[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is expressed in pancreatic islets and intestine, and is involved in insulin and incretin hormone release. GPR119-knockout (Gpr119(-/-)) mice were reported to have normal islet morphology and normal size, body weight (BW), and fed/fasted glucose levels. However, the physiological function of GPR119 and its role in maintaining glucose homeostasis under metabolic stress remain unknown. Here, we report the phenotypes of an independently generated line of Gpr119(-/-) mice under basal and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Under low-fat diet feeding, Gpr119(-/-) mice show normal plasma glucose and lipids, but have lower BWs and lower post-prandial levels of active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release is attenuated in Gpr119(-/-) mice, suggesting that GPR119 plays a role in physiological regulation of GLP-1 secretion. Under HFD-feeding, both Gpr119(+)(/)(+) and Gpr119(-/-) mice gain weight similarly, develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, but not hyperglycemia or dyslipidemia. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests did not reveal a genotypic difference. These data show that GPR119 is not essential for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Moreover, we found that oleoylethanolamide (OEA), reported as a ligand for GPR119, was able to suppress food intake in both Gpr119(+)(/)(+) and Gpr119(-/-) mice, indicating that GPR119 is not required for the hypophagic effect of OEA. Our results demonstrate that GPR119 is important for incretin and insulin secretion, but not for appetite suppression.
Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice lacking GPR103A expression display osteopenia. Analysis of mouse quantitative trait loci literature associated with bone mineral density suggested GPR103A ligand P518/Qrfp (chromosome 2qB) as a candidate osteoporosis gene. Promoter and coding regions of mouse P518/Qrfp were sequenced from genomic DNA obtained from the osteoporosis-prone strain SAMP6 and control strains SAMR1, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in only SAMP6 genomic DNA, g.-1773 T-->C, g.110 A-->G (N37S), g.188 G-->A (R63K), and g.135 T-->C (H45H). The promoter SNP generated a novel neuron-restrictive silencing factor binding site, a repressor that decreases gene expression in nonneuronal tissues. TaqMan analysis demonstrated fivefold lower P518/Qrfp liver expression in SAMP6 versus SAMR1 or C57BL/6J control strains. Tissue distribution of human, mouse, and rat P518/Qrfp and its receptors showed expression in bone and spinal cord. A direct role for P518/Qrfp function in maintaining bone mineral density is suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Gpbar1 [G-protein-coupled BA (bile acid) receptor 1] is a recently identified cell-surface receptor that can bind and is activated by BAs, but its physiological role is unclear. Using targeted deletion of the Gpbar1 gene in mice, we show that the gene plays a critical role in the maintenance of bile lipid homoeostasis. Mice lacking Gpbar1 expression were viable, developed normally and did not show significant difference in the levels of cholesterol, BAs or any other bile constituents. However, they did not form cholesterol gallstones when fed a cholic acid-containing high-fat diet, and liver-specific gene expression indicated that Gpbar1-deficient mice have altered feedback regulation of BA synthesis. These results suggest that Gpbar1 plays a critical role in the formation of gallstones, possibly via a regulatory mechanism involving the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase pathway.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KCNN4 potassium-ion channel has been reported to play an important role in regulating antigen-induced T cell effector functions in vitro. This study presents the first evidence that a selective KCNN4 blocker, TRAM-34, confers protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the mouse model. Treatment with the KCNN4 blocker did not prevent infiltration of T cells in the spinal cord, but resulted in the reduction of both the protein and the message levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ as well as the message levels of several other pro-inflammatory molecules in the spinal cord. Plasma concentrations of TRAM-34 within a 24-h period were between the in vitro IC50 and IC90 values for the KCNN4 channel. The effect of TRAM-34 was reversible, as indicated by the development of clinical EAE symptoms within 48 h after withdrawal of treatment. In summary, our data support the idea that KCNN4 channels play a critical role in the immune response during the development of MOG-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice.
See accompanying Commentary: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200526078
No preview · Article · May 2005 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work has shown that neuromedin U (NmU), a peptide initially identified as a smooth muscle contractor, may play a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. To further evaluate this putative function, we measured food intake, body weight, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpress murine proNmU. NmU transgenic mice were lighter and had less somatic and liver fat, were hypophagic, and had improved insulin sensitivity as judged by an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Transgenic mice had higher levels of hypothalamic NPY, POMC and MCH mRNA. There was no difference in O2 consumption between genotypes; however, NmU transgenic mice displayed a modest increase in respiratory quotient during food deprivation and refeeding. There were no behavioral disturbances in the NmU transgenic mice that could account for the results (e.g. changes in locomotor activity). When placed on a high-fat diet, transgenic mice remained lighter than wild-type mice and ate less, but gained weight at a rate similar to wild-type mice. Despite the increased weight gain with high-fat feeding, glucose tolerance was significantly improved in the transgenic mice. These findings support the hypothesized role of NmU as an endogenous anorexigenic peptide.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary cholesterol consumption and intestinal cholesterol absorption contribute to plasma cholesterol levels, a risk factor
for coronary heart disease. The molecular mechanism of sterol uptake from the lumen of the small intestine is poorly defined.
We show that Niemann-Pick C1Like 1(NPC1L1) protein plays a critical role in the absorption of intestinal cholesterol. NPC1L1
expression is enriched in the small intestine and is in the brush border membrane of enterocytes. Although otherwise phenotypically
normal, NPC1L1-deficient mice exhibit a substantial reduction in absorbed cholesterol, which is unaffected by dietary supplementation
of bile acids. Ezetimibe, a drug that inhibits cholesterol absorption, had no effect in NPC1L1 knockout mice, suggesting that
NPC1L1 resides in an ezetimibe-sensitive pathway responsible for intestinal cholesterol absorption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GPR54 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that displays a high percentage of identity in the transmembrane domains with the galanin receptors. The ligand for GPR54 has been identified as a peptide derived from the KiSS-1 gene. KiSS-1 has been shown to have anti-metastatic effects, suggesting that KiSS-1 or its receptor represents a potential therapeutic target. To further our understanding of the physiological function of this receptor, we have generated a mutant mouse line with a targeted disruption of the GPR54 receptor (GPR54 -/-). The analysis of the GPR54 mutant mice revealed developmental abnormalities of both male and female genitalia and histopathological changes in tissues which normally contain sexually dimorphic features. These data suggest a role for GPR54/KiSS-1 in normal sexual development, and indicate that study of the GPR54 mutant mice may provide valuable insights into human reproductive syndromes.
No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications