[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a reversed-phase HPLC method that uses gradient elution and UV detection (325 nm) to determine levels of resveratrol and identify six major conjugated metabolites in the plasma and urine of human volunteers after administration of a single oral dose of 1g. Waters Atlantis C18 3 microm served as the stationary phase. The gradient was formed using ammonium acetate and methanol, containing 2% propan-2-ol. Detection is linear between 5 ng/mL and 500 ng/mL in plasma (5-1000 ng/mL in urine). The coefficient of variation for intra- and inter-day variation is <10%. The average recovery of resveratrol from plasma and urine is 58+/-3%. The data presented in this report demonstrate a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for the analysis of resveratrol and its metabolites in human plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic studies.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Chromatography B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of mammary cancer as reflected by epidemiological studies and experiments in carcinogen-induced rodent models of mammary carcinogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that green tea catechins (GTC) or theaflavins from black tea (BTT) interfere with mammary carcinogenesis in C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma (TAg) mice and that GTC/BTT affect tumor survival or oxidation status. TAg mice received GTC/BTT (0.05%) in drinking water for their lifetime. As compared to control mice, they survived longer and had smaller tumors. On microscopic inspection, the size of the largest tumor per mouse was decreased by 40-42% (p<0.01). GTC (0.01%) and BTT (0.05%) increased levels of cleaved caspase 3 in tumor tissue by 67 and 38%, respectively (p<0.05), intimating increased apoptosis. Tumor levels of the malondialdehyde-DNA adduct M1dG in mice receiving GTC or BTT (0.05%) were reduced by 78 (p<0.001) or 63% (p<0.05), respectively, as compared to controls. The results render the exploration of the breast cancer chemopreventive properties of tea preparations in humans worthwhile.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silibinin has recently received attention as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent because of its antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects. A simple and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitation of silibinin in human plasma. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation, and separation was achieved on a Waters Atlantis C18 column with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 40 degrees C and UV detection at 290 nm. Silibinin was detected as two peaks corresponding to trans-diastereoisomers. The peak area was linear over the investigated concentration range (0-5000 ng/mL). The limits of detection were 2 and 1 ng/mL for the two diastereoisomers (d1 and d2), with a recovery of 53-58%. This method was utilized to detect silibinin in plasma of colorectal patients after 7 days of treatment with silipide (silibinin formulated with phosphatidyl choline).
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is an excellent target for chemoprevention strategies; given its late age of onset, any delay in carcinogenesis would lead to a reduction in its incidence. This article reviews all the completed and on-going phase III trials in prostate cancer chemoprevention.
All phase III trials of prostate cancer chemoprevention were identified within a Medline search using the keywords 'clinical trial, prostate cancer, chemoprevention'.
In 2003, the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) became the first phase III clinical trial of prostate cancer prevention. This landmark study was terminated early due to the 24.8% reduction of prostate cancer prevalence over a 7-year period in those men taking the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. This article reviews the PCPT and the interpretation of the excess high-grade prostate cancer (HGPC) cases in the finasteride group. The lack of relationship between cumulative dose and the HGPC cases, and the possible sampling error of biopsies due to gland volume reduction in the finasteride group refutes the suggestion that this is a genuine increase in HGPC cases. The other on-going phase III clinical trials of prostate cancer chemoprevention - the REDUCE study using dutasteride, and the SELECT study using vitamin E and selenium - are also reviewed.
At present, finasteride remains the only intervention shown in long-term prospective phase III clinical trials to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. Until we have the results of trials using alternative agents including the on-going REDUCE and SELECT trials, the advice given to men interested in prostate cancer prevention must include discussion of the results of the PCPT. The increased rate of HGPC in the finasteride group continues to generate debate; however, finasteride may still be suitable for prostate cancer prevention, particularly in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug design based on the structure of specific enzymes playing a role in carcinogenesis, e.g. tyrosine kinases, has been successful at identifying novel effective anticancer drugs. In contrast, no success has been achieved in drug design attempts, in which transcription factors or DNA-transcription factor complexes involved in the pathogenesis of human neoplasms were targeted. This failure is likely to be due to the fact that the mechanism of transcription regulation is probably too complex and still too inadequately understood to be a suitable target for drug design. It seems plausible that the high selectivity of some human tumors to some DNA-interactive anticancer drugs, e.g. cisplatin, is related to an effect on the transcription of genes that are crucial for those tumors. In this article we propose that some natural products have evolutionarily evolved to exert highly specialized functions, including modulation of the transcriptional regulation of specific genes. We discuss in detail the marine natural product Yondelis (Trabectedin, ET-743) that is effective against some soft tissue sarcoma, possibly because it interferes with the aberrant transcription mechanism in these tumors. In addition we highlight the existing evidence that many different natural products are effective inhibitors of NF-kB, a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in inflammation and cancer, indicating that some of these compounds might possess antitumor properties. We propose that large-scale characterization of natural products acting as potential modulators of gene transcription is a realistic and attractive approach to discover compounds therapeutically effective against neoplastic diseases characterized by specific aberrations of transcriptional regulation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Current pharmaceutical design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brown rice is a staple dietary constituent in Asia, whereas rice consumed in the Western world is generally white, obtained from brown rice by removal of the bran. We tested the hypothesis that rice bran interferes with development of tumours in TAg, TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) or Apc(Min) mice, genetic models of mammary, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis, respectively. Mice received rice bran (30%) in AIN-93G diet throughout their post-weaning lifespan. In TAg and TRAMP mice, rice bran did not affect carcinoma development. In TRAMP or wild-type C57Bl6/J mice, dietary rice bran increased kidney weight by 18 and 20%, respectively. Consumption of rice bran reduced numbers of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min) mice by 51% (P<0.01), compared to mice on control diet. In parallel, dietary rice bran decreased intestinal haemorrhage in these mice, as reflected by increased haematocrit. At 10% in the diet, rice bran did not significantly retard Apc(Min) adenoma development. Likewise, low-fibre rice bran (30% in the diet) did not affect intestinal carcinogenesis, suggesting that the fibrous constituents of the bran mediate chemopreventive efficacy. The results suggest that rice bran might be beneficially evaluated as a putative chemopreventive intervention in humans with intestinal polyps.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggests that polyphenolic phytochemicals exemplified by epigallocatechin gallate from tea, curcumin from curry and soya isoflavones possess cancer chemopreventive properties. Whilst such naturally occurring polyphenols have been the subject of numerous mechanistic studies in cells, information on their clinical properties, which might help assess their promise as human cancer chemopreventive agents, is scarce. Therefore, we present a review of pilot studies and trials with a cancer chemoprevention-related rationale, in which either healthy individuals or patients with premalignant conditions or cancer received polyphenolic phytochemicals. The review identifies trial design elements specifically applicable to polyphenolic phytochemicals. The available evidence for tea polyphenols tentatively supports their advancement into phase III clinical intervention trials aimed at the prevention of progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, leukoplakia or premalignant cervical disease. In the case of curcumin and soya isoflavones more studies in premalignacies seem appropriate to optimise the nature and design of suitable phase III trials. The abundance of flavonoids and related polyphenols in the plant kingdom makes it possible that several hitherto uncharacterised agents with chemopreventive efficacy are still to be identified, which may constitute attractive alternatives to currently used chemopreventive drugs.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As cancer chemopreventive agents are intended for use by healthy individuals as prophylactics to prevent or retard the development of cancer, they must be amenable to ingestion over prolonged periods without toxicity. Therefore, putative chemopreventive agents need to undergo stringent testing to ensure their safety with regard to chronic exposure in humans. The diet is thought to be a source of chemopreventive agents, and dietary compounds are generally considered to be of low hazard, albeit this notion has not often been put to the test. Here the safety information available for 5 dietary putative chemopreventive compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), curcumin, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and capsaicin is reviewed. For these agents, normal dietary intake, doses used in clinical trials, efficacious doses in rodents, and where available, toxic doses are compared. For curcumin, quercetin and capsaicin, toxicological data is only available from studies in rodents. Information on long-term effects in animals beyond 28 or 90 days is lacking for EGCG. Capsaicin and quercetin are suspected carcinogens. I3C and quercetin can modulate the absorption of other drugs given concomitantly. Without further investigation of their toxicology, it is difficult to recommend any of these agents for long-term use in the healthy population.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Nutrition and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcuma spp. contain turmerin, essential oils, and curcuminoids, including curcumin. Curcumin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] is regarded as the most biologically active constituent of the spice turmeric and it comprises 2-8% of most turmeric preparations. Preclinical data from animal models and phase I clinical studies performed with human volunteers and patients with cancer have demonstrated low systemic bioavailability following oral dosing. Efficient first-pass metabolism and some degree of intestinal metabolism, particularly glucuronidation and sulfation of curcumin, might explain its poor systemic availability when administered via the oral route. A daily oral dose of 3.6 g of curcumin is compatible with detectable levels of the parent compound in colorectal tissue from patients with cancer. The levels demonstrated might be sufficient to exert pharmacological activity. There appears to be negligible distribution of the parent drug to hepatic tissue or other tissues beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Curcumin possesses wide-ranging anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Many of these biological activities can be attributed to its potent antioxidant capacity at neutral and acidic pH, its inhibition of cell signaling pathways at multiple levels, its diverse effects on cellular enzymes, and its effects on cell adhesion and angiogenesis. In particular, curcumin's ability to alter gene transcription and induce apoptosis in preclinical models advocates its potential utility in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. With regard to considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat or prevent human diseases, curcumin is currently a leading agent.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet-derived flavonoids possess cancer chemopreventive properties in preclinical models. The knowledge of the pharmacology of most flavonoids is insufficient to warrant their advancement to clinical evaluation.
Here the three flavonoids tricin from rice bran, apigenin from leafy vegetables, and quercetin from onions and apples, were compared in terms of their ability to modulate cyclooxygenase- (COX-) catalyzed prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) generation. Specifically their effects on the following parameters were studied: (1) COX enzyme activity, (2) COX-2 expression in human-derived colon cancer cells HCA-7, which express COX-2 constitutively, (3) phorbol ester-mediated COX-2 induction in human colon epithelial cells (HCEC), and (4) PGE-2 levels in cellular incubations.
Tricin and quercetin inhibited enzyme activity in purified COX-1 and -2 preparations with IC50 values of near 1 (tricin) and 5 microM (quercetin). Apigenin at up to 25 microM did not affect COX enzyme activity. Flavonoids were incubated with cells for 6 or 24 h and COX-2 protein expression and PGE-2 levels were assessed by Western blot and competitive immunoassay, respectively. None of the agents affected constitutive COX-2 expression in HCA-7 cells. Apigenin, but not tricin or quercetin, down-regulated inducible COX-2 expression in HCEC cells on 6 h incubation. All three flavonoids reduced cellular levels of PGE-2 in the supernatant of HCA-7 cells at both time points and of HCEC cells at 6 h.
The results demonstrate that these structurally similar flavonoids regulate COX-mediated PGE-2 production in different fashions. Their ability to attenuate prostanoid levels may contribute to their cancer chemopreventive efficacy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DMU-135 (3,4-Methylenedioxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxy chalcone) is a novel anticancer prodrug designed to be activated into a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor by the tumour selective enzyme activity of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. CYP1B1 is selectively expressed in a wide variety of tumours including colon. The hypothesis was tested that DMU-135 would inhibit Apc(Min/+) mouse gastrointestinal adenoma formation. From 4-18 weeks of age animals received DMU-135 (0.2% w:w) in AIN93G diet. DMU-135 was well tolerated, induced no systemic side-effects and reduced adenoma multiplicity by 46 +/- 18.3% compared to controls (p < 0.001). Further characterisation of this promising chemopreventive agent is required.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids, which can prevent carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer in rats. Here, the hypotheses were tested that Mirtoselect, an anthocyanin mixture from bilberry, or isolated cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, interfere with intestinal adenoma formation in the Apc(Min) mouse, a genetic model of human familial adenomatous polyposis, and that consumption of C3G or Mirtoselect generates measurable levels of anthocyanins in the murine biophase. Apc(Min) mice ingested C3G or Mirtoselect at 0.03, 0.1 or 0.3% in the diet for 12 weeks, and intestinal adenomas were counted. Plasma, urine and intestinal mucosa were analyzed for presence of anthocyanins by high-pressure liquid chromatography with detection by UV spectrophotometry (520 nm) or tandem mass spectrometry (multiple reaction monitoring). Ingestion of either C3G or Mirtoselect reduced adenoma load dose-dependently. At the highest doses of C3G and Mirtoselect adenoma numbers were decreased by 45% (p < 0.001) or 30% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to controls. Anthocyanins were found at the analytical detection limit in the plasma and at quantifiable levels in the intestinal mucosa and urine. Anthocyanin glucuronide and methyl metabolites were identified in intestine and urine. Total anthocyanin levels in mice on C3G or Mirtoselect were 43 ng and 8.1 microg/g tissue, respectively, in the intestinal mucosa, and 7.2 and 12.3 microg/ml in the urine. The efficacy of C3G and Mirtoselect in the Apc(Min) mouse renders the further development of anthocyanins as potential human colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents worthwhile.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The flavone apigenin occurs in many leafy vegetables and fruits. It has been reported to have cancer chemopreventive efficacy in rodents. An HPLC method described previously for the determination of tricin, the dimethoxy cogener of apigenin, was modified and validated for measurement of apigenin in mouse tissues. Separation was carried out on a Hypersil-BDS C(18) column (4.6 x 250 mm) with an isocratic mobile phase of 55% methanol in 0.1 m ammonium acetate, pH 5.10, containing 0.27 mm disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. UV detection was at 336 nm, without interference from endogenous tissue compounds. The assay was linear in the range 25-400 ng/mL, 0.25-4 microg/mL and 2.5-40 microg/mL, with r(2) > 0.99 in all cases, for mouse plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa, respectively. Apigenin in mouse plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa was efficiently extracted with 0.1 m acetic acid in acetone. The assay recovery at low, medium and high concentrations was between 94.6 and 131.7% for all biomatrices, with a relative standard deviation of <10%. The lower limit of quantification for plasma was 25 ng/mL with a relative standard deviation of <15%. The method was used to measure the steady-phase apigenin levels in tissues of mice receiving apigenin in their diet.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Biomedical Chromatography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trabectedin is a marine-derived cytoxic alkaloid which has shown promising antitumour activity in a variety of human malignancies including sarcoma. Fifty-four patients with advanced sarcoma (age 43 yrs, range 18-70), all pretreated with prior chemotherapy, were enrolled on a named individual basis for treatment with trabectedin. Diagnosis was adult soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in 46 patients, Ewing's family tumour (EFT) in 4, and osteosarcoma (OS) in 4. The initial 23 patients (total number of courses administered: 68) did not receive premedication prior to trabectedin, while the other 31 patients (total number of courses administered: 134) received premedication with dexamethasone 4 mg po bid 24 hours before therapy. Incidence of toxicity (grade 3-4), expressed as percentage of courses, was as follows: in patients without dexamethasone, elevation of transaminases 34%, neutropenia 24% and thrombocytopenia 25%; in patients with prior dexamethasone, elevation of transaminases 2%, neutropenia 2% and no thrombocytopenia. The median received dose intensity of trabectedin was superimposable in the two groups (404 microg and 400 microg per week, respectively), as well as progression-free survival (19% at 6 months). Among STS patients, 9% had objective responses. In this unselected patient series, premedication with dexamethasone strongly reduced drug-induced hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agents that prevent cancer, delay its onset, or revert premalignant conditions could have dramatic beneficial impacts on human health. Although there is an urgent need to develop cancer chemopreventive agents, researchers in the field suspect that this area of scientific endeavour in Europe leads a Cinderella existence, both in terms of perception of importance and research funding. In order to review current activities in this prevention field and to seek a consensus position, an exploratory workshop was held in September 2005 at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Germany, sponsored mainly by the European Science Foundation (ESF), and also supported by the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR) and the German Cancer Society (DKG). The 35 experts from European countries and the United States of America assessed state-of-the-art cancer chemoprevention research in Europe. The aims that the workshop organizers had pre-defined were: i) assessment of the usefulness of animal models for agent identification; ii) review of ongoing preclinical and clinical work on novel agents; iii) discussion of potential biomarkers predictive for cancer preventive efficacy; and finally iv) the potential role that European pharmaceutical industries could play in furthering chemopreventive agent development. Overall the workshop aimed at raising awareness among European clinical and laboratory researchers of the importance of the development of novel, efficacious and safe cancer preventive agents.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silibinin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle, has intestinal cancer chemopreventive efficacy in rodents. It is a strong antioxidant and modulates the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system by increasing circulating levels of IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and decreasing levels of IGF-I. Here, the hypothesis was tested that administration of oral silibinin generates agent levels in human blood and colorectal and hepatic tissues consistent with pharmacologic activity. Patients with confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma received silibinin formulated with phosphatidylcholine (silipide) at dosages of 360, 720, or 1,440 mg silibinin daily for 7 days. Blood and biopsy samples of normal and malignant colorectum or liver were obtained before dosing, and blood and colorectal or hepatic tissues were collected at resection surgery after the final silipide dose. Levels of silibinin were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-UV, and plasma metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood levels of IGFBP-3, IGF-I, and the oxidative DNA damage pyrimidopurinone adduct of deoxyguanosine (M1dG) were determined. Repeated administration of silipide was safe and achieved levels of silibinin of 0.3 to 4 micromol/L in the plasma, 0.3 to 2.5 nmol/g tissue in the liver, and 20 to 141 nmol/g tissue in colorectal tissue. Silibinin monoglucuronide, silibinin diglucuronide, silibinin monosulfate, and silibinin glucuronide sulfate were identified in the plasma. Intervention with silipide did not affect circulating levels of IGFBP-3, IGF-I, or M1dG. The high silibinin levels achieved in the human colorectal mucosa after consumption of safe silibinin doses support its further exploration as a potential human colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is induced in the liver by application of the Pringle manoeuvre. Malondialdehyde is a carbonyl compound formed during lipid peroxidation and prostaglandin biosynthesis, which combines with DNA to form a number of adducts. Among them is the DNA adduct; 3-(2-deoxybeta-dierythropentafuranosyl) pyr [1, 2-alpha]-purin-10 (3H) one or M1G. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of M1G as a novel marker of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the liver and its correlation with both the length of Pringle clamp application and the overall length of the operation.
Normal and colorectal liver metastatic tissues were obtained in 12 patients before and after application of the Pringle manoeuvre. All samples were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen at -80 degree centigrade. DNA was extracted and M1G quantification was performed by immunoslotblot analysis.
M1G levels in normal liver tissue were 4.0+/-1.0 per 10(7) nucleotides before the Pringle manoeuvre and 7.4 +/-1.0 per 10(7) nucleotides after the Pringle manoeuvre (mean+/-standard deviation) (P<0.05 by ANOVA). M1G levels in malignant liver tissue were 2.5+/-1.4 per 10(7) nucleotides before the Pringle manoeuvre and 6.5+/-1.9 adducts per 10(7) nucleotides after the Pringle manoeuvre (P<0.05). Adduct levels in normal liver tissue showed a significant correlation with cumulative period of Pringle application.
This is the first time that the tissue levels of M1G before and after application of the Pringle manoeuvre have been studied. The results show that the Pringle manoeuvre exerts significant oxidative stress in human hepatocytes, which is Pringle-time dependent. The results highlight the potential for oxidative DNA adducts levels as a tool for measuring the severity of ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic regulation of PPARdelta activity using selective agonists has been proposed for various disorders. However, the consequences of altered peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) activity in the context of intestinal tumourigenesis remain somewhat unclear. Contradictory evidence suggesting PPARdelta either attenuates or potentiates intestinal neoplasia. To further investigate the PPARdelta dependency of intestinal tumourigenesis, we have analysed the consequences of PPARdelta deficiency upon intestinal neoplasia occurring in mice with impaired mismatch DNA repair.
Mice deficient for both PPARdelta and the mismatch repair gene Mlh1 were produced and the incidence and severity of intestinal neoplasia recorded.
No significant differences between the control genotypes and the double mutant genotypes were recorded indicating that deficiency of PPARdelta does not modify impaired mismatch repair induced neoplasia.
In contrast with the previously observed acceleration of intestinal neoplasia in the context of the ApcMin/+ mouse, PPARdelta deficiency does not alter the phenotype of mismatch repair deficiency. This data supports the notion that PPARdelta is not required for adenoma formation and indicate that any pro-tumourigenic effect of PPARdelta inactivation may be highly context dependent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring flavonoids such as quercetin and genistein possess cancer chemopreventive properties in experimental models. However, adverse effects such as their mutagenicity confound their potential clinical usefulness. Furthermore in leukaemia cells some flavonoids cleave the breakpoint cluster region of the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene as a consequence of inhibition of topoisomerase II. The choice of flavonoids to be developed as cancer chemopreventive agents depends crucially on their safety. Here, we explored safety aspects of the novel flavone tricin, a constituent of rice bran and other grass species, which has recently been found to interfere with murine gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.
Evidence of pathological or morphological changes in liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas or thymus tissues was studied in mice which received tricin, genistein or quercetin 1,000 mg/kg daily by the oral route on five consecutive days. The ability of tricin (50 microM) to cleave the MLL gene was studied in human leukaemia cells by Southern blotting, and its effect on human topoisomerase II activity was investigated in incubations with supercoiled DNA. The mutagenicity of tricin was assessed in the Salmonella/Escherichia coli assay, and its clastogenicity was adjudged by chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells and occurrence of micronuclei in bone marrow erythrocytes in Swiss-Webster mice.
Neither tricin, quercetin, or genistein caused pathological or morphological changes in any of the murine tissues studied. Tricin (50 microM) failed to cause MLL gene breakage, and it inhibited topoisomerase II only at 500 microM, but not at 10, 50 or 100 microM. Tricin lacked genotoxic properties in the systems studied here.
The results tentatively suggest that tricin may be considered safe enough for clinical development as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology