[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have emerged as treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1R signals through G-protein-dependent, and G-protein-independent pathways by engaging the scaffold protein β-arrestin; preferential signalling of ligands through one or the other of these branches is known as 'ligand bias'. Here we report the discovery of the potent and selective GLP-1R G-protein-biased agonist, P5. We identified P5 in a high-throughput autocrine-based screening of large combinatorial peptide libraries, and show that P5 promotes G-protein signalling comparable to GLP-1 and Exendin-4, but exhibited a significantly reduced β-arrestin response. Preclinical studies using different mouse models of T2DM demonstrate that P5 is a weak insulin secretagogue. Nevertheless, chronic treatment of diabetic mice with P5 increased adipogenesis, reduced adipose tissue inflammation as well as hepatic steatosis and was more effective at correcting hyperglycaemia and lowering haemoglobin A1c levels than Exendin-4, suggesting that GLP-1R G-protein-biased agonists may provide a novel therapeutic approach to T2DM.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An attractive, but as yet generally unrealized, approach to cancer therapy concerns discovering agents that change the state of differentiation of the cancer cells. Recently, we discovered a phenomenon that we call "receptor pleiotropism" in which agonist antibodies against known receptors induce cell fates that are very different from those induced by the natural agonist to the same receptor. Here, we show that one can take advantage of this phenomenon to convert acute myeloblastic leukemic cells into natural killer cells. Upon induction with the antibody, these leukemic cells enter into a differentiation cascade in which as many as 80% of the starting leukemic cells can be differentiated. The antibody-induced killer cells make large amounts of perforin, IFN-γ, and granzyme B and attack and kill other members of the leukemic cell population. Importantly, induction of killer cells is confined to transformed cells, in that normal bone marrow cells are not induced to form killer cells. Thus, it seems possible to use agonist antibodies to change the differentiation state of cancer cells into those that attack and kill other members of the malignant clone from which they originate.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, most antibodies from combinatorial libraries have been selected purely on the basis of binding. However, new methods now allow selection on the basis of function in animal cells. These selected agonist antibodies have given new insights into the important problem of signal transduction. Remarkably, when some antibodies bind to a given receptor they induce a cell fate that is different than that induced by the natural agonist to the same receptor. The fact that receptors can be functionally pleiotropic may yield new insights into the important problem of signal transduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity-induced inflammation is initiated by the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue. The recruited macrophages, called adipose tissue macrophages, secrete several proinflammatory cytokines that cause low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to find macrophage-recruiting factors that are thought to provide a crucial connection between obesity and insulin resistance.
We used chemotaxis assay, reverse phase HPLC and tandem MS analysis to find chemotactic factors from adipocytes. The expression of chemokines and macrophage markers was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis.
We report our finding that the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1), identified from 3T3-L1 adipocyte conditioned medium, induces monocyte migration via its receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4). Diet-induced obese mice demonstrated a robust increase of CXCL12 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Treatment of obese mice with a CXCR4 antagonist reduced macrophage accumulation and production of proinflammatory cytokines in WAT, and improved systemic insulin sensitivity.
In this study we found that CXCL12 is an adipocyte-derived chemotactic factor that recruits macrophages, and that it is a required factor for the establishment of obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most important phenotypes in biology is cell death. One way to probe the mechanism(s) of cell death is to select molecules that prevent it and learn how this was accomplished. Here, intracellular combinatorial antibody libraries were used to select antibodies that protected cells from killing by rhinovirus infection. These rare antibodies functioned by inhibiting the virus-encoded protease that is necessary for viral maturation. Snapshots of the selection process after each round could be obtained by deep sequencing the ever-enriching populations. This detailed analysis of the enrichment process allowed an interesting look at a "test tube" selection process that pitted two replicating systems against each other. Thus, initially a minority of cells containing protective antibodies must compete against a majority of unprotected cells that continue to produce large amounts of virus.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Chemistry & biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When combinatorial antibody libraries are rendered infectious for eukaryotic cells, the integrated antibody genotype and cellular phenotype become permanently linked and each cell becomes a selection system unto itself. These systems should be ideal for the identification of proteins and pathways that regulate differentiation so long as selection systems can be devised. Here we use a selection system based on the ability of secreted antibodies to alter the morphology of colonies expressing them when grown in soft agar. Importantly, this approach is different from all previous studies in that it used a pure discovery format where unbiased libraries that were not preselected against any known protein were used as probes. As such, the strategy is analogous to classical forward genetic approaches except that it operates directly at the protein level. This approach led to the identification of integrin-binding agonist antibodies that efficiently converted human stem cells to dendritic cells.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a system for direct selection of antibodies that are receptor agonists. Combinatorial antibody libraries in lentiviruses are used to infect eukaryotic cells that contain a fluorescent reporter system coupled to the receptor for which receptor agonist antibodies are sought. In this embodiment of the method, very large numbers of candidate antibodies expressing lentivirus and eukaryotic reporter cells are packaged together in a format where each is capable of replication, thereby forging a direct link between genotype and phenotype. Following infection, cells that fluoresce are sorted and the integrated genes encoding the agonist antibodies recovered. We validated the system by illustrating its ability to generate rapidly potent antibody agonists that are complete thrombopoietin phenocopies. The system should be generalizable to any pathway where its activation can be linked to production of a selectable phenotype.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · Chemistry & biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Afamin was recently identified as a novel osteoclast-derived coupling factor that can stimulate the in vitro and in vivo migration of preosteoblasts. Aim: In order to understand in more detail the biological roles of afamin in bone metabolism, we investigated its effects on osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption. Methods: Osteoclasts were differentiated from mouse bone marrow cells. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells were considered as osteoclasts, and the resorption area was determined by incubating the cells on dentine discs. The intracellular cAMP level was determined using a direct enzyme immunoassay. Signaling pathways were investigated using western blot and RT-PCR. Recombinant afamin was administered exogenously to bone cell cultures. Results: Afamin stimulated both osteoclastogenesis and in vitro bone resorption. Consistently, the expressions of osteoclast differentiation markers were significantly increased by afamin. Although afamin mainly affected the late-differentiation stages of osteoclastogenesis, the expression levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent signals were not changed. Afamin markedly decreased the levels of intracellular cAMP with reversal by pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), a specific inhibitor of Gi-coupled receptor signaling. In addition, PTX almost completely blocked afamin-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with KN93 and STO609-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and CaMK kinase inhibitors, respectively-significantly prevented decreases in the intracellular cAMP level by afamin while attenuating afamin-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion: Afamin enhances osteoclastogenesis by decreasing intracellular cAMP levels via Gi-coupled receptor and CaMK pathways.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the generation of antibody agonists from intracellular combinatorial libraries that transdifferentiate human stem cells. Antibodies that are agonists for the granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor were selected from intracellular libraries on the basis of their ability to activate signaling pathways in reporter cells. We used a specialized "near neighbor" approach in which the entire antibody library and its target receptor are cointegrated into the plasma membranes of a population of reporter cells. This format favors unusual interactions between receptors and their protein ligands and ensures that the antibody acts in an autocrine manner on the cells that produce it. Unlike the natural granulocyte-colony stimulating factor that activates cells to differentiate along a predetermined pathway, the isolated agonist antibodies transdifferentiated human myeloid lineage CD34+ bone marrow cells into neural progenitors. This transdifferentiation by agonist antibodies is different from more commonly used methods because initiation is agenetic. Antibodies that act at the plasma membrane may have therapeutic potential as agents that transdifferentiate autologous cells.
Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is well known that osteoclastic bone resorption is followed by osteoblastic bone formation, questions remain as to when coupling factors are produced during bone resorption and which stages of bone formation are affected by these factors. To clarify these mechanisms, we established an in vitro system to investigate the coupling phenomenon. We obtained conditioned media (CM) from osteoclasts in the early and late stages of differentiation and from bone resorption stages. The collected CM was used to treat primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and to evaluate its influence on the migration, viability, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblasts. We found that CM from osteoclasts in the early stage of differentiation predominantly stimulated the migration of osteoblastic lineages. By further performing fractional analyses of the CM with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified afamin, which has binding activity with vitamin E, as a possible coupling factor. The CM collected from afamin siRNA-transfected osteoclasts significantly suppressed preosteoblast migration. Afamin activated Akt in preosteoblasts, and pretreatment with Akt inhibitor significantly blocked afamin-stimulated preosteoblast migration. In conclusion, these results indicate that osteoclasts themselves play a central role in the coupling of bone resorption and formation by stimulating preosteoblast migration. In addition, we identified afamin as one of osteoclast-derived chemokines that affect preosteoblasts through the activation of the Akt-signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a strong possibility that skeletal muscle can respond to irregular metabolic states by secreting specific cytokines. Obesity-related chronic inflammation, mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, is believed to be one of the causes of insulin resistance that results in type 2 diabetes. Here, we attempted to identify and characterize the members of the skeletal muscle secretome in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance. To conduct this study, we comparatively analyzed the media levels of proteins released from L6 skeletal muscle cells. We found 28 TNF-α modulated secretory proteins by using separate filtering methods: Gene Ontology, SignalP, and SecretomeP, as well as the normalized Spectral Index for label-free quantification. Ten of these secretory proteins were increased and 18 secretory proteins were decreased by TNF-α treatment. Using microarray analysis of Zuker diabetic rat skeletal muscle combined with bioinformatics and Q-PCR, we found a correlation between TNF-α-mediated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This novel approach combining analysis of the conditioned secretome and transcriptome has identified several previously unknown, TNF-α-dependent secretory proteins, which establish a foothold for research on the different causes of insulin resistance and their relationships with each other.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated a cardiac mitochondrial biogenic response in insulin resistant mice that requires the nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARα. We hypothesized that the PPARα coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis in insulin resistant hearts and that this response was adaptive. Mitochondrial phenotype was assessed in insulin resistant mouse models in wild-type (WT) versus PGC-1α deficient (PGC-1α(-/-)) backgrounds. Both high fat-fed (HFD) WT and 6 week-old Ob/Ob animals exhibited a significant increase in myocardial mitochondrial volume density compared to standard chow fed or WT controls. In contrast, HFD PGC-1α(-/-) and Ob/Ob-PGC-1α(-/-) hearts lacked a mitochondrial biogenic response. PGC-1α gene expression was increased in 6 week-old Ob/Ob animals, followed by a decline in 8 week-old Ob/Ob animals with more severe glucose intolerance. Mitochondrial respiratory function was increased in 6 week-old Ob/Ob animals, but not in Ob/Ob-PGC-1α(-/-) mice and not in 8 week-old Ob/Ob animals, suggesting a loss of the early adaptive response, consistent with the loss of PGC-1α upregulation. Animals that were deficient for PGC-1α and heterozygous for the related coactivator PGC-1β (PGC-1α(-/-)β(+/-)) were bred to the Ob/Ob mice. Ob/Ob-PGC-1α(-/-)β(+/-) hearts exhibited dramatically reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Finally, the mitochondrial biogenic response was triggered in H9C2 myotubes by exposure to oleate, an effect that was blunted with shRNA-mediated PGC-1 "knockdown". We conclude that PGC-1 signaling is important for the adaptive cardiac mitochondrial biogenic response that occurs during the early stages of insulin resistance. This response occurs in a cell autonomous manner and likely involves exposure to high levels of free fatty acids.
Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous fungal metabolite with nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, and apoptotic potential. Although the toxic effects of OTA in various cell types are well characterized, it is not known whether OTA has an effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that OTA inhibits adipogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by decreased accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. Further, OTA significantly reduces expression of adipocyte-specific markers, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2). At the molecular level, OTA phosphorylates PPAR-γ2 through extracellular signal-related kinase activation and inhibits PPAR-γ activity. We also found that treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, PD98059, significantly blocked the OTA-induced inhibition of adipogenesis. These results indicate that OTA suppresses adipogenesis in an extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest a novel effect of OTA on adipocyte differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the possibility that OTA might affect the differentiation of other types of stem cells.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that not only affects the immune system, but also plays an active role in many physiological events in various organs. Notably, 35% of systemic IL6 originates from adipose tissues under noninflammatory conditions. Here, we describe a previously unknown function of melanocortins in regulating Il6 gene expression and production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through membrane receptors which are called melanocortin receptors (MCRs). Of the five MCRs that have been cloned, MC2R and MC5R are expressed during adipocyte differentiation. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) or ACTH treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces Il6 gene expression and production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via various signaling pathways including the protein kinase A, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, cJun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase pathways. Specific inhibition of MC2R and MC5R expression with short interfering Mc2r and Mc5r RNAs significantly attenuated the alpha-MSH-induced increase of intracellular cAMP and both the level of Il6 mRNA and secretion of IL6 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, when injected into mouse tail vein, alpha-MSH dramatically increased the Il6 transcript levels in epididymal fat pads. These results suggest that alpha-MSH in addition to ACTH may function as a regulator of inflammation by regulating cytokine production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipocytes are well known to release regulation factors associated with metabolic disorders. In particular, increased oxidative stress in adipocytes contributes to dysregulation of adipokine production. In this study, we applied relative quantitative proteomic analysis based on label-free multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to discover biological changes of adipokines under oxidative stress. Among a total of 194 identified proteins, 8 proteins were selected and quantified between control and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-treated groups by label-free MRM quantification. The secretion levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, CXCL12), resistin, and complement factor D (CFD, adipsin) decreased, whereas the secretion levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and aldolase A increased. Here we suggest that our study with label-free quantitative analysis will contribute to the efficient quantitative analysis of targeted proteins in complex mixtures and specifically to a better understanding of changes of adipokines under oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Analytical Biochemistry