Sharon Heath

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (23)614.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is interest in using leukemia-gene panels and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to assess acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) response to induction chemotherapy. Studies have shown that patients with AML in morphologic remission may continue to have clonal hematopoiesis with populations closely related to the founding AML clone and that this confers an increased risk of relapse. However, it remains unknown how induction chemotherapy is influencing the clonal evolution of a patient's non-leukemic hematopoietic population. Here we report that 5 of 15 patients with genetic clearance of their founding AML clone after induction chemotherapy had a concomitant expansion of a hematopoietic population unrelated to the initial AML. These populations frequently harbored somatic mutations in genes recurrently mutated in AML or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and were detectable at very low frequencies at the time of AML diagnosis. These results suggest that non-leukemic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), harboring specific aging-acquired mutations, may have a competitive fitness advantage after induction chemotherapy, expand, and persist long after the completion of chemotherapy. Although the clinical importance of these "rising" clones remains to be determined, it will be important to distinguish them from leukemia-related populations when assessing for molecular responses to induction chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Blood

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Familial clustering of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be caused by inherited factors. We screened 59 individuals from 17 families with 2 or more biological relatives with MDS/AML for variants in 12 genes with established roles in predisposition to MDS/AML, and identified a pathogenic germline variant in 5 families (29%). Extending the screen with a panel of 264 genes that are recurrently mutated in de novo AML, we identified rare, non-synonymous germline variants in 4 genes segregating with MDS/AML in an additional 2 families each. Somatic mutations are required for progression to MDS/AML in these familial cases. Using a combination of targeted and exome sequencing of tumor and matched normal samples from 26 familial MDS/AML cases and asymptomatic carriers, we identified recurrent frameshift mutations in the cohesin-associated factor PDS5B, co-occurrence of somatic ASXL1 mutations with germline GATA2 mutations, and recurrent mutations in other known MDS/AML drivers. Mutations in genes that are recurrently mutated in de novo AML were under-represented in the familial MDS/AML cases, although the total number of somatic mutations per exome was the same. Finally, clonal skewing of hematopoiesis was detected in 67% of young, asymptomatic RUNX1 carriers, providing a potential biomarker that could be used for surveillance in these high-risk families.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Tests that predict outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are imprecise, especially for those with intermediate risk AML. To determine whether genomic approaches can provide novel prognostic information for adult patients with de novo AML. Whole-genome or exome sequencing was performed on samples obtained at disease presentation from 71 patients with AML (mean age, 50.8 years) treated with standard induction chemotherapy at a single site starting in March 2002, with follow-up through January 2015. In addition, deep digital sequencing was performed on paired diagnosis and remission samples from 50 patients (including 32 with intermediate-risk AML), approximately 30 days after successful induction therapy. Twenty-five of the 50 were from the cohort of 71 patients, and 25 were new, additional cases. Whole-genome or exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. Risk of identification based on genetic data. Mutation patterns (including clearance of leukemia-associated variants after chemotherapy) and their association with event-free survival and overall survival. Analysis of comprehensive genomic data from the 71 patients did not improve outcome assessment over current standard-of-care metrics. In an analysis of 50 patients with both presentation and documented remission samples, 24 (48%) had persistent leukemia-associated mutations in at least 5% of bone marrow cells at remission. The 24 with persistent mutations had significantly reduced event-free survival vs the 26 who cleared all mutations (median [95% CI]: 6.0 months [95% CI, 3.7-9.6] for persistent mutations vs 17.9 months [95% CI, 11.3-40.4] for cleared mutations, log-rank P < .001; hazard ratio [HR], 3.67 [95% CI, 1.93-7.11], P < .001) and reduced overall survival (median [95% CI]: 10.5 months [95% CI, 7.5-22.2] for persistent mutations vs 42.2 months [95% CI, 20.6-not estimable] for cleared mutations, log-rank P = .003; HR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.39-5.88], P = .004). Among the 32 patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk, the 14 patients with persistent mutations had reduced event-free survival compared with the 18 patients who cleared all mutations (median [95% CI]: 8.8 months [95% CI, 3.7-14.6] for persistent mutations vs 25.6 months [95% CI, 11.4-not estimable] for cleared mutations, log-rank P = .003; HR, 3.32 [95% CI, 1.44-7.67], P = .005) and reduced overall survival (median [95% CI]: 19.3 months [95% CI, 7.5-42.3] for persistent mutations vs 46.8 months [95% CI, 22.6-not estimable] for cleared mutations, log-rank P = .02; HR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.11-7.45], P = .03). The detection of persistent leukemia-associated mutations in at least 5% of bone marrow cells in day 30 remission samples was associated with a significantly increased risk of relapse, and reduced overall survival. These data suggest that this genomic approach may improve risk stratification for patients with AML.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Leukemia
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) are well-recognized complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. There are several features that distinguish t-AML from de novo AML, including a higher incidence of TP53 mutations, abnormalities of chromosomes 5 or 7, complex cytogenetics and a reduced response to chemotherapy. However, it is not clear how prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy influences leukaemogenesis. In particular, the mechanism by which TP53 mutations are selectively enriched in t-AML/t-MDS is unknown. Here, by sequencing the genomes of 22 patients with t-AML, we show that the total number of somatic single-nucleotide variants and the percentage of chemotherapy-related transversions are similar in t-AML and de novo AML, indicating that previous chemotherapy does not induce genome-wide DNA damage. We identified four cases of t-AML/t-MDS in which the exact TP53 mutation found at diagnosis was also present at low frequencies (0.003-0.7%) in mobilized blood leukocytes or bone marrow 3-6 years before the development of t-AML/t-MDS, including two cases in which the relevant TP53 mutation was detected before any chemotherapy. Moreover, functional TP53 mutations were identified in small populations of peripheral blood cells of healthy chemotherapy-naive elderly individuals. Finally, in mouse bone marrow chimaeras containing both wild-type and Tp53(+/-) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), the Tp53(+/-) HSPCs preferentially expanded after exposure to chemotherapy. These data suggest that cytotoxic therapy does not directly induce TP53 mutations. Rather, they support a model in which rare HSPCs carrying age-related TP53 mutations are resistant to chemotherapy and expand preferentially after treatment. The early acquisition of TP53 mutations in the founding HSPC clone probably contributes to the frequent cytogenetic abnormalities and poor responses to chemotherapy that are typical of patients with t-AML/t-MDS.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing has been used to infer the clonality of heterogeneous tumor samples. These analyses yield specific predictions-the population frequency of individual clones, their genetic composition, and their evolutionary relationships-which we set out to test by sequencing individual cells from three subjects diagnosed with secondary acute myeloid leukemia, each of whom had been previously characterized by whole genome sequencing of unfractionated tumor samples. Single-cell mutation profiling strongly supported the clonal architecture implied by the analysis of bulk material. In addition, it resolved the clonal assignment of single nucleotide variants that had been initially ambiguous and identified areas of previously unappreciated complexity. Accordingly, we find that many of the key assumptions underlying the analysis of tumor clonality by deep sequencing of unfractionated material are valid. Furthermore, we illustrate a single-cell sequencing strategy for interrogating the clonal relationships among known variants that is cost-effective, scalable, and adaptable to the analysis of both hematopoietic and solid tumors, or any heterogeneous population of cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many mutations that contribute to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are undefined. The relationships between patterns of mutations and epigenetic phenotypes are not yet clear. METHODS: We analyzed the genomes of 200 clinically annotated adult cases of de novo AML, using either whole-genome sequencing (50 cases) or whole-exome sequencing (150 cases), along with RNA and microRNA sequencing and DNA-methylation analysis. RESULTS: AML genomes have fewer mutations than most other adult cancers, with an average of only 13 mutations found in genes. Of these, an average of 5 are in genes that are recurrently mutated in AML. A total of 23 genes were significantly mutated, and another 237 were mutated in two or more samples. Nearly all samples had at least 1 nonsynonymous mutation in one of nine categories of genes that are almost certainly relevant for pathogenesis, including transcription-factor fusions (18% of cases), the gene encoding nucleophosmin (NPM1) (27%), tumor-suppressor genes (16%), DNA-methylation-related genes (44%), signaling genes (59%), chromatin-modifying genes (30%), myeloid transcription-factor genes (22%), cohesin-complex genes (13%), and spliceosome-complex genes (14%). Patterns of cooperation and mutual exclusivity suggested strong biologic relationships among several of the genes and categories. CONCLUSIONS: We identified at least one potential driver mutation in nearly all AML samples and found that a complex interplay of genetic events contributes to AML pathogenesis in individual patients. The databases from this study are widely available to serve as a foundation for further investigations of AML pathogenesis, classification, and risk stratification. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that most cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are clonally heterogeneous, with a founding clone and multiple subclones. It is not known whether specific gene mutations typically occur in founding clones or subclones. We screened a panel of 94 candidate genes in a cohort of 157 patients with MDS or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). This included 150 cases with samples obtained at MDS diagnosis and 15 cases with samples obtained at sAML transformation (8 were also analyzed at the MDS stage). We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) to define the clonal architecture in 8 sAML genomes and identified the range of variant allele frequencies (VAFs) for founding clone mutations. At least one mutation or cytogenetic abnormality was detected in 83% of the 150 MDS patients and 17 genes were significantly mutated with an FDR 0.05. Individual genes and patient samples displayed a wide range of VAFs for recurrently mutated genes, indicating that no single gene is exclusively mutated in the founding clone. The VAFs of recurrently mutated genes did not fully recapitulate the clonal architecture defined by WGS, suggesting that comprehensive sequencing may be required to accurately assess the clonal status of recurrently mutated genes in MDS.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/leu.2013.58.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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    ABSTRACT: Most mutations in cancer genomes are thought to be acquired after the initiating event, which may cause genomic instability and drive clonal evolution. However, for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), normal karyotypes are common, and genomic instability is unusual. To better understand clonal evolution in AML, we sequenced the genomes of M3-AML samples with a known initiating event (PML-RARA) versus the genomes of normal karyotype M1-AML samples and the exomes of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from healthy people. Collectively, the data suggest that most of the mutations found in AML genomes are actually random events that occurred in HSPCs before they acquired the initiating mutation; the mutational history of that cell is "captured" as the clone expands. In many cases, only one or two additional, cooperating mutations are needed to generate the malignant founding clone. Cells from the founding clone can acquire additional cooperating mutations, yielding subclones that can contribute to disease progression and/or relapse.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: The myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of hematologic disorders that often evolve into secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The genetic changes that underlie progression from the myelodysplastic syndromes to secondary AML are not well understood. We performed whole-genome sequencing of seven paired samples of skin and bone marrow in seven subjects with secondary AML to identify somatic mutations specific to secondary AML. We then genotyped a bone marrow sample obtained during the antecedent myelodysplastic-syndrome stage from each subject to determine the presence or absence of the specific somatic mutations. We identified recurrent mutations in coding genes and defined the clonal architecture of each pair of samples from the myelodysplastic-syndrome stage and the secondary-AML stage, using the allele burden of hundreds of mutations. Approximately 85% of bone marrow cells were clonal in the myelodysplastic-syndrome and secondary-AML samples, regardless of the myeloblast count. The secondary-AML samples contained mutations in 11 recurrently mutated genes, including 4 genes that have not been previously implicated in the myelodysplastic syndromes or AML. In every case, progression to acute leukemia was defined by the persistence of an antecedent founding clone containing 182 to 660 somatic mutations and the outgrowth or emergence of at least one subclone, harboring dozens to hundreds of new mutations. All founding clones and subclones contained at least one mutation in a coding gene. Nearly all the bone marrow cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and secondary AML are clonally derived. Genetic evolution of secondary AML is a dynamic process shaped by multiple cycles of mutation acquisition and clonal selection. Recurrent gene mutations are found in both founding clones and daughter subclones. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) die from progressive disease after relapse, which is associated with clonal evolution at the cytogenetic level. To determine the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, we sequenced the primary tumour and relapse genomes from eight AML patients, and validated hundreds of somatic mutations using deep sequencing; this allowed us to define clonality and clonal evolution patterns precisely at relapse. In addition to discovering novel, recurrently mutated genes (for example, WAC, SMC3, DIS3, DDX41 and DAXX) in AML, we also found two major clonal evolution patterns during AML relapse: (1) the founding clone in the primary tumour gained mutations and evolved into the relapse clone, or (2) a subclone of the founding clone survived initial therapy, gained additional mutations and expanded at relapse. In all cases, chemotherapy failed to eradicate the founding clone. The comparison of relapse-specific versus primary tumour mutations in all eight cases revealed an increase in transversions, probably due to DNA damage caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy. These data demonstrate that AML relapse is associated with the addition of new mutations and clonal evolution, which is shaped, in part, by the chemotherapy that the patients receive to establish and maintain remissions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that often progress to chemotherapy-resistant secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). We used whole-genome sequencing to perform an unbiased comprehensive screen to discover the somatic mutations in a sample from an individual with sAML and genotyped the loci containing these mutations in the matched MDS sample. Here we show that a missense mutation affecting the serine at codon 34 (Ser34) in U2AF1 was recurrently present in 13 out of 150 (8.7%) subjects with de novo MDS, and we found suggestive evidence of an increased risk of progression to sAML associated with this mutation. U2AF1 is a U2 auxiliary factor protein that recognizes the AG splice acceptor dinucleotide at the 3' end of introns, and the alterations in U2AF1 are located in highly conserved zinc fingers of this protein. Mutant U2AF1 promotes enhanced splicing and exon skipping in reporter assays in vitro. This previously unidentified, recurrent mutation in U2AF1 implicates altered pre-mRNA splicing as a potential mechanism for MDS pathogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of patients with inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes facilitates early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. However, in many cases of suspected cancer susceptibility, the family history is unclear and genetic testing of common cancer susceptibility genes is unrevealing. To apply whole-genome sequencing to a patient without any significant family history of cancer but with suspected increased cancer susceptibility because of multiple primary tumors to identify rare or novel germline variants in cancer susceptibility genes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANT: Skin (normal) and bone marrow (leukemia) DNA were obtained from a patient with early-onset breast and ovarian cancer (negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations) and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) and analyzed with the following: whole-genome sequencing using paired-end reads, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, RNA expression profiling, and spectral karyotyping. Structural variants, copy number alterations, single-nucleotide variants, and small insertions and deletions (indels) were detected and validated using the described platforms. RESULTS; Whole-genome sequencing revealed a novel, heterozygous 3-kilobase deletion removing exons 7-9 of TP53 in the patient's normal skin DNA, which was homozygous in the leukemia DNA as a result of uniparental disomy. In addition, a total of 28 validated somatic single-nucleotide variations or indels in coding genes, 8 somatic structural variants, and 12 somatic copy number alterations were detected in the patient's leukemia genome. Whole-genome sequencing can identify novel, cryptic variants in cancer susceptibility genes in addition to providing unbiased information on the spectrum of mutations in a cancer genome.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming increasingly available for research purposes, but it has not yet been routinely used for clinical diagnosis. To determine whether whole-genome sequencing can identify cryptic, actionable mutations in a clinically relevant time frame. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENT: We were referred a difficult diagnostic case of acute promyelocytic leukemia with no pathogenic X-RARA fusion identified by routine metaphase cytogenetics or interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The case patient was enrolled in an institutional review board-approved protocol, with consent specifically tailored to the implications of whole-genome sequencing. The protocol uses a "movable firewall" that maintains patient anonymity within the entire research team but allows the research team to communicate medically relevant information to the treating physician. Clinical relevance of whole-genome sequencing and time to communicate validated results to the treating physician. Massively parallel paired-end sequencing allowed identification of a cytogenetically cryptic event: a 77-kilobase segment from chromosome 15 was inserted en bloc into the second intron of the RARA gene on chromosome 17, resulting in a classic bcr3 PML-RARA fusion gene. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction sequencing subsequently validated the expression of the fusion transcript. Novel FISH probes identified 2 additional cases of t(15;17)-negative acute promyelocytic leukemia that had cytogenetically invisible insertions. Whole-genome sequencing and validation were completed in 7 weeks and changed the treatment plan for the patient. Whole-genome sequencing can identify cytogenetically invisible oncogenes in a clinically relevant time frame.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic alterations responsible for an adverse outcome in most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are unknown. Using massively parallel DNA sequencing, we identified a somatic mutation in DNMT3A, encoding a DNA methyltransferase, in the genome of cells from a patient with AML with a normal karyotype. We sequenced the exons of DNMT3A in 280 additional patients with de novo AML to define recurring mutations. A total of 62 of 281 patients (22.1%) had mutations in DNMT3A that were predicted to affect translation. We identified 18 different missense mutations, the most common of which was predicted to affect amino acid R882 (in 37 patients). We also identified six frameshift, six nonsense, and three splice-site mutations and a 1.5-Mbp deletion encompassing DNMT3A. These mutations were highly enriched in the group of patients with an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile (56 of 166 patients, or 33.7%) but were absent in all 79 patients with a favorable-risk cytogenetic profile (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The median overall survival among patients with DNMT3A mutations was significantly shorter than that among patients without such mutations (12.3 months vs. 41.1 months, P<0.001). DNMT3A mutations were associated with adverse outcomes among patients with an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile or FLT3 mutations, regardless of age, and were independently associated with a poor outcome in Cox proportional-hazards analysis. DNMT3A mutations are highly recurrent in patients with de novo AML with an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile and are independently associated with a poor outcome. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The full complement of DNA mutations that are responsible for the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not yet known. We used massively parallel DNA sequencing to obtain a very high level of coverage (approximately 98%) of a primary, cytogenetically normal, de novo genome for AML with minimal maturation (AML-M1) and a matched normal skin genome. We identified 12 acquired (somatic) mutations within the coding sequences of genes and 52 somatic point mutations in conserved or regulatory portions of the genome. All mutations appeared to be heterozygous and present in nearly all cells in the tumor sample. Four of the 64 mutations occurred in at least 1 additional AML sample in 188 samples that were tested. Mutations in NRAS and NPM1 had been identified previously in patients with AML, but two other mutations had not been identified. One of these mutations, in the IDH1 gene, was present in 15 of 187 additional AML genomes tested and was strongly associated with normal cytogenetic status; it was present in 13 of 80 cytogenetically normal samples (16%). The other was a nongenic mutation in a genomic region with regulatory potential and conservation in higher mammals; we detected it in one additional AML tumor. The AML genome that we sequenced contains approximately 750 point mutations, of which only a small fraction are likely to be relevant to pathogenesis. By comparing the sequences of tumor and skin genomes of a patient with AML-M1, we have identified recurring mutations that may be relevant for pathogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic analysis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells has accelerated the identification of genes important for AML pathogenesis. To complement cytogenetic studies and to identify genes altered in AML genomes, we performed genome-wide copy number analysis with paired normal and tumor DNA obtained from 86 adult patients with de novo AML using 1.85 million feature SNP arrays. Acquired copy number alterations (CNAs) were confirmed using an ultra-dense array comparative genomic hybridization platform. A total of 201 somatic CNAs were found in the 86 AML genomes (mean, 2.34 CNAs per genome), with French-American-British system M6 and M7 genomes containing the most changes (10-29 CNAs per genome). Twenty-four percent of AML patients with normal cytogenetics had CNA, whereas 40% of patients with an abnormal karyotype had additional CNA detected by SNP array, and several CNA regions were recurrent. The mRNA expression levels of 57 genes were significantly altered in 27 of 50 recurrent CNA regions <5 megabases in size. A total of 8 uniparental disomy (UPD) segments were identified in the 86 genomes; 6 of 8 UPD calls occurred in samples with a normal karyotype. Collectively, 34 of 86 AML genomes (40%) contained alterations not found with cytogenetics, and 98% of these regions contained genes. Of 86 genomes, 43 (50%) had no CNA or UPD at this level of resolution. In this study of 86 adult AML genomes, the use of an unbiased high-resolution genomic screen identified many genes not previously implicated in AML that may be relevant for pathogenesis, along with many known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Lay Summary Acute myeloid leukemia is a highly malignant hematopoietic tumor that affects about 13,000 adults yearly in the United States. The treatment of this disease has changed little in the past two decades, since most of the genetic events that initiate the disease remain undiscovered. Whole genome sequencing is now possible at a reasonable cost and timeframe to utilize this approach for unbiased discovery of tumor-specific somatic mutations that alter the protein-coding genes. Here we show the results obtained by sequencing a typical acute myeloid leukemia genome and its matched normal counterpart, obtained from the patient’s skin. We discovered 10 genes with acquired mutations; two were previously described mutations thought to contribute to tumor progression, and 8 were novel mutations present in virtually all tumor cells at presentation and relapse, whose function is not yet known. Our study establishes whole genome sequencing as an unbiased method for discovering initiating mutations in cancer genomes, and for identifying novel genes that may respond to targeted therapies. We used massively parallel sequencing technology to sequence the genomic DNA of tumor and normal skin cells obtained from a patient with a typical presentation of FAB M1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with normal cytogenetics. 32.7-fold ‘haploid’ coverage (98 billion bases) was obtained for the tumor genome, and 13.9-fold coverage (41.8 billion bases) was obtained for the normal sample. Of 2,647,695 well-supported Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) found in the tumor genome, 2,588,486 (97.7%) also were detected in the patient’s skin genome, limiting the number of variants that required further study. For the purposes of this initial study, we restricted our downstream analysis to the coding sequences of annotated genes: we found only eight heterozygous, non-synonymous somatic SNVs in the entire genome. All were novel, including mutations in protocadherin/cadherin family members (CDH24 and PCLKC), G-protein coupled receptors (GPR123 and EBI2), a protein phosphatase (PTPRT), a potential guanine nucleotide exchange factor (KNDC1), a peptide/drug transporter (SLC15A1), and a glutamate receptor gene (GRINL1B). We also detected previously described, recurrent somatic insertions in the FLT3 and NPM1 genes. Based on deep readcount data, we determined that all of these mutations (except FLT3) were present in nearly all tumor cells at presentation, and again at relapse 11 months later, suggesting that the patient had a single dominant clone containing all of the mutations. These results demonstrate the power of whole genome sequencing to discover novel cancer-associated mutations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Nature