[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated IgE levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between pre-diagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20 to 100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ≥0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-NHL and B-NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM (high level: OR=0.40 [95%CI=0.21-0.79]) and B-NHL (intermediate level: OR=0.68 [95%CI=0.53-0.88]; high level: OR=0.62 [95%CI=0.44-0.86]), largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (intermediate level: OR=0.49 [95%CI=0.30-0.80]; high level: OR=0.13 [95%CI=0.05-0.35]) risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared to matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between vitamin D status and lymphoma risk is inconclusive.
We examined the association between prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and lymphoid cancer risk.
We conducted a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of 1127 lymphoma cases and 1127 matched controls with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 y. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted incidence rate ratios of lymphoma risk in relation to plasma 25(OH)D. Season-standardized and season-specific 25(OH)D quartiles were used. We also analyzed 25(OH)D as a continuous variable and used predefined cutoffs.
No statistically significant association between plasma 25(OH)D and overall lymphoid cancer risk was observed. A positive association for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was noted only in those with a diagnosis made during the first 2 y of follow-up (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), which suggests the possibility of reverse causality. Further analysis restricted to participants with ≥2 y of follow-up time showed a significant association between 25(OH)D and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n = 161): adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.90; P-trend = 0.05) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.76; P-trend = 0.03) for the top compared with bottom season-standardized and season-specific quartiles, respectively. Data on dietary vitamin D intake provided further support for the observed association (incidence rate ratio: 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.89; P-trend = 0.006).
Our findings do not support a protective role of high 25(OH)D concentration in lymphoid cancers overall. However, they suggest that higher concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with a reduced risk of CLL.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A "Western" lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992-2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled "insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome," "steroids," and "inflammation" factors. A fourth component, "lipids," was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · American journal of epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, long-standing diabetes, high body fatness, and chronic pancreatitis, all of which can be characterised by aspects of inflammatory processes. However, prospective studies investigating the relation between inflammatory markers and pancreatic cancer risk are scarce.
We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, measuring prediagnostic blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble receptors of tumour necrosis factor-α (sTNF-R1, R2) in 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 455 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models.
None of the inflammatory markers were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer overall, although a borderline significant association was observed for higher circulating sTNF-R2 (crude OR=1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.39), highest vs lowest quartile). In women, however, higher sTNF-R1 levels were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (crude OR=1.97 (95% CI 1.02-3.79)). For sTNF-R2, risk associations seemed to be stronger for diabetic individuals and those with a higher BMI.
Prospectively, CRP and IL-6 do not seem to have a role in our study with respect to risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas sTNF-R1 seemed to be a risk factor in women and sTNF-R2 might be a mediator in the risk relationship between overweight and diabetes with pancreatic cancer. Further large prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines in the pathogenesis of exocrine pancreatic cancer.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lignans are a group of estrogenic compounds present in plants. Several epidemiological studies proposed that lignans may protect against breast cancer by exerting anticarcinogenic activity. Levels of enterolactone were determined in serum samples of 1,250 cases and 2,164 controls from a large population-based case-control study. We assessed the association between serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk using conditional logistic regression accounting for potential risk and confounding factors. Fractional polynomials were used to determine the function that best fitted the data. Moreover, we assessed heterogeneity by estrogen/progesterone/herceptin (ER/PR/HER2) status of the tumor. Additionally, a meta-analysis with seven further studies addressing enterolactone concentrations and breast cancer risk was performed. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk decreased with increasing serum enterolactone levels [highest compared to lowest quintile: [odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.83, p(trend) = < 0.0001]. A significant inverse association for ER+/PR+ as well as ER-/PR- tumors was observed, with a significantly stronger association for ER-/PR- tumors (p(heterogeneity) = 0.03). The association for ER-/PR- tumors did not differ by expression of HER2 (p(heterogeneity) = 0.3). The meta-analysis yielded a significant reduced pooled risk estimate of: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55-0.77) comparing the highest to the lowest quantiles of enterolactone levels. We found strong evidence for a significant inverse association between serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, which was stronger for ER-PR- than for ER+PR+ tumors but not differential by further expression of HER2. The overall evidence together with other studies supports an inverse association between higher serum enterolactone levels and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables.
Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75-1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66-1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75-1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05-2.83; P-interaction=0.154).
On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a woman's body fat distribution shows a BMI-independent association with these breast cancer-related biomarkers. Performing cross-sectional analyses among 1,180 postmenopausal women, we assessed whether associations of surrogates for an abdominal (waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and gluteofemoral (hip circumference) fat distribution with estrone, total and free estradiol, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, and SHBG changed after adjustment for, or stratification by, BMI. All anthropometric measures were positively associated with estrogens and free testosterone, and negatively with SHBG. After adjustment for BMI, associations of free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG with both waist circumference and WHR remained significant, but all initially significant associations with hip circumference were abolished. In stratified analyses, waist circumference and WHR correlated with free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG in women with a BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but not in women with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). The latter suggests that in obese women, a possibly unique effect of abdominal fat on these biomarkers may be masked by the already large amount of overall body fat. On the whole, our results indicate that waist circumference and WHR, but not hip circumference, are associated with SHBG and SHBG-related sex hormones (free estradiol and free testosterone) independently of BMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been long-standing debate about whether diabetes is a causal risk factor for pancreatic cancer or a consequence of tumour development. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown variable relationships between pancreatic cancer risk and blood markers of glucose and insulin metabolism, overall and as a function of lag times between marker measurements (blood donation) and date of tumour diagnosis.
Pre-diagnostic levels of HbA(1c) and C-peptide were measured for 466 participants with pancreatic cancer and 466 individually matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs for pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer risk gradually increased with increasing pre-diagnostic HbA(1c) levels up to an OR of 2.42 (95% CI 1.33, 4.39 highest [≥ 6.5%, 48 mmol/mol] vs lowest [≤ 5.4%, 36 mmol/mol] category), even for individuals with HbA(1c) levels within the non-diabetic range. C-peptide levels showed no significant relationship with pancreatic cancer risk, irrespective of fasting status. Analyses showed no clear trends towards increasing hyperglycaemia (as marked by HbA(1c) levels) or reduced pancreatic beta cell responsiveness (as marked by C-peptide levels) with decreasing time intervals from blood donation to cancer diagnosis.
Our data on HbA(1c) show that individuals who develop exocrine pancreatic cancer tend to have moderate increases in HbA(1c) levels, relatively independently of obesity and insulin resistance-the classic and major risk factors for type 2 diabetes. While there is no strong difference by lag time, more data are needed on this in order to reach a firm conclusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lignans--plant-derived compounds with estrogen-dependent and -independent anticarcinogenic properties--have been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but data are limited regarding their effect on survival. Dietary lignans are metabolized to enterolignans, which are subsequently absorbed and become bioavailable.
We assessed the prognosis of 1,140 postmenopausal patients with breast cancer age 50 to 74 years who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Vital status through the end of 2009 was ascertained via local population registries, and deaths were verified by death certificates. Information on recurrences and secondary tumors was verified by clinical records and attending physicians. Associations of postdiagnostic serum enterolactone (a biomarker for dietary lignans) with overall survival and distant disease-free survival were assessed by using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age at diagnosis and adjusted for prognostic factors.
Median enterolactone levels for deceased patients and those still alive were 17.0 and 21.4 nmol/L, respectively. During a median of 6.1 years of follow-up after diagnosis, 162 deaths were confirmed. Higher serum enterolactone levels were associated with significantly reduced hazard ratios (HRs) for death (HR per 10 nmol/L increment, 0.94; P = .04; HR for the highest quartile, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.99). For distant disease, HR was 0.94 per 10 nmol/L increment (P = .08) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.35 to 1.09) for the highest quartile. The highest quartile of serum enterolactone was associated with a significantly reduced risk of death only for estrogen receptor-negative tumors (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.87) but not for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.84: P for heterogeneity = .09).
Postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who have high serum enterolactone levels may have better survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) is important in normal brain development but in the adult brain, IGF-I overexpression may be a risk factor for tumor development.
We examined the association between circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in relation to risk of gliomas (74 low-grade, 206 high-grade gliomas), meningiomas (n = 174) and acoustic neuromas (n = 49) by using a case-control design nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured by ELISAs.Conditional logistic regression was used to compute ORs and corresponding 95% CIs.
The risk of low-grade gliomas was elevated with increased IGF-I (OR = 3.60, 95% CI: 1.11-11.7; top vs. bottom quartile) and decreased with elevated IGFBP-3 concentrations (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.84) after mutual adjustment of these two factors; these results became nonsignificant after exclusion of the first year of follow-up. No association was observed for high-grade gliomas or meningiomas. Both high IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with risk of acoustic neuromas (IGF-I: OR = 6.63, 95% CI: 2.27-19.4, top vs. bottom tertile; IGFBP-3: OR = 7.07, 95% CI: 2.32-21.6), even after excluding the first year of follow-up.
High concentrations of IGF-I might be positively associated with risk of low-grade gliomas and acoustic neuromas, although we cannot exclude reverse causation, in particular for low-grade gliomas.
Factors of the IGF axis might be involved in the etiology of some types of brain tumors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of hormone receptor [estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)] defined breast cancer. In a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in prediagnostic serum samples from postmenopausal women not using hormone replacement therapy at blood donation. A total of 554 women who developed invasive breast cancer with information on receptor status were matched with 821 control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models estimated breast cancer risk with hormone concentrations according to hormone receptor status of the tumor. Sex steroid hormones were associated with risks of not only ER+PR+ breast cancer [estradiol OR for highest vs. lowest tertile = 2.91 (95% CI: 1.62-5.23), P(trend) = 0.002; testosterone OR = 2.27 (95% CI: 1.35-3.81), P(trend) = 0.002] but also of ER-PR- breast cancer [estradiol OR = 2.11 (95% CI: 1.00-4.46), P(trend) = 0.05; testosterone OR = 2.06 (95% CI: 0.95-4.46), P(trend) = 0.03], with associations appearing somewhat stronger in the receptor-positive disease. Serum androgens and estrogens are associated with risks of both hormone receptor-negative as well as receptor-positive breast tumors. Further research is needed to establish through which molecular pathways, and during which evolutionary stages of development, androgens and estrogens can promote the occurrence of both receptor-positive and -negative clinical breast tumors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Cancer Prevention Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case-control studies suggest that patients with allergic diseases have a lower risk of developing glioma but not meningioma or schwannoma. However, those data can be differentially biased. Prospective studies with objective measurements of immunologic biomarkers, like immunoglobulin E (IgE), in blood obtained before cancer diagnosis could help to clarify whether an aetiological association exists.
The present case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) measured specific serum IgE as a biomarker for the most common inhalant allergens in 275 glioma, 175 meningioma and 49 schwannoma cases and 963 matched controls using the ImmunoCAP specific IgE test. Subjects with an IgE level ≥0.35 kUA/l (kilo antibody units per litre) were classified as sensitized by allergens. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by adjusted conditional logistic regression models for each tumour subtype. The effect of dose-response relationship was assessed in five increasing IgE level categories to estimate P-values for trend.
The risk of glioma was inversely related to allergic sensitization (OR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.51-1.06), especially pronounced in women (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.30-0.95). In dose-response analyses, for high-grade glioma, the lowest OR was observed in sera with the highest IgE levels (P for trend = 0.04). No association was seen for meningioma and schwannoma.
The results, based on serum samples prospectively collected in a cohort study, provide some support for the hypothesis that individuals with allergic sensitization are at reduced risk of glioma and confirm results from previous case-control studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors of pancreatic cancer, are characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions, adiponectin has an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, i.e., decreasing circulating blood glucose levels. Prospectively, hyperglycemia has been associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of pre-diagnostic adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Blood samples of 452 pancreatic cancer cases and 452 individually matched controls were analyzed by immunoassays. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, adiponectin showed no association with pancreas cancer risk; however, among never smokers, higher circulating levels of adiponectin were associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23-0.82] for highest vs. lowest quartile), whereas among current smokers there was no significant association (OR = 1.59 [95% CI 0.67-3.76] for highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = 0.530; p-interaction = 0.309). In our study, lower adiponectin concentrations may be associated with the development of pancreatic cancer among never smokers, whereas the only other prospective study being conducted so far showed a decrease in risk among male smokers. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the role of adiponectin in pancreatic cancer development.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in endometrial cancer development. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines, has also been implicated in endometrial physiology. We conducted a case-control study nested within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) to examine the association of TNF-α and its two soluble receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) with endometrial cancer risk. Two-hundred-seventy cases and 518 matched controls were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. We observed an increased risk of endometrial cancer among women in the highest versus lowest quartile of TNF-α (odds ratio [OR]: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.09-2.73, P(trend) = 0.01), sTNFR1 (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 0.99-2.86, P(trend) = 0.07) and sTNFR2 (OR: 1.53, 95%CI: 0.92-2.55, P(trend) = 0.03) after adjustment for body-mass-index, parity, age at menopause and previous postmenopausal hormone therapy use. Further adjustments for estrogens and C-peptide had minor effect on risk estimates. Our data show that elevated prediagnostic concentrations of TNF-α and its soluble receptors are related to a higher risk of endometrial cancer, particularly strong in women diagnosed within 2 years of blood donation. This is the first study of its kind and therefore deserves replication in further prospective studies.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP (odds ratio (OR) for top versus bottom quartile: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.41, P(trend)=0.02), IL6 (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08-2.54, P(trend)=0.008), and IL1Ra (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.22-2.73, P(trend)=0.004). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the estimates were strongly reduced and became non-significant. The association between BMI and endometrial cancer was also substantially attenuated (∼10-20%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers, even when the effects of C-peptide or estrone had already been taken into account. We provided epidemiological evidence that chronic inflammation might mediate the association between obesity and endometrial cancer and that endometrial carcinogenesis could be promoted by an inflammatory milieu.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate associations between physical activity and endogenous sex hormones after menopause with a special focus on confounding and effect modification by body mass index (BMI).
A cross-sectional study among 1,260 postmenopausal women was conducted. Generalized linear models were used to compare levels of total leisure-time physical activity, sports activities, bicycling, and walking with levels of sex hormones and sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG).
Higher sports activity levels were significantly associated with lower levels of estrone and total and free testosterone in multivariate adjusted models. After additional adjustment for BMI, associations with estrone and free testosterone were attenuated; the association with total testosterone remained unchanged. No physical activity variable was significantly related to total and free estradiol, androstenedione, or SHBG. We did not observe effect modification by BMI.
Sports activities may lead to lower levels of estrone and testosterone in postmenopausal women. While effects on estrone and free testosterone seem to be largely mediated by BMI, effects on total testosterone appear to be mainly independent of BMI. The BMI-independent effects on these hormones (especially on total testosterone) could at least partly explain why physical activity has been frequently reported to be preventive for postmenopausal breast cancer, even after accounting for BMI.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Cancer Causes and Control