[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetic agent, have recently been suggested to exert pleiotropic effects beyond glucose lowering. Renal prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy depends on the severity of tubulointerstitial injury induced by massive proteinuria. We thus examined the renoprotective effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on inflammation in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells stimulated with free fatty acid (FFA)-bound albumin. Linagliptin and higher concentrations of sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and alogliptin all inhibited FFA-bound albumin-induced increases in mRNA expression of MCP-1 in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells. Furthermore, linagliptin significantly inhibited tubulointerstitial injury induced by peritoneal injection of FFA-bound albumin, such as inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis, in mice without altering systemic characteristics including body weight, fasting blood glucose, and food intake. These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitors pleiotropically exert a direct renoprotective effect, and may serve as an additional therapeutic strategy to protect proximal tubular cells against proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system activated, across species, by starvation. Although accumulating evidence has shown that mammalian autophagy is involved in pathogenesis of several modern diseases, its physiological role to combat starvation has not been fully clarified. In this study, we analysed starvation-induced gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in mouse strains lacking autophagy in liver, skeletal muscle or kidney. Autophagy-deficiency in any tissue had no effect on gluconeogenesis during starvation. Though skeletal muscle- and kidney-specific autophagy-deficiency did not alter starvation-induced increases in blood ketone levels, liver-specific autophagy-deficiency significantly attenuated this effect. Interestingly, renal as well as hepatic expression of HMG-CoA synthase 2 increased with prolonged starvation. Furthermore, during starvation, mice lacking autophagy both in liver and kidney showed even lower blood ketone levels and physical activity than mice lacking autophagy only in liver. Starvation induced massive lipid droplet formation in extra-adipose tissues including liver and kidney, which was essential for ketogenesis. Moreover, this process was impaired in the autophagy-deficient liver and kidney. These findings demonstrate that hepatic and renal autophagy are essential for starvation-induced lipid droplet formation and subsequent ketogenesis and, ultimately, for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis. Our findings provide novel biological insights into adaptive mechanisms to combat starvation in mammals.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free fatty acid-bound albumin (FFA-albumin)-related oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of proximal tubular cell (PTC) damage and subsequent renal dysfunction in patients with refractory proteinuria. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism has recently been focused on as a novel therapeutic target for several modern diseases, including diabetes. This study was designed to identify a novel molecule in NAD metabolism to protect PTCs from lipotoxicity-related oxidative stress. Among 19 candidate enzymes involved in mammalian NAD metabolism, the mRNA expression level of nicotinamide n-methyltransferase (NNMT) was significantly increased in both the kidneys of FFA-albumin-overloaded mice and cultured PTCs stimulated with palmitate-albumin. Knockdown of NNMT exacerbated palmitate-albumin-induced cell death in cultured PTCs, whereas overexpression of NNMT inhibited it. Intracellular concentration of 1-Methylnicotinamide (1-MNA), a metabolite of NNMT, increased and decreased in cultured NNMT-overexpressing and -knockdown PTCs, respectively. Treatment with 1-MNA inhibited palmitate-albumin-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and cell death in cultured PTCs. Furthermore, oral administration of 1-MNA ameliorated oxidative stress, apoptosis, necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the kidneys of FFA-albumin-overloaded mice. In conclusion, NNMT-derived 1-MNA can reduce lipotoxicity-mediated oxidative stress and cell damage in PTCs. Supplementation of 1-MNA may have potential as a new therapy in patients with refractory proteinuria.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overcoming refractory massive proteinuria remains a clinical and research issue in diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to investigate the pathogenesis of massive proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy, with a special focus on podocyte autophagy, a system of intracellular degradation that maintains cell and organelle homeostasis, using human tissue samples and animal models. Insufficient podocyte autophagy was observed histologically in diabetic patients and rats with massive proteinuria accompanied by podocyte loss, but not in those with no or minimal proteinuria. Podocyte-specific autophagy-deficient mice developed podocyte loss and massive proteinuria in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic model for inducing minimal proteinuria. Interestingly, huge damaged lysosomes were found in the podocytes of diabetic rats with massive proteinuria and HFD-fed podocyte-specific autophagy-deficient mice. Furthermore, stimulation of cultured podocytes with sera from diabetic patients and rats with massive proteinuria impaired autophagy, resulting in lysosome dysfunction and apoptosis. These results suggest that autophagy plays a pivotal role in maintaining lysosome homeostasis in podocytes under diabetic conditions, and that its impairment is involved in the pathogenesis of podocyte loss leading to massive proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategy for advanced diabetic nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case involving a 43-year-old Japanese woman with steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) and severe renal dysfunction, which was ameliorated by low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A). She had been treated with steroid therapy, but had experienced anuria for over 10 weeks and required hemodialysis. She was then treated with LDL-A, which resulted in improved urinary protein excretion and renal function. Her renal function recovered after 97 days of hemodialysis therapy. This case suggests that LDL-A may represent an effective rescue treatment in patients with FSGS and long-term anuria.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The prevalence of treatment resistant hypertension (RH) depends on methods used for blood pressure (BP) measurements, goals of BP, and therapeutic efforts in terms of medication and adherence. We focused on diabetic subjects and explored the prevalence of RH in primary care practice.
In 1737 subjects with type 2 diabetes who continued regular visits, office BP was evaluated by multiple measurements over one year. RH was defined as using more than four antihypertensive drugs or failure to achieve the goal with three antihypertensive drugs from different classes. The RH prevalence was investigated with BP goals <130/80 and 140/90mmHg.
The percentage of subjects who achieved BP goals <130/80 and 140/90 were 70.5% and 93.8% with adherence to medication ≥95%, and the corresponding prevalence rates of RH in treated subjects were 28.4% and 21.8%, respectively. Factors independently associated with RH were age (odds ratio 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.04]), body mass index (1.10 [1.06-1.13]), variability in systolic BP (1.06 [1.02-1.09]), triglycerides (2.86 [1.34-6.11]), macroalbuminuria (3.33 [2.03-5.48]), estimated glomerular filtration rate (0.98 [0.97-0.99]), retinopathy (1.91 [1.39-2.61]), and family history of hypertension (1.85 [1.23-2.21]). Worsening albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate enhanced the prevalence of RH in a graded manner.
Careful estimation of office BP values over one year with a high achievement of BP goals and adequate adherence revealed that the prevalence of RH in type 2 diabetes is high. RH was characterized by accumulation of cardiovascular genetic and environmental risks.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Blood pressure variability (BPV) is considered a novel risk factor for renal and cardiovascular disease. This study assessed whether a short-term BPV was associated with renal or cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design and method: The study population consisted of 254 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 65.4 years). Office blood pressure (BP), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood and morning urine collection, and measurement of waist circumstances were performed in all patients. Family history and smoking habits were also recorded. Estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the SCr-based Japanese eGFR equation. Morning BP surge was defined as the morning BP ((2-hour average of four 30-minute BP readings just after wake-up) minus the prewaking BP (2-hour average of 4 BP readings just before wake-up). Results: Among the study population, 113 (44%) showed normoalbumionuria, 119 (47%) showed microalbuminuria and 22 (9%) showed macroalbuminuria and 169 (67%) were treated with antihypertensive agents (angiotensin receptor blockers/ angiotensin coverting enzyme inhibitors 55%. calcium channel blockers 38%, diuretics 18%, beta-blockers 10%). The coefficient of variation (CV) of 24-hour BP (24BPCV), of daytime BP (DBPCV) and night-time BP (NBPCV) were 15%, 14%, 12% for systolic values and 20%, 20% 14% for diastolic values, respectively. Antihypertensive agents did not significantly affect the CV of BPs. In the multivariate analysis, older age and albuminuria were independently associated with 24SBP. Older age also associated with DSBP and NSBP. Morning BP surge and waist circumstance associated with NSBP, but not 24SBP and DSBP. CV of BPs were not associated with baPWV and eGFR. Conclusions: These data showed that increased SBP variability was closely associated with age in Japanese type 2 diabetes. Elevation of 24SBPCV may indicate higher risk for the progression of diabetic nephropathy. NSBPCV may be a marker for sympathetic over-activity during the night-time. These results indicate that high short-term BP variability may be a marker for renal and/or cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Copyright
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney International aims to inform the renal researcher and practicing nephrologists on all aspects of renal research. Clinical and basic renal research, commentaries, The Renal Consult, Nephrology sans Frontieres, minireviews, reviews, Nephrology Images, Journal Club. Published weekly online and twice a month in print.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important therapeutic object of diabetes care. This study assessed whether an index based on plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles could predict the onset of CVD in diabetic patients. The baseline concentrations of 31 PFAAs were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry in 385 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes registered in 2001 for our prospective observational follow-up study. During 10 years of follow-up, 63 patients developed cardiovascular composite endpoints (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, worsening of heart failure and stroke). Using the PFAA profiles and clinical information, an index (CVD-AI) consisting of six amino acids to predict the onset of any endpoints was retrospectively constructed. CVD-AI levels were significantly higher in patients who did than did not develop CVD. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of CVD-AI (0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.79]) showed equal or slightly better discriminatory capacity than urinary albumin excretion rate (0.69 [95% CI: 0.62-0.77]) on predicting endpoints. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the high level of CVD-AI was identified as an independent risk factor for CVD (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.57-5.19]). This predictive effect of CVD-AI was observed even in patients with normoalbuminuria, as well as those with albuminuria. In conclusion, these results suggest that CVD-AI based on PFAA profiles is useful for identifying diabetic patients at risk for CVD regardless of the degree of albuminuria, or for improving the discriminative capability by combining it with albuminuria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podocyte apoptosis is a potent mechanism of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. More detailed mechanistic insight into podocyte apoptosis is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. An elevated level of serum free fatty acid (FFA), as well as hyperglycemia, is a clinical characteristic in diabetes, although its causal role in podocyte apoptosis remains unclear. This study examined the effect of three types of FFAs, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FFAs, on podocyte apoptosis. Palmitate, a saturated FFA, induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptosis in podocytes. Oleate, a monounsaturated FFA, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated FFA did not induce apoptosis; rather, they antagonized palmitate-induced apoptosis. Palmitate activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), a nutrient-sensing kinase regulating a wide range of cell biology. Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity by rapamycin or siRNA for Raptor, a component of mTORC1, ameliorated palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in podocytes. Activity of mTORC1 is regulated by upstream kinases and Rag/Ragulator-dependent recruitment of mTOR onto lysosomal membranes. Palmitate activated mTORC1 by enhancing recruitment of mTOR onto lysosomal membranes, which was inhibited by co-incubation with oleate or EPA. Inhibition of mTOR translocation onto lysosomes by transfection with dominant-negative forms of Rag ameliorated palmitate-induced apoptosis. This study suggests that saturated and unsaturated FFAs have opposite effects on podocyte apoptosis by regulating mTORC1 activity via its translocation onto lysosomal membranes, and the results provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis in diabetic nephropathy and a novel role of mTORC1 in cell apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionIn Japan, liraglutide was recently approved for patients with type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, there are no markers predicting successful switching from insulin therapy to liraglutide monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. We therefore assessed clinical characteristics predicting successful switching. Materials and Methods
We analyzed 21 patients with type 2 diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rates <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving long-term insulin in Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, Otsu, Shiga, Japan. Their β-cell function was assessed by measuring urinary C-peptide and C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) index, along with glucagon loading and oral glucose tolerance tests. Blood glucose concentration and blood pressure were measured daily before and after switching from insulin to liraglutide, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program) was assessed 12 weeks after switching to liraglutide. ResultsBaseline HbA1c was significantly lower in successfully switched than in unsuccessfully switched patients. CPR index, urinary C-peptide concentration and 6-min post-glucagon increment in CPR (ΔCPR) did not differ significantly in the two groups. ΔCPR 120 min after 75 g oral glucose was significantly higher in successfully than unsuccessfully switched patients. Mean blood glucose concentrations before breakfast, after breakfast, before lunch and after dinner were significantly lower in successfully switched patients. HbA1c did not change significantly in either group. Conclusions
Measurement of oral glucose-stimulated ΔCPR120 min is recommended when considering switching Japanese type 2 diabetes patients with renal impairment from insulin to liraglutide monotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy resulting in end-stage kidney disease is increasing worldwide. In clinical settings, there are limited data regarding the impact of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on renal and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality.
We performed a historical cohort study of 4328 Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes from 10 centers. Risks for renal events (requirement for dialysis or transplantation, or half reduction in eGFR), cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), and all-cause mortality were assessed according to UACR and eGFR levels.
During follow-up (median 7.0 years, interquartile range 3.0-8.0 years), 419 renal events, 605 cardiovascular events and 236 deaths occurred. The UACR levels increased the risk and the adjusted hazard ratios for these three events. In addition to the effects of UACR levels, eGFR stages significantly increased the adjusted hazard ratios for renal events and all-cause mortality, especially in patients with macroalbuminuria. Diabetic nephropathy score, based on the prognostic factors, well predicted incidence rates per 1000 patient/year for each event.
Increased UACR levels were closely related to the increase in risks for renal, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between high levels of UACR and reduced eGFR was a strong predictor for renal events.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction in patients with CKDs, including diabetic nephropathy, but the mechanism underlying this connection remains unclear. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that maintains intracellular homeostasis by removing damaged proteins and organelles, and autophagy insufficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. We therefore examined the role of autophagy in obesity-mediated exacerbation of proteinuria-induced proximal tubular epithelial cell damage in mice and in human renal biopsy specimens. In nonobese mice, overt proteinuria, induced by intraperitoneal free fatty acid-albumin overload, led to mild tubular damage and apoptosis, and activated autophagy in proximal tubules reabsorbing urinary albumin. In contrast, diet-induced obesity suppressed proteinuria-induced autophagy and exacerbated proteinuria-induced tubular cell damage. Proximal tubule-specific autophagy-deficient mice, resulting from an Atg5 gene deletion, subjected to intraperitoneal free fatty acid-albumin overload developed severe proteinuria-induced tubular damage, suggesting that proteinuria-induced autophagy is renoprotective. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a potent suppressor of autophagy, was activated in proximal tubules of obese mice, and treatment with an mTOR inhibitor ameliorated obesity-mediated autophagy insufficiency. Furthermore, both mTOR hyperactivation and autophagy suppression were observed in tubular cells of specimens obtained from obese patients with proteinuria. Thus, in addition to enhancing the understanding of obesity-related cell vulnerability in the kidneys, these results suggest that restoring the renoprotective action of autophagy in proximal tubules may improve renal outcomes in obese patients.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest the existence of a genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic nephropathy. The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), which is well known to have a polymorphism (ε2, ε3, and ε4) in exon 4, has been considered a candidate gene susceptible to this complication, because this variation was reportedly involved in lipid metabolism. To date, numerous case-control studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been reported. Although the ε2 allele of the APOE polymorphism tends to be associated with an increased risk for diabetic nephropathy, the results of these case-control comparisons are conflicting. However, a family-based study (the transmission/disequilibrium test) provided strong evidence that the ε2 allele was preferentially transmitted to patients with diabetic nephropathy but not transmitted to those without it. Several prospective follow-up studies also reported an increased risk for progression to higher stages of diabetic nephropathy for the ε2 carriers. Furthermore, two recent meta-analyses reported that the ε2 allele is associated with a risk for diabetic nephropathy. Based on the results of these studies, the ε2 allele of the APOE polymorphism seems to be a genetic risk factor for diabetic nephropathy susceptibility. However, this genetic effect only accounts for a small proportion of this complication, and the mechanism remains unclear at present. Further studies are needed to explore whether genotyping of the APOE polymorphism in patients with diabetes is of value for better management in clinical practice.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have adverse effects on kidney function, patients with kidney diseases are administered these drugs as transdermal patches. Little is known about the effects of NSAID patches on renal function. We therefore assessed the effects of topical loxoprofen sodium on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy.
Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes and overt proteinuria and with knee and/or low back pain were treated with skin patches containing 100 mg loxoprofen on the knee or back for 24 h per day for 5 consecutive days. The degree of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Blood and 24-h urine samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations.
The 20 patients consisted of 11 males and 9 females, of mean age 61.6 ± 13.9 years. Loxoprofen-containing patches significantly reduced VAS pain without affecting blood pressure, GFR or urinary prostaglandin E2 concentration. Serum concentrations of loxoprofen and its active trans-OH metabolite did not correlate with GFR.
Loxoprofen-containing patches do not affect renal function in type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy over a short-term period. Long-term studies are needed to clarify the safety of loxoprofen-containing patches in patients with chronic kidney diseases.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is a dominant risk factor for end-stage renal disease. We analyzed the mechanism involved in age-related exacerbation of proteinuria-induced proximal tubular cell (PTC) damage by focusing on endoplasmic reticulum-related unfolded protein response (UPR). After equal-degree induction of proteinuria in 24-month-old (aged) and 3-month-old (young) mice by intraperitoneal free fatty acid-bound albumin overload, tubulointerstitial lesions were more severe in aged than in young mice. In aged PTCs, proteinuria-induced cell-adaptive UPR resulting from induction of the molecular chaperone BiP was significantly suppressed, whereas proapoptotic UPR with CHOP overexpression was enhanced. Treatment with the exogenous molecular chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) ameliorated proteinuria-induced tubulointerstitial lesions and PTC apoptosis in aged mice. Among the three UPR branches, alterations in the inositol-requiring 1α (IRE1α) pathway, but not the activating transcription factor 6 or PERK pathway, were associated with impaired BiP induction in aged kidneys. Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of BiP and IRE1α exacerbated free fatty acid-bound albumin-induced apoptosis in cultured PTCs, whereas siRNA-mediated CHOP suppression ameliorated apoptosis. Finally, proteinuria-induced BiP induction in PTCs was altered in kidney specimens from elderly patients. These results indicate that maladaptive UPRs are involved in proteinuria-induced tubulointerstitial lesions exacerbation in aged kidneys, and that supplementation of chaperones may be used to treat elderly patients with persistent proteinuria. These results should improve understanding of cell vulnerability in aged kidneys.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · American Journal Of Pathology