBL resulted in a marked decrease in interleukin 2 production, pointing to a positive contribution of GPE-rosetting T lymphocytes to the synthesis of this lymphokine.
No preview · Article · Aug 1991 · Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies in our laboratory have shown that T-helper (T-H) and T-suppressor (T-S) cells in cat peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) rosette with guinea pig (GP) and gerbil (G) erythrocytes (E), respectively. Removal of GE-rosetting cells leads to an enhanced (two- to threefold) synthesis of Ig in a pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-driven system as measured by plaque-forming cells (PFC) to protein A-coated sheep RBC, while depletion of GPE-rosetting cells yields a PFC response only 10-15% of the control. Surprisingly, removal of both GE- and GPE-rosetting cells gave a response equivalent to 40-100% of the control PBL. Analysis of the mixed GE/GPE rosette depleted cultures revealed the reappearance of GPE- but not GE-rosetting cells, reaching maximum values within 12-18 hr after in vitro culture. Cultures of control PBL and those following the mixed rosette depletion showed two populations of GPE-rosetting cells; the GPE-1 cells, present on Day 0 before culture, and the GPE-2 cells, those appearing on Day 1. Addition of cycloheximide prevented development of the GPE receptor while colchicine and mitomycin C were without effect. The development of PFC after the mixed GE/GPE rosette depletion was interpreted as being due to the GPE-2 cells functioning as T-H cells in the absence of any T-S (GE-rosetting) cells. This thesis was supported by showing a marked decrease in the PWM-induced Ig response when both the GPE-1 and GPE-2 populations were removed on Day 1. Additional evidence for functional T-H cells in the GPE-rosetting population was obtained by analyzing interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Removal of the GPE-rosetting cells (GPE-1 and/or GPE-2) from PBL led to a marked decrease in Con A-induced IL-2 synthesis while removal of the GE-rosetting cells yielded a normal or slightly greater than normal response.
No preview · Article · Apr 1991 · Cellular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An examination of fluorescein-labelled Erythrina cristigalli lectin (FITC-ECL) staining on feline mononuclear cells (MNC) using fluorescent microscopy and a novel sugar titration competition assay revealed that monocytes (MO) were stained brighter by FITC-ECL than were lymphocytes (LYM). When MNC were stained with FITC-ECL in the presence of 400 mM or greater D-galactose, analysis by flow cytometry revealed continued MO staining while LYM were negative. MO expressed a larger quantity of carbohydrate receptors (CHO-R) for ECL than did LYM. The CHO-R expressed on MO were mostly protease-insensitive and uncapped by sialic acid residues. All of the CHO-R on LYM were protease-sensitive and many were capped by sialic acid residues. A combined labelling of MNC for non-specific esterase staining, latex bead ingestion and FITC-ECL staining in the presence of 400 mM D-galactose confirmed that FITC-ECL specifically stains MO in the presence of high sugar competitor concentrations.
No preview · Article · Aug 1990 · Journal of Immunological Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural suppressor (NS) activity, the capacity of unprimed cells to suppress immunologic responses, is present in mouse, rabbit, and human bone marrow (BM). In this study we characterize NS activity in bone marrow cells of the rhesus monkey. Greatest NS activity was found in low-density cells (1.0600 to 1.0655 g/mL) obtained by density centrifugation on a discontinuous Percoll gradient. NS activity was further enriched when cells were separated by affinity for wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Cells with high affinity to WGA demonstrated potent NS activity, whereas cells with low affinity to WGA had no NS activity. A significant relationship between NS activity and hematopoietic activity was demonstrated using in vitro assays of colony formation (CFU-GM and CFU-MIX). NS activity was not affected by treatment with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to human Fc gamma receptors (Leu, 11a,b,c) or treatment with MoAbs to monkey natural killer cells. These findings extend our prior observations by showing that cells with NS activity, which apparently have WGA receptors, are present not only in murine BM but also in monkey bone marrow, and suggest that such cells may be involved in immunoregulation by primitive cells of BM.