[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present report, a total of 75 Fusarium spp isolates (35 of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, 26 of F. oxysporum, 7 of F. graminearum, 5 of F. culmorum, 1 of F. cerealis, and 1 of F. poae) from different hosts were characterized morphologically, physiologically and genetically. Morphological characterization was performed according to macroscopic and microscopic aspects. Physiological characterization was based on their ability to produce fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), zearalenone (ZEA) and type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol). FB1, FB2, and ZEA were determined by liquid chromatography and trichothecenes by gas chromatography. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using an optimized and simple method for isolation of DNA from filamentous fungi and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) of the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the rDNA. The results indicated that G. fujikuroi complex isolates can be divided into low and high fumonisin producers. The haplotypes obtained with HhaI, EcoRI, AluI, PstI and XhoI enzymes provided very characteristic groupings of G. fujikuroi isolates as a function of host type and fumonisin producing capacity. F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. cerealis isolates were high ZEA and type B trichothecene producers, while F. oxysporum and the G. fujikuroi complex isolates did not show this ability. The haplotypes obtained with CfoI, AluI, HapII, XhoI, EcoRI and PstI enzymes permitted to discern these five Fusarium species and G. fujikuroi complex isolates but the restriction patterns of the IGS region did not show any relationship with the geographic origin of isolates.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are the main members of a family of mycotoxins produced by various fungal species belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. The present work shows the results of a comparative study of various clean-up and derivatization procedures for analysis of fumonisins in rice cultures. Fumonisins were extracted from rice with acetonitrile/water (50/50, v/v). For clean-up, three solid-phase extraction procedures were assayed (C18 cartridge, SAX cartridge, and a combination of both). Two reagents (o-phthaldialdehyde and 4-fluoro-7-nitro-benzofurazan) were studied comparatively for formation of fluorescent derivatives. The separation was carried out by LC using a fluorescence detector. The best procedure for analysis of fumonisins in rice involved clean-up with C18 cartridge and derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde. The limit of detection was 0.010 mg kg(-1) for both toxins. In the 10-500 mg kg(-1) spiking level range, the recovery rates for FB1 and FB2 in rice varied from 94.6% to 103.6% and from 96.3% to 101.9%, respectively. The optimized analytical method for determination of fumonisins in rice was applied to the study of FB1 and FB2 production by four isolates of the G. fujikuroi species complex in rice cultures carried out at different temperatures and water activities to establish the influence of strain and environmental conditions on fumonisin production in this cereal. In general, fumonisin production was the highest at 20 degrees C and lowest at 37 degrees C. Four of the five assayed water activity (aw) values (0.97, 0.98, 0.99, and 1.0) did not affect significantly fumonisin accumulation but fumonisins were not detected in cultures when aw was 0.96.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, 44 Fusarium spp. isolates (5 Fusarium culmorum, 7 Fusarium graminearum, 1 Fusarium cerealis, 1 Fusarium poae, 26 Fusarium oxysporum, and 4 Gibberella fujikuroi species complex) were characterized morphologically, physiologically and genetically. All except one (Dutch Collection: CBS 620.72) were isolated from different hosts grown in various Spanish localizations. Morphological characterization was made according to macroscopic and microscopic aspects. Physiological characterization was based on their ability to produce zearalenone (ZEA) and type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol). ZEA was determined by liquid chromatography and trichothecenes by gas chromatography. Confirmation was carried out by liquid chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (ZEA) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (trichothecenes). Molecular characterization of isolates was performed using an optimized, simple and low-cost method for isolation of DNA from filamentous fungi and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) of the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the rRNA gene (rDNA). The results indicate that F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. cerealis isolates were high ZEA and type B trichothecene producers, the F. poae isolate produced very low level of nivalenol while F. oxysporum and the G. fujikuroi complex isolates did not show this ability. Restriction patterns of the IGS region did not show any relationship with the host, geographic origin of the isolate and mycotoxin-producing capacity. However, the haplotypes obtained with six restriction enzymes (CfoI, AluI, HapII, XhoI, EcoRI and PstI) permitted to discern the six assayed Fusarium species. Therefore, this is a rapid and suitable methodology that allows closely related strains to group and to estimate the genetic relationships between the groups.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen is studied in the present report with special attention to analyze the incidence of fungal species that are potential producers of mycotoxins. A total of 90 ready-to-eat bee pollen samples were analyzed. Eighty-seven samples were collected in stores placed in different Spanish areas and three were from Buenos Aires (Argentina). The statistical results (ANOVA) showed that yeasts and Penicillium spp. were the predominant fungi. With regard to the potential mycotoxin producing species, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus niger aggregate, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Alternaria spp. were found. The last genus was isolated very frequently. The potential ability for producing ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) was studied by culturing in vitro the isolates followed by analysis of these mycotoxins in culture extracts by HPLC with fluorescent detection. It was found that 100%, 53.3%, 33.3% and 25% of the isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceus, P. verrucosum and A. niger aggregate, respectively, produced OTA. Moreover, 28.6% of the isolates from the A. flavus plus A. parasiticus group were able to produce aflatoxin B(1). Aflatoxin B(2) was detected in only 10% of the cultures. Aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were not detected in cultures under the assayed conditions. This is the first report carried out on the natural mycobiota occurring in bee pollen in general and on the toxigenic capability of these isolates in particular.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present report, a total of thirty-one isolates of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw. species complex of Fusarium (section Liseola) morphologically classified as F. moniliforme according to the taxonomy of Nelson, Toussoun and Marasas (1983) were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 by an optimized liquid chromatographic method. They were isolated from three hosts (Zea mays, Musa sapientum and Pinus pinea). The results indicate that M. sapientum is a preferential host for G. fujikuroi isolates with low or null capacity for producing fumonisins, while isolates from Z. mays and P. pinea are generally high fumonisin producers. The molecular characterization of isolates was carried out in parallel using an optimized, simple and low-cost method for isolating DNA from filamentous fungi and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) of the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region. The haplotypes obtained with Hha I enzyme and combinations of Hha I, EcoR I, Alu I, Pst I and Xho I enzymes provided very characteristic groupings of G. fujikuroi isolates as a function of host type and fumonisin B1 and B2 producing capacity. IGS region restriction patterns showed no relationship to isolate geographical origin. This is the first report on this method's capacity to detect polymorphism permitting discrimination between G. fujikuroi isolates from different hosts and with different toxigenic profiles.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Systematic and Applied Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various species of Fusarium can produce trichothecene mycotoxins that contaminate food commodities and can represent a risk for human and animal health. In this paper, a full factorial design was applied to study the influence of incubation temperature, water activity (a(w)) and type of isolate on the production of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON) in corn kernel cultures by three isolates of Fusarium graminearum and three isolates of Fusarium culmorum from crops grown in Spain. The tested temperatures were 15, 20, 28 and 32 degrees C. The a(w)-values were 0.960, 0.970 and 0.980. Moisture of cultures (within the studied range) did not affect significantly production of trichothecenes; however, the temperature affected significantly mycotoxin production and the optimal values were 28, 20 and 15 degrees C for DON, NIV and 3-AcDON, respectively. Four additional isolates of F. graminearum and two additional isolates of F. culmorum were examined for production of these mycotoxins at the optimal temperatures. Of the seven isolates of F. graminearum, four produced DON (0.88-3.97 microg/g), seven produced NIV (1.53-124 microg/g), and three produced 3-AcDON (0.65-10.6 microg/g). Of the five isolates of F. culmorum, four produced DON (1.20-4.93 microg/g), four produced NIV (6.94-701 microg/g), and four produced 3-AcDON (0.83-7.70 microg/g). Practically all isolates seem to belong to the NIV-chemotype. This is the first study done with regard to interaction between strain and ecological variables on type B trichothecene production by isolates of these two species from crops grown in Spain.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To carry out the physiological characterization of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum isolates with regard to its zearalenone producing ability, an in-depth experiment with a full factorial design was conducted. The effects and mutual interactions of temperature, moisture, substrate and isolate on the production of the toxin were studied. The study was done with twelve isolates of Fusarium (7 of F. graminearum and 5 of F. culmorum). The analysis of variance shows that there is a complex interaction of all of these factors, which can influence the relative concentrations of the mycotoxin produced, and hence, the correct physiological characterization of the strain. All the tested cultures were susceptible to invasion by Fusarium. The moisture content of grains (water activity values 0.960, 0.970 and 0.980) did not constitute a limiting factor for fungal growth or ZEA production, but incubation temperature (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 28 degrees C, and 32 degrees C) affected the rate of zearalenone synthesis. Very low or undetectable ZEA production was observed at 32 degrees C. All tested isolates showed a characteristic behavior concerning the optimum temperature for ZEA production, which was usually 20 degrees C maintained during the whole incubation period. This finding, which does not agree with other reports obtained with strains from different origins, suggests that there are genetic differences that would explain the particular physiological behavior of each isolate related to the optimal production conditions for ZEA. The existence of significant differences regarding the susceptibility of the assayed cereal grains (wheat, corn and rice) used for ZEA production by the different Fusarium species (F. graminearum and F. culmorum) is described for the first time in this paper.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Systematic and Applied Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capacity of four isolates belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi complex to produce fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 when grown in liquid medium supplemented with one sugar and one amino acid at various concentration levels has been investigated. The sugars used for supplementing the medium were glucose, fructose, rhamnose, sucrose, maltose, and trehalose at 5, 10 or 20 g/l. The amino acids used were serine, threonine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, valine, isoleucine, methionine, glycine, alanine, and cystine at 1 or 10 g/l. Fumonisins were extracted from culture filtrates, purified by SAX column and determined by reversed-phase C18 HPLC with fluorescence detection of the o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives. Two isolates produced very low concentrations of fumonisins with all sugars. The remaining isolates provided increased contents of fumonisins when sugar level increased. Concerning the amino acids, production of fumonisins was also dependent on the isolate, although at 1 g/l, the production of fumonisins was greater than at 10 g/l. The results indicate that the sugar-amino acid-isolate combination is basic in fumonisin biosynthesis and that the particular behaviour of each isolate in the different nutritional conditions may constitute a piece of interesting information in the fields of the Taxonomy, Physiology and Toxicology of these fungi. This is the first report on the influence of the carbon and nitrogen sources on fumonisin production by isolates of the G. fujikuroi complex.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various liquid chromatographic methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins (zearalenone, trichothecenes and fumonisins) produced by Fusarium species were compared in this work. The results demonstrate the suitability of modern clean-up procedures employing multifunctional MycoSep and immunoaffinity columns although these methods are more expensive than conventional methodologies for clean-up. HPLC with both fluorescence and photodiode array detection is a suitable technique for the analysis of toxic secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species; different derivatisation strategies have been studied to improve the sensitivity of the technique because of the low concentration of these metabolites in contaminated food. The utility of the proposed methodology was assessed in cereal cultures of various Fusarium strains.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Journal of Chromatography A