[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In adaptive optics system (AOS) for optical telescopes, the reported wavefront sensing strategy consists of two parts: a specific sensor for tip-tilt (TT) detection and another wavefront sensor for other distortions detection. Thus, a part of incident light has to be used for TT detection, which decreases the light energy used by wavefront sensor and eventually reduces the precision of wavefront correction. In this paper, a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based wavefront measurement method is presented for both large amplitude TT and other distortions' measurement. Experiments were performed for testing the presented wavefront method and validating the wavefront detection and correction ability of the single-sensor based AOS. With adaptive correction, the root-mean-square of residual TT was less than 0.2 λ, and a clear image was obtained in the lab. Equipped on a 1.23-meter optical telescope, the binary stars with angle distance of 0.6″ were clearly resolved using the AOS. This wavefront measurement method removes the separate TT sensor, which not only simplifies the AOS but also saves light energy for subsequent wavefront sensing and imaging, and eventually improves the detection and imaging capability of the AOS.
[Show description][Hide description] DESCRIPTION: The time delay engendered by wavefront sampling and data processing inevitability exists in almost all the wavefront sensor (WFS) based adaptive optics (AO) systems. Also, when WFS is used for tip–tilt aberration detection,
the time delay significantly reduces the tip–tilt correction performance of the AO system. In this paper, we focus on researching time delay in a tip–tilt (TT) control system and introduce a predicted signal compensation method
(PSCM) to compensate the time delay by modifying the WFS detected signals. Based on a precise model of a TT dynamic control system, the detection delay of TT corrections included in a WFS detected signal can be compensated.
Experiments are conducted in the lab: the pure integrator (I), proportional and integral (PI) wavefront TT controllers, and these controllers with PSCM are compared to test the efficiency of the PSCM for TT corrections.
For the PI controller, the rejection bandwidth increases from 52 to 62 Hz by using PCSM; meanwhile, the open-loop phase margin increases from 45 to 60 deg. In addition, astronomical observation results are also given based on the PI wavefront TT controller. The PSCM improves the Strehl ratio by a factor of 1.3. The new method is proven to improve the AO system closed-loop performance not only for increasing the closed-loop rejection bandwidth but also in favor of the error attenuation at low frequency. Furthermore, the method does not introduce more noise to the system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a novel method to measure the interaction matrix of liquid-crystal adaptive optics systems, by applying least squares method to mitigate the impact of measurement noise. Experimental results showed a dramatic gain in the accuracy of interaction matrix, and a considerable improvement in image resolution with open loop adaptive optics correction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To process real-time wavefront signal in our liquid crystal adaptive optics system (LCAOS), a real-time wavefront processor (RTWP) with graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerator is developed. A series of parallel acceleration algorithm is implemented to reconstruct wavefront, compute gray map and process lookup table (LUT). Especially, an algorithm by using symmetry of Zernike polynomial is designed to compute gray map and it provides a speedup of 3.16. Finally, the total computing time in our RTWP is 109 μs and temporal bandwidth in our LCAOS is 45 Hz; it is shown that our RTWP has the ability to real time process wavefront signal in our LCAOS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-aligned liquid crystals containing randomly dispersed nanoparticles are proposed to realise hyperbolic metamaterials at visible spectrum. Opposite signs for anisotropic permittivity tensors originated from the scattering of metallic nanoparticles in liquid crystals are achieved. Tunable effective wavelength properties are also demonstrated by choosing dielectric-metal core-shell nanoparticles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrafast switchable wide angle negative refraction in a novel dual-frequency liquid crystal mixture is demonstrated experimentally. Laterally fluorinated isothiocyanato phenyl-tolane liquid crystal compound is doped into Merck MLC-2048 to acquire the high birefringence dual-frequency liquid crystal. The maximum negative refraction angle achieved is about 12° and the switching time is only 25 ms for a 40-μm cell which is two orders faster than switchable negative refraction achieved before in nematic liquid crystals. Such properties provide a feasible approach to design negative refraction devices based on liquid crystals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The residual aberrations of the adaptive optics retinal imaging system will decrease the quality of the retinal images. To overcome this obstacle, we found that the optical transfer function (OTF) of the adaptive optics retinal imaging system can be described as the Levy stable distribution. Then a new method is introduced to estimate the OTF of the open-loop adaptive optics system, based on analyzing the residual aberrations of the open-loop adaptive optics system in the residual aberrations measuring mode. At last, the estimated OTF is applied to restore the retinal images of the open-loop adaptive optics retinal imaging system. The contrast and resolution of the restored image is significantly improved with the Laplacian sum (LS) from 0.0785 to 0.1480 and gray mean grads (GMG) from 0.0165 to 0.0306.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Optics Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Digital overdriving technique is used to enhance response performance of liquid crystal device for wave front correction, combined with electro-optic effect. Generally, using phase wrapping technique, liquid crystal wave front correction only needs 1λ phase retardation. In this new driving scheme, it was increased to 1.2λ and only the phase retardation from 0 to 1λ was used for real correction. Different from conventional method, transition grey level is needed for each grey level as to accelerate its response. This method could enhance the response time up to 50% and unify all the grey-to-grey responses to one equal value. It can be easily implemented into every conventional Liquid Crystal devices without any additional hardware modification. A liquid crystal on silicon device with synthesised liquid crystal material by our lab was used to demonstrate its feasibility. After optimisation, the response time was reduced from nearly 3.3 ms down to 1.55 ms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a wavefront corrector, the phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator has been widely using in adaptive optics systems. However, the unmodulated diffracted beam of the modulator will affect the light spot centroid detection accuracy of a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and decrease the image quality after correction. In this paper, we have diminished the effect by introducing a modified weight algorithm in our closed-loop adaptive optics system. The Strehl ratio of the image is higher than 0.8 after correction, even when the wavefront aberration is larger than 3 μm. The correction precision and image quality are both improved significantly.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An open-loop adaptive optics (AO) system for retinal imaging was constructed using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as the wavefront compensator. Due to the dispersion of the LC-SLM, there was only one illumination source for both aberration detection and retinal imaging in this system. To increase the field of view (FOV) for retinal imaging, a modified mechanical shutter was integrated into the illumination channel to control the size of the illumination spot on the fundus. The AO loop was operated in a pulsing mode, and the fundus was illuminated twice by two laser impulses in a single AO correction loop. As a result, the FOV for retinal imaging was increased to 1.7-deg without compromising the aberration detection accuracy. The correction precision of the open-loop AO system was evaluated in a closed-loop configuration; the residual error is approximately 0.0909λ (root-mean-square, RMS), and the Strehl ratio ranges to 0.7217. Two subjects with differing rates of myopia (-3D and -5D) were tested. High-resolution images of capillaries and photoreceptors were obtained.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we summarize the researches of liquid crystal (LC) adaptive optics(AO) in astronomical applications. Dual frequency and nematic LC materials were reported to be used in astronomical observations. However, nematic LC with its simple producing and driving method and multi-gray-level is promising in the application. We have investigated the nematic LC AO system and promoted its application for nearly ten years. Here, we reported our newest nematic LC AO system with bandwidth result of -3dB is 54.4 Hz, 0 dB bandwidth is 79.1Hz.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) as the wavefront corrector, an open-loop adaptive optics (AO) system for fundus imaging in vivo is constructed. Compared with the LC-SLM closed-loop AO system, the light energy efficiency is increased by a factor of 2, which is helpful for the safety of fundus illumination in vivo. In our experiment, the subjective accommodation method is used to precorrect the defocus aberration, and three subjects with different myopia 0, -3, and -5 D are tested. Although the residual wavefront error after correction cannot to detected, the fundus images adequately demonstrate that the imaging system reaches the resolution of a single photoreceptor cell through the open-loop correction. Without dilating and cyclopleging the eye, the continuous imaging for 8 s is recorded for one of the subjects.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive noise model about digital camera which is a main component of SHWFS is constructed, including the readout noise, the photon shot noise, the quantization noise and the response un-uniformity. Based on the noise model, the spot centroid errors caused by each kind of noise are analyzed, respectively. And then the synthetic error from all the noise is calculated. The result demonstrates that the limit of the spot centroid accuracy is 1% pixels. At last, the crossing error caused by the high order diffraction spots is analyzed. It is approximately proportional to the secondary spots number. So the structure of the microlens array must be optimized together with the digital camera when designing SHWFS.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Optics Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To generate time-evolving atmosphere turbulence in real time, a phase-generating method for our liquid-crystal (LC) atmosphere turbulence simulator (ATS) is derived based on the Fourier series (FS) method. A real matrix expression for generating turbulence phases is given and calculated with a graphic processing unit (GPU), the GeForce 8800 Ultra. A liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) with 256x256 pixels is used as the turbulence simulator. The total time to generate a turbulence phase is about 7.8 ms for calculation and readout with the GPU. A parallel processing method of calculating and sending a picture to the LCOS is used to improve the simulating speed of our LC ATS. Therefore, the real-time turbulence phase-generation frequency of our LC ATS is up to 128 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the highest speed used to generate a turbulence phase in real time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nematic liquid crystal adaptive optics system (NLC AOS) was assembled for a 2.16-m telescope to correct for atmospheric turbulence. LC AOS was designed and optimized with Zemax optical software. Second, an adaptive correction experiment was performed in the laboratory to test the performance of the NLC AOS. After the correction, the peak to valley (PV) and root mean square (RMS) of the wavefront were down to 0.2 lambda (lambda=633 nm) and 0.05 lambda, respectively. Finally, the star of Pollux (beta Gem) was tracked using the 2.16-m Reflecting Telescope, and real time correction of the atmospheric turbulence was performed with the NLC AOS. After the adaptive correction, the average PV and RMS of the wavefront were reduced from 11 lambda and 2.5 lambda to 2.3 lambda and 0.6 lambda, respectively. Although the intensity distribution of the beta Gem was converged and its peak was sharp, a halo still existed around the peak. These results indicated that the NLC AOS only partially corrected the vertical atmospheric turbulence. The limitations of our NLC AOS are discussed and some proposals are made.