[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a number of studies have analysed so far the causes of death and the life expectancy in haemophilic populations, no investigations have been conducted among Italian haemophilia centres. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate mortality, causes of deaths, life expectancy and co-morbidities in Italian persons with haemophilia (PWH). Data pertaining to a total of 443 PWH who died between 1980 and 2007 were retrospectively collected in the 30 centres who are members of the Italian Association of Haemophilia Centres that chose to participate. The mortality rate ratio standardized to the male Italian population (SMR) was reduced during the periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2007 such that during the latter, death rate overlapped that of the general population (SMR 1990-1999: 1.98 95% CI 1.54-2.51; SMR 2000-2007: 1.08 95% CI 0.83-1.40). Similarly, life expectancy in the whole haemophilic population increased in the same period (71.2 years in 2000-2007 vs. 64.0 in 1990-1999), approaching that of the general male population. While human immunodeficiency virus infection was the main cause of death (45%), 13% of deaths were caused by hepatitis C-associated complications. The results of this retrospective study show that in Italian PWH improvements in the quality of treatment and global medical care provided by specialized haemophilia centres resulted in a significantly increased life expectancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although fibrinogen concentrate has been available for the treatment of congenital fibrinogen deficiency for years, knowledge of its pharmacokinetics comes from only two small studies.
To assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, clot integrity and safety of fibrinogen concentrate (human) (FCH) in patients with afibrinogenemia.
A multinational, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled study of patients with afibrinogenemia > or = 6 years of age was conducted in the USA and Italy. Plasma was collected before and after infusion for PK analyses and evaluation by rotational thromboelastometry of maximum clot firmness (MCF) to assess clot integrity. Safety was assessed on the basis of adverse events and laboratory parameters.
After a single dose of 70 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) FCH in 14 patients, median incremental in vivo recovery was a 1.7 mg dL(-1) increase per mg kg(-1) b.w., and median levels were 1.3 g L(-1) for fibrinogen activity and antigen 1 h after infusion. Median half-life (t(1/2)) was 77.1 h for fibrinogen activity and 88.0 h for antigen. Plasma recovery in children < 16 years old was similar to that in adults aged 16 to < 65 years, but the t(1/2) and area under the curve were decreased, with an increased steady-state volume and clearance. MCF increased by a mean of 8.9 mm from baseline to 1 h after infusion of FCH (P < 0.0001). All four adverse events reported were mild, and none was serious or related to study drug.
These PK findings confirm a rapid increase in plasma fibrinogen levels after infusion with FCH. Together with the clot integrity and safety data and published data on efficacy, the results support the idea that FCH substitution can restore hemostasis with a good safety profile.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is effective in approximately 70% of haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Poor prognostic factors are age >6 years, ITI started >1 year from inhibitor development, inhibitor peaks >200 BU, inhibitor titre >10 BU when ITI is started and previously failed ITI. The objective of this study was to identify the effectiveness in ITI of a high purity von Willebrand factor/factor VIII (VWF/FVIII) complex concentrate in inhibitor patients at high risk of failure. Patients with severe or moderate haemophilia A and high responding inhibitors who had at least one poor prognostic factor for ITI failure were prospectively followed-up. Success was defined by undetectable inhibitor, recovery and half life >66% of expected values. ITI dose regimens were chosen by each haemophilia centre. Seventeen haemophiliacs (16 severe, one moderate), aged 4-54 years (median 23) were followed-up for 6-71 months. Poor prognostic factors were delayed-onset ITI (n = 16), age >6 years (n = 16), previously failed ITI (n = 4), inhibitor peak >200 BU (n = 2) and inhibitor >10 BU when ITI was started (n = 4). Complete success was obtained in nine patients (53%) after 4-30 months of treatment (median 24), including two of four patients who had previously failed ITI. Seven patients achieved a partial success, with sustained low inhibitor titres (median 1.5 BU, range 1.1-2.8) but abnormal recovery and/or half-life, while the remaining patient withdrew ITI after 12 months when the inhibitor titer was still 70 BU. These findings suggest that high purity VWF/FVIII complex concentrates are effective in ITI, even in patients at high risk of failure.