Publications (22)82.65 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a potent frizzled protein 8-related sialoglycopeptide inhibitor of bladder epithelial cell proliferation that mediates its activity by binding to cytoskeletal associated protein 4 in the cell membrane. Synthetic asialylated APF (as-APF) (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TVPAAVVVA) was previously shown to inhibit both normal bladder epithelial as well as T24 bladder carcinoma cell proliferation and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) production at low nanomolar concentrations, and an L: -pipecolic acid derivative (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TV-pipecolic acid-AAVVVA) was also shown to inhibit normal bladder epithelial cell proliferation. To better determine their spectrum of activity, we measured the effects of these APF derivatives on the proliferation of cells derived from additional urologic carcinomas (bladder and kidney), non-urologic carcinomas (ovary, lung, colon, pancreas, and breast), and melanomas using a (3)H-thymidine incorporation assay. We also measured the effects of as-APF on cell HB-EGF and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2) secretion plus cell invasion, using qRT-PCR, Western blot and an in vitro invasion assay. L: -pipecolic acid as-APF and/or as-APF significantly inhibited proliferation of each cell line in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50)'s in the nanomolar range, regardless of tissue origin, cell type (carcinoma vs. melanoma), or p53 or ras mutation status. as-APF also inhibited HB-EGF and MMP2 production plus in vitro invasion of tested bladder, kidney, breast, lung, and melanoma tumor cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 1-100 nM). Synthetic APF derivatives are potent inhibitors of urologic and non-urologic carcinoma plus melanoma cell proliferation, MMP2 production, and invasion, and may be useful for development as adjunctive antitumor therapy(ies).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiproliferative factor (APF), a Frizzled-8 protein-related sialoglycopeptide involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis, potently inhibits proliferation of normal urothelial cells as well as certain cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the growth-inhibitory effect of APF, we performed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture analysis of T24 bladder cancer cells treated with and without APF. Among over 2000 proteins identified, 54 were significantly up-regulated and 48 were down-regulated by APF treatment. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a protein network involved in cell adhesion was substantially altered by APF and that β-catenin was a prominent node in this network. Functional assays demonstrated that APF down-regulated β-catenin, at least in part, via proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of β-catenin mimicked the antiproliferative effect of APF whereas ectopic expression of nondegradable β-catenin rescued growth inhibition in response to APF, confirming that β-catenin is a key mediator of APF signaling. Notably, the key role of β-catenin in APF signaling is not restricted to T24 cells, but was also observed in an hTERT-immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line, TRT-HU1. In addition, the network model suggested that β-catenin is linked to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), implying a potential connection between APF and inflammation. Functional assays verified that APF increased the production of prostaglandin E(2) and that down-modulation of β-catenin elevated COX-2 expression, whereas forced expression of nondegradable β-catenin inhibited APF-induced up-regulation of COX-2. Furthermore, we confirmed that β-catenin was down-regulated whereas COX-2 was up-regulated in epithelial cells explanted from IC bladder biopsies compared with control tissues. In summary, our quantitative proteomics study describes the first provisional APF-regulated protein network, within which β-catenin is a key node, and provides new insight that targeting the β-catenin signaling pathway may be a rational approach toward treating interstitial cystitis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a chronic bladder disorder with epithelial thinning or ulceration, pain, urinary frequency and urgency, for which there is no reliably effective therapy. We previously reported that interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome bladder epithelial cells make a glycopeptide antiproliferative factor or 'APF' (Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TVPAAVVVA) that induces abnormalities in normal cells similar to those in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cells in vitro, including decreased proliferation, decreased tight junction formation, and increased paracellular permeability. We screened inactive APF derivatives for their ability to block antiproliferative activity of asialylated-APF ('as-APF') in normal bladder cells and determined the ability of as-APF-blocking derivatives to normalize tight junction protein expression, paracellular permeability, and/or proliferation of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cells. Only two of these derivatives [Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TV-(d-pipecolic acid)-AAVVVA and Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TV-(d-proline)-AAVVVA] blocked as-APF antiproliferative activity in normal cells (p < 0.001 for both). Both of these antagonists also 1) significantly increased mRNA expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudins 1, 4, 8, and 12 in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cells by qRT-PCR; 2) normalized interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epithelial cell tight junction protein expression and tight junction formation by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy; and 3) decreased paracellular permeability of (14) C-mannitol and (3) H-inulin between confluent interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epithelial cells on Transwell plates, suggesting that these potent APF antagonists may be useful for the development as interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome therapies.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor. Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a potent glycopeptide inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation that was discovered in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a disorder with bladder epithelial thinning and ulceration. APF mediates its antiproliferative activity in primary normal bladder epithelial cells via cytoskeletal associated protein 4 (CKAP4). Because synthetic asialo-APF (as-APF) has also been shown to inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations in vitro, and because the peptide segment of APF is 100% homologous to part of frizzled 8, we determined whether CKAP4 mediates as-APF inhibition of proliferation and/or downstream Wnt/frizzled signaling events in T24 cells. Methods T24 cells were transfected with double-stranded siRNAs against CKAP4 and treated with synthetic as-APF or inactive control peptide; cells that did not undergo electroporation and cells transfected with non-target (scrambled) double-stranded siRNA served as negative controls. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Expression of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), β-catenin, p53, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) mRNA was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Akt, GSK-3β, MMP2, β-catenin, and p53 protein expression, plus Akt, GSK-3β, and β-catenin phosphorylation, were determined by Western blot. Results T24 cell proliferation, MMP2 expression, Akt ser473 and thr308 phosphorylation, GSK3β tyr216 phosphorylation, and β-catenin ser45/thr41 phosphorylation were all decreased by APF, whereas p53 expression, and β-catenin ser33,37/thr41 phosphorylation, were increased by APF treatment in non-electroporated and non-target siRNA-transfected cells. Neither mRNA nor total protein expression of Akt, GSK3β, or β-catenin changed in response to APF in these cells. In addition, the changes in cell proliferation, MMP2/p53 mRNA and protein expression, and Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin phosphorylation in response to APF treatment were all specifically abrogated following CKAP4 siRNA knockdown. Conclusions Synthetic as-APF inhibits cell proliferation in T24 bladder carcinoma cells via the CKAP4 receptor. The mechanism for this inhibition involves regulating phosphorylation of specific cell signaling molecules (Akt, GSK3β, and β-catenin) plus mRNA and protein expression of p53 and MMP2.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiproliferative factor (APF), a sialylated glycopeptide secreted by explanted bladder epithelial cells from interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) patients, and its unsialylated analogue (as-APF) significantly decrease proliferation of bladder epithelial cells and/or certain carcinoma cell lines in vitro. We recently reported a structure-activity relationship profile for the peptide portion of as-APF and revealed that truncation of the C-terminal alanine did not significantly affect antiproliferative activity. To better understand the structural basis for the maintenance of activity of this truncated eight amino acid as-APF (as-APF8), we synthesized several amino acid-substituted derivatives and studied their ability to inhibit bladder epithelial cell proliferation in vitro as well as their solution conformations by CD and NMR spectroscopy. While single amino acid changes to as-APF8 often strongly reduced activity, full potency was retained when the trivaline tail was replaced with three alanines. The Ala(6-8) derivative 9 is the simplest, fully potent APF analogue synthesized to date.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we identified cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) as a major substrate of the palmitoyl acyltransferase, DHHC2, using a novel proteomic method called palmitoyl-cysteine identification, capture and analysis (PICA). CKAP4 is a reversibly palmitoylated and phosphorylated protein that links the ER to the cytoskeleton. It is also a high-affinity receptor for antiproliferative factor (APF), a small sialoglycopeptide secreted from bladder epithelial cells of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). The role of DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in the antiproliferative response of HeLa and normal bladder epithelial cells to APF was investigated. Our data show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DHHC2 and consequent suppression of CKAP4 palmitoylation inhibited the ability of APF to regulate cellular proliferation and blocked APF-induced changes in the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and ZO-1 (genes known to play a role in cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis). Immunocytochemistry revealed that CKAP4 palmitoylation by DHHC2 is required for its trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane and for its nuclear localization. These data suggest an important role for DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in IC and in opposing cancer-related cellular behaviors and support the idea that DHHC2 is a tumor suppressor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the peptide portion of antiproliferative factor (APF), a sialylated frizzled-8 related glycopeptide that inhibits normal bladder epithelial and urothelial carcinoma cell proliferation. Glycopeptide derivatives were synthesized by solid-phase methods using standard Fmoc chemistry and purified by RP-HPLC; all intermediate and final products were verified by HPLC-MS and NMR analyses. Antiproliferative activity of each derivative was determined by inhibition of (3)H-thymidine incorporation in primary normal human bladder epithelial cells. Structural components of the peptide segment of APF that proved to be important for biological activity included the presence of at least eight of the nine N-terminal amino acids, a negative charge in the C-terminal amino acid, a free amino group at the N-terminus, maintenance of a specific amino acid sequence in the C-terminal tail, and trans conformation for the peptide bonds. These data provide critical guidelines for optimization of structure in design of APF analogues as potential therapeutic agents.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured candidate urine biomarkers and bladder cell DNA cytometry in interstitial cystitis (IC) patients randomized to receive intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) or placebo in a multicenter trial. Participants received 6 weekly instillations and were followed for 34 weeks. Urine was collected at baseline, prior to fourth treatment, and at study end. Antiproliferative factor (APF) activity was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay; heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (EGF) levels were determined by ELISA. Cellular DNA content was measured by image analysis to determine the mean hyperdiploid fraction (HDF) of the urine cell pellet. Associations between marker levels, and treatment or symptoms, were examined. Baseline APF positivity rate and mean levels of the other biomarkers were similar to previous smaller studies. During the week 34 follow-up, mean HDF decreased (P = 0.0003) and HB-EGF increased (P < 0.0001); both correlated weakly with decreased urgency. There was no difference in any biomarker between symptom responders and non-responders, but the percentage of responders was low and not significantly different for BCG versus placebo. APF positivity, decreased HB-EGF, increased EGF, and increased HDF were confirmed at baseline in IC patients. Changes in HDF and HB-EGF levels correlated weakly with changes in urgency, but the low BCG response rate prevented identification of additional associations between biomarker changes and treatment or symptoms.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a low molecular weight sialoglycopeptide that is secreted by bladder cells from interstitial cystitis patients and is a potent inhibitor of both normal bladder epithelial and bladder carcinoma cell proliferation. We hypothesized that APF may produce its antiproliferative effects by binding to a transmembrane receptor. This study demonstrates that cytoskeleton-associated protein 4/p63 (CKAP4/p63), a type II transmembrane receptor, binds with high affinity to APF. The antiproliferative activity of APF is effectively inhibited by preincubation with anti-CKAP4/p63-specific antibodies, as well as by short interfering RNA knockdown of CKAP4/p63. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy showed co-localization of anti-CKAP4/p63 and rhodamine-labeled synthetic APF binding in both cell membrane and perinuclear areas. APF also inhibits the proliferation of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells that are known to express CKAP4/p63. These data indicate that CKAP4/p63 is an important epithelial cell receptor for APF.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports have suggested that the bladder epithelial barrier may be compromised in interstitial cystitis (IC). Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a small glycoprotein made specifically by bladder epithelial cells in patients with IC that induces changes in expression of certain epithelial cell proteins and profoundly inhibits cell growth. Therefore, we confirmed the increased permeability and decreased tight junction formation of bladder epithelial cell monolayers grown from biopsies in patients with IC compared to cells from normal controls. We then determined the effect of APF on the permeability of normal bladder epithelial cell monolayers and the expression of tight junction proteins. Permeability was determined by measuring the C-mannitol and H-inulin flux between cells in confluent monolayers on Transwell culture plates (Corning, Corning, New York). Tight junction formation was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy and the expression of specific proteins was determined by Western blot. APF treatment caused significant increases in the paracellular permeability of normal bladder epithelial cell monolayers and the attenuation of tight junctions compared to mock APF, similar to changes seen in IC cells. APF treatment also decreased expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Because of its apparent effects on bladder epithelial cell tight junctions and paracellular permeability in vitro, APF may contribute to the leakiness of the bladder epithelial barrier seen in IC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder, with symptoms including pelvic and or perineal pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. The etiology of IC is unknown, but sensitive and specific biomarkers have been described, including antiproliferative factor (APF), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). However, the relative sensitivity of these biomarkers in ulcerative vs. nonulcerative IC is unknown, and these markers have yet to be validated in another laboratory. We therefore measured these markers in urine from patients with or without Hunner's ulcer, as well as normal controls, patients with bladder cancer, and patients with bacterial cystitis, at the First Hospital of China Medical University. Urine specimens were collected from two groups of Chinese IC patients (38 IC patients with Hunner's ulcers, 26 IC patients without Hunner's ulcers), 30 normal controls, 10 bacterial cystitis patients and 10 bladder cancer patients. APF activity was determined by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation in vitro, and HB-EGF and EGF levels were determined by ELISA. APF activity (inhibition of thymidine incorporation) was significantly greater in all IC patient urine specimens than in normal control specimens or in specimens from patients with bacterial cystitis or bladder cancer (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Urine HB-EGF levels were also significantly lower and EGF levels significantly higher in both groups of IC patients than in the three control groups (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Although APF and HB-EGF levels were similar in ulcerative and nonulcerative IC patients, EGF levels were significantly higher in IC patients with vs. without ulcers (p < 0.004). These findings indicate that APF, HB-EGF and EGF are good biomarkers for both ulcerative and nonulcerative IC and validate their measurement as biomarkers for IC in Chinese patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 1 million people in the United States suffer from interstitial cystitis, a chronic painful urinary bladder disorder characterized by thinning or ulceration of the bladder epithelial lining; its etiology is unknown. We have identified a glycosylated frizzled-related peptide inhibitor of cell proliferation that is secreted specifically by bladder epithelial cells from patients with this disorder. This antiproliferative factor (APF) profoundly inhibits bladder cell proliferation by means of regulation of cell adhesion protein and growth factor production. The structure of APF was deduced by using ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), enzymatic digestion, lectin affinity chromatography, and total synthesis, and confirmed by coelution of native and synthetic APF derivatives on microcapillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography (microRPLC)/MS. APF was determined to be an acidic, heat-stable sialoglycopeptide whose peptide chain has 100% homology to the putative sixth transmembrane domain of frizzled 8. Both synthetic and native APF had identical biological activity in normal bladder epithelial cells and T24 bladder cancer cells. Northern blot analysis indicated binding of a probe containing the sequence for the frizzled 8 segment with mRNA extracted from cells of patients with interstitial cystitis but not controls. APF is therefore a frizzled-related peptide growth inhibitor shown to contain exclusively a transmembrane segment of a frizzled protein and is a potential biomarker for interstitial cystitis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder of unknown etiology. Antiproliferative factor (APF), a peptide found in the urine of IC patients, has previously been shown to decrease incorporation of thymidine by normal bladder epithelial cells. This study was performed to determine the effect of APF on the cell cycle of bladder epithelial cells so as to better understand its antiproliferative activity. Explant cultures from normal bladder biopsy specimens were exposed to APF or mock control. DNA cytometry was performed using an automated image analysis system. Cell cycle phase fractions were calculated from the DNA frequency distributions and compared by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). APF exposure produced statistically significant increases in the proportion of tetraploid and hypertetraploid cells compared to mock control preparations, suggesting a G2 and/or M phase cell cycle block and the production of polyploidy. APF has a specific effect on cell cycle distributions. The presence of a peptide with this activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis through disruption of normal urothelial proliferation and repair processes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) have urine markers previously described for patients with interstitial cystitis (IC; presence of antiproliferative factor [APF] activity, decreased levels of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor [HB-EGF], and increased levels of epidermal growth factor). Clean catch urine specimens were collected from 41 symptomatic patients with CP/CPPS, 36 asymptomatic men without bladder disease who served as the control group, and 24 men with IC. APF activity was determined by (3)H-thymidine incorporation into primary normal adult human bladder epithelial cells. HB-EGF and epidermal growth factor levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Men with CP/CPPS did not differ significantly from asymptomatic controls for any of the three markers tested (P >0.49). In contrast, APF activity was present significantly more often and HB-EGF levels were significantly lower in the urine specimens from men with IC than in the specimens from controls or patients with CP/CPPS (P <0.00001 for all four comparisons). Although the epidermal growth factor levels also tended to be higher in the urine from patients with IC than in the urine from controls, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). These findings indicate that at least two of the urine biomarkers previously identified in women with IC (presence of APF activity and decreased levels of HB-EGF) are also found in men with IC, but not in men with CP/CPPS. This finding suggests that IC and CP/CPPS may be two different disorders with distinct pathophysiologies. It also confirms the utility of the presence of APF activity and HB-EGF levels as markers for IC in men, as well as in women, with this disorder.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Explanted bladder epithelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) have been shown to differ from explanted control cells in several ways, including production of an antiproliferative factor (APF), altered production of certain epithelial growth factors, and rate of proliferation. To better understand the role of the APF in abnormal bladder epithelial cell proliferation in IC, we studied gene expression patterns in normal bladder epithelial cells treated with APF vs. mock APF and compared them to expression patterns in IC vs. normal cells using microarray analysis. Oligo-dT-primed total cellular RNA was labeled with [(33)P]dCTP and hybridized to GeneFilter GF211 microarray membranes (Research Genetics) containing cDNA for 3,964 human genes. Thirteen genes that function in epithelial cell proliferation or differentiation were consistently differentially expressed in both IC (compared with control) and APF-treated (compared with mock APF-treated) normal bladder epithelial cells. The general pattern of gene expression in IC and APF-treated cells suggested a less proliferative phenotype, with increased expression of E-cadherin, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein 39, and SWI/SNF complex 170-kDa subunit, and decreased expression of vimentin, alpha2-integrin, alpha1-catenin, cyclin D1, and jun N-terminal kinase 1; these findings were confirmed for the structural gene products (E-cadherin, vimentin, alpha2-integrin, and alpha-catenin) by immunohistochemistry. These results are compatible with the previously noted decreased proliferation rate of IC and APF-treated normal cells, and indicate that the mechanism whereby APF inhibits cell proliferation may involve both downregulation of genes that stimulate cell proliferation along with upregulation of genes that inhibit cell growth.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether explanted bladder epithelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) display intrinsically decreased rates of proliferation in vitro, and to compare the growth rates of untreated IC and normal bladder cells with the rates of normal cells treated with a purified antiproliferative factor (APF) at levels found in urine from patients with IC. Epithelial cell explants were prepared from the bladder biopsies of 4 patients with IC and 2 asymptomatic controls. Cell proliferation was determined by serial counting of trypan blue-negative cells. APF and mock APF were purified chromatographically, and activity was determined by (3)H-thymidine incorporation into primary normal bladder epithelial cells. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bladder epithelial cells from patients with IC proliferated significantly less than did control cells by day 2 after serum starvation (P = 0.02). Similar inhibition of the proliferation rate was seen in control cells treated with APF; APF-induced changes in heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, but not epidermal growth factor, production by cells were associated with changes in growth rates. The proliferation rate of explanted bladder epithelial cells from patients with IC in serum-free medium was significantly less than that of control cells, indicating an intrinsic abnormality in IC cell proliferation. This abnormality may be caused by APF, which induces reversible inhibition of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor production and normal bladder epithelial cell proliferation.
Article: Reply by the authors:
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore, Maryland, United States
- • Department of Pathology
- • Division of Infectious Diseases
- • Department of Medicine
University of Rochester
Rochester, New York, United States
- Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine