Francisco Bolívar

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico

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Publications (172)583.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As a metabolic engineering tool, an adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiment was performed to increase the specific growth rate (µ) in an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS, originally engineered to increase the availability of intracellular phosphoenolpyruvate and redirect to the aromatic biosynthesis pathway. As result, several evolved strains increased their growth fitness on glucose as the only carbon source. Two of these clones isolated at 120 and 200 h during the experiment, increased their μ by 338 and 373 %, respectively, compared to the predecessor PB11 strain. The genome sequence and analysis of the genetic changes of these two strains (PB12 and PB13) allowed for the identification of a novel strategy to enhance carbon utilization to overcome the absence of the major glucose transport system. Genome sequencing data of evolved strains revealed the deletion of chromosomal region of 10,328 pb and two punctual non-synonymous mutations in the dhaM and glpT genes, which occurred prior to their divergence during the early stages of the evolutionary process. Deleted genes related to increased fitness in the evolved strains are rppH, aas, lplT and galR. Furthermore, the loss of mutH, which was also lost during the deletion event, caused a 200-fold increase in the mutation rate. During the ALE experiment, both PB12 and PB13 strains lost the galR and rppH genes, allowing the utilization of an alternative glucose transport system and allowed enhanced mRNA half-life of many genes involved in the glycolytic pathway resulting in an increment in the μ of these derivatives. Finally, we demonstrated the deletion of the aas-lplT operon, which codes for the main components of the phosphatidylethanolamine turnover metabolism increased the further fitness and glucose uptake in these evolved strains by stimulating the phospholipid degradation pathway. This is an alternative mechanism to its regeneration from 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine, whose utilization improved carbon metabolism likely by the elimination of a futile cycle under certain metabolic conditions. The origin and widespread occurrence of a mutated population during the ALE indicates a strong stress condition present in strains lacking PTS and the plasticity of this bacterium that allows it to overcome hostile conditions.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF), an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp.), yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content). The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several “intuitive” metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc), in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement for the production of this valuable aromatic intermediate.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: A two-compartment scale-down system was used to mimic pH heterogeneities that can occur in large-scale bioreactors. The system consisted of two interconnected stirred tank reactors (STRs) where one of them represented the conditions of the bulk of the fluid and the second one the zone of alkali addition for pH control. The working volumes ratio of the STRs was set to 20:1 in order to simulate the relative sizes of the bulk and alkali addition zones, respectively, in large-scale bioreactors. Residence times (tR ) in the alkali addition STR of 60, 120, 180, and 240 s were simulated during batch cultures of an engineered Escherichia coli strain that produced plasmid DNA (pDNA). pH gradients of up to 0.9 units, between the two compartments, were attained. The kinetic, stoichiometric, and pDNA topological changes due to the pH gradients were studied and compared to cultures at constant pH of 7.2 and 8.0. As the tR increased, the pDNA and biomass yields, as well as pDNA final titer decreased, whereas the accumulation of organic acids increased. Furthermore, the transcriptional response of 10 selected genes to alkaline stress (pH 8.0) and pH gradients was monitored at different stages of the cultures. The selected genes coded for ion transporters, amino acids catabolism enzymes, and transcriptional regulators. The transcriptional response of genes coding for amino acids catabolism, in terms of relative transcription level and stage of maximal expression, was different when the alkaline stress was constant or transient. This suggests the activation of different mechanisms by E. coli to cope with pH fluctuations compared to constant alkaline pH. Moreover, the transcriptional response of genes related to negative control of DNA synthesis did not correlate with the lower pDNA yields. This is the first study that reports the effects of pH gradients on pDNA production by E. coli cultures. The information presented can be useful for the design of better bioreactor scale-up strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory and industrial cultures of Escherichia coli employ media containing glucose which is mainly transported and phosphorylated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS). In these strains, 50% of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which results from the catabolism of transported glucose, is used as a phosphate donor for its phosphorylation and translocation by the PTS. This characteristic of the PTS limits the production of industrial biocommodities that have PEP as a precursor. Furthermore, when E. coli is exposed to carbohydrate mixtures, the PTS prevents expression of catabolic and non-PTS transport genes by carbon catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. In this contribution, we discuss the main strategies developed to overcome these potentially limiting effects in production strains. These strategies include adaptive laboratory evolution selection of PTS(-) Glc(+) mutants, followed by the generation of strains that recover their ability to grow with glucose as a carbon source while allowing the simultaneous consumption of more than one carbon source. We discuss the benefits of using alternative glucose transport systems and describe the application of these strategies to E. coli strains with specific genetic modifications in target pathways. These efforts have resulted in significant improvements in the production of diverse biocommodities, including aromatic metabolites, biofuels and organic acids. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aromatic compounds cinnamic acid (CA) and p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA) are used as flavoring agents as well as precursors of chemicals. These compounds are present in plants at low concentrations, therefore, complex purification processes are usually required to extract the product. An alternative production method for these aromatic acids is based on the use of microbial strains modified by metabolic engineering. These biotechnological processes are usually based on the use of simple sugars like glucose as a raw material. However, sustainable production processes should preferably be based on the use of waste material such as lignocellulosic hydrolysates.ResultsIn this study, E. coli strains with active (W3110) and inactive phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) (VH33) were engineered for CA and pHCA production by transforming them with plasmids expressing genes encoding phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PAL/TAL) enzymes from Rhodotorula glutinis or Arabidopsis thaliana as well as genes aroG fbr and tktA, encoding a feedback inhibition resistant version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase and transketolase, respectively. The generated strains were evaluated in cultures with glucose, xylose or arabinose, as well as a simulated lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of these three sugars plus acetate. Production of CA was detected in strains expressing PAL/TAL from A. thaliana, whereas both CA and pHCA accumulated in strains expressing the enzyme from R. glutinis. These experiments identified arabinose and W3110 expressing PAL/TAL from A. thaliana, aroG fbr and tktA as the carbon source/strain combination resulting in the best CA specific productivity and titer. To improve pHCA production, a mutant with inactive pheA gene was generated, causing an 8-fold increase in the yield of this aromatic acid from the sugars in a simulated hydrolysate.Conclusions In this study the quantitative contribution of active or inactive PTS as well as expression of PAL/TAL from R. glutinis or A. thaliana were determined for production performance of CA and pHCA when growing on carbon sources derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. These data will be a useful resource in efforts towards the development of sustainable technologies for the production of aromatic acids.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: The production of aromatic amino acids using fermentation processes with recombinant microorganisms can be an advantageous approach to reach their global demands. In addition, a large array of compounds with alimentary and pharmaceutical applications can potentially be synthesized from intermediates of this metabolic pathway. However, contrary to other amino acids and primary metabolites, the artificial channelling of building blocks from central metabolism towards the aromatic amino acid pathway is complicated to achieve in an efficient manner. The length and complex regulation of this pathway have progressively called for the employment of more integral approaches, promoting the merge of complementary tools and techniques in order to surpass metabolic and regulatory bottlenecks. As a result, relevant insights on the subject have been obtained during the last years, especially with genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli. By combining metabolic engineering strategies with developments in synthetic biology, systems biology and bioprocess engineering, notable advances were achieved regarding the generation, characterization and optimization of E. coli strains for the overproduction of aromatic amino acids, some of their precursors and related compounds. In this paper we review and compare recent successful reports dealing with the modification of metabolic traits to attain these objectives.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 was isolated from the traditional Mexican pulque beverage. We report its draft genome sequence, assembled in 6 contigs consisting of 1,874,188 bp and no plasmids. Genome annotation predicted a total of 1,800 genes, 1,687 coding sequences, 52 pseudogenes, 9 rRNAs, 51 tRNAs, 1 noncoding RNA, and 44 frameshifted genes.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Genome Announcements
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    ABSTRACT: We report the screening and characterization of EPS produced by LAB identified as Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from pulque, a traditional Mexican fermented, non-distilled alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap extracted from several (Agave) maguey species. EPS-producing LAB constitutes an abundant bacterial group relative to total LAB present in sap and during fermentation, however, only two EPS-producing colony phenotypes (EPSA and EPSB, respectively) were detected and isolated concluding that despite the high number of polymer-producing LAB their phenotypic diversity is low. Scanning electron microcopy analysis during EPS-producing conditions revealed that both types of EPS form a uniform porous structure surrounding the bacterial cells. The structural characterization of the soluble and cell-associated EPS fractions of each polymer by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, as by 1D- and 2D-NMR, showed that polymers produced by the soluble and cell-associated fractions of EPSA strain are dextrans consisting of a linear backbone of linked α-(1→6) Glcp in the main chain with α-(1→2) and α-(1→3)-linked branches. The polymer produced by the soluble fraction of EPSB strain was identified as a class 1 dextran with a linear backbone containing consecutive α-(1→6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with few α-(1→3)-linked branches, whereas the cell-associated EPS is a polymer mixture consisting of a levan composed of linear chains of (2→6)-linked β-D-fructofuranosyl residues with β-(2→6) connections, and a class 1 dextran. According to our knowledge this is the first report of dextrans and a levan including their structural characterization produced by L. kimchii isolated from a traditional fermented source. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-583) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · SpringerPlus
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aromatic compound catechol is used as a precursor of chemical products having multiple applications. This compound is currently manufactured by chemical synthesis from petroleum-derived raw materials. The capacity to produce catechol is naturally present in several microbial species. This knowledge has been applied to the generation of recombinant Escherichia coli strains that can produce catechol from simple carbon sources.ResultsSeveral strains derived from E. coli W3110 trpD9923, a mutant that overproduces anthranilate, were modified by transforming them with an expression plasmid carrying genes encoding anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The additional expression of genes encoding a feedback inhibition resistant version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase and transketolase from E. coli, was also evaluated. Generated strains were characterized in complex or minimal medium in shake-flask and fed-batch bioreactor cultures and incubation temperatures ranging from 37 to 28°C. These experiments enabled the identification of culture conditions for the production of 4.47 g/L of catechol with strain W3110 trpD9923, expressing 1,2-dioxygenase, DAHP synthase and transketolase. When considering the amount of glucose consumed, a yield of 16% was calculated, corresponding to 42% of the theoretical maximum as determined by elementary node flux analysisConclusions This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying metabolic engineering for generating E. coli strains for the production of catechol from glucose via anthranilate. These results are a starting point to further optimize environmentally-compatible production capacity for catechol and derived compounds.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: The production of aromatic amino acids using fermentation processes with recombinant microorganisms can be an advantageous approach to reach their global demands. In addition, a large array of compounds with alimentary and pharmaceutical applications can potentially be synthesized from intermediates of this metabolic pathway. However, contrary to other amino acids and primary metabolites, the artificial channelling of building blocks from central metabolism towards the aromatic amino acid pathway is complicated to achieve in an efficient manner. The length and complex regulation of this pathway have progressively called for the employment of more integral approaches, promoting the merge of complementary tools and techniques in order to surpass metabolic and regulatory bottlenecks. As a result, relevant insights on the subject have been obtained during the last years, especially with genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli. By combining metabolic engineering strategies with developments in synthetic biology, systems biology and bioprocess engineering, notable advances were achieved regarding the generation, characterization and optimization of E. coli strains for the overproduction of aromatic amino acids, some of their precursors and related compounds. In this paper we review and compare recent successful reports dealing with the modification of metabolic traits to attain these objectives.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Dovepress 35 R e v i e w open access to scientific and medical research Open Access Full Text Article http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRMC.S46560 Abstract: Aromatic metabolism comprises the shikimic acid (SA) and the aminoshikimic acid (ASA) pathways. The SA pathway is the common route for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and other metabolites in bacteria, higher plants, fungi, and Apicomplexa parasites, but this pathway is absent in mammals. A variant of the SA pathway known as the ASA pathway branches off from the normal pathway in some bacteria, and its final product, 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid, is the precursor for many aminoglycoside antibiotics such as kanamycin, neomycin, butirosin, and spectinomycin. The SA pathway includes the key intermediate SA, which is the precursor for the chemical synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate, known commercially as Tamiflu ® , an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of the seasonal influenza viruses types A and B, avian influenza virus H5N1, and human influenza virus H1N1. Meanwhile, the intermediate of the ASA pathway, ASA, is an attractive candidate for use as the core scaffold for the synthesis of combinatorial libraries and is a potential alternative to SA as a precursor for oseltamivir phosphate synthesis. In this review, we discuss the relevance of the key intermedi-ates SA and ASA as scaffold molecules for the synthesis of diverse chemicals. We highlight the current and potential pharmaceutical applications of these molecules and discuss the main strategies for the production of these aromatic compounds from natural sources and the appli-cation of metabolic engineering strategies in diverse bacterial strains for production through biotechnological processes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a precursor involved in the biosynthesis of aromatics and other valuable compounds in Escherichia coli. The PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major glucose transport system and the largest PEP consumer. To increase intracellular PEP availability for aromatics production purposes, mutant strains of E. coli JM101 devoid of the ptsHIcrr operon (PB11 strain) have been previously generated. In this derivative, transport and growth rate on glucose decreased significantly. A laboratory evolved strain derived from PB11 that partially recovered its growth capacity on glucose was named PB12. In the present study, we blocked carbon skeletons interchange between PEP and pyruvate (PYR) in these ptsHIcrr− strains by deleting the pykA, pykF, and ppsA genes. The PB11 pykAF− ppsA− strain exhibited no growth on glucose or acetate alone, but it was viable when both substrates were consumed simultaneously. In contrast, the PB12 pykAF− ppsA− strain displayed a low growth rate on glucose or acetate alone, but in the mixture, growth was significantly improved. RT-qPCR expression analysis of PB11 pykAF− ppsA− growing with both carbon sources showed a downregulation of all central metabolic pathways compared with its parental PB11 strain. Under the same conditions, transcription of most of the genes in PB12 pykAF− ppsA− did not change, and few like aceBAK, sfcA, and poxB were overexpressed compared with PB12. We explored the aromatics production capabilities of both ptsHIcrr− pykAF− ppsA− strains and the engineered PB12 pykAF− ppsA− tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA enhanced the yield of aromatic compounds when coutilizing glucose and acetate compared with the control strain PB12 tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1150–1160. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient production of shikimic acid (SA) in Escherichia coli has been achieved by modifying key genes of the central carbon metabolism and SA pathway, resulting in overproducing strains grown in batch- or fed-batch-fermentor cultures using a complex broth including glucose and yeast extract (YE). In this study, we performed a GTA to identify those genes significantly upregulated in an engineered E. coli strain, PB12.SA22, in mid EXP (5 h), early STA (STA1, 9 h), and late SAT (STA2, 44 h) phases, grown in complex fermentation broth in batch-fermentor cultures. Growth of E. coli PB12.SA22 in complex fermentation broth for SA production resulted in an EXP growth during the first 9 h of cultivation depending of supernatant available aromatic amino acids provided by YE because, when tryptophan was totally consumed, cells entered into a second, low-growth phase (even in the presence of glucose) until 26 h of cultivation. At this point, glucose was completely consumed but SA production continued until the end of the fermentation (50 h) achieving the highest accumulation (7.63 g/L of SA). GTA between EXP/STA1, EXP/STA2 and STA1/STA2 comparisons showed no significant differences in the regulation of genes encoding enzymes of central carbon metabolism as in SA pathway, but those genes encoding enzymes involved in sugar, amino acid, nucleotide/nucleoside, iron and sulfur transport; amino acid catabolism and biosynthesis; nucleotide/nucleoside salvage; acid stress response and modification of IM were upregulated between comparisons. GTA during SA production in batch-fermentor cultures of strain PB12.SA22 grown in complex fermentation broth during the EXP, STA1 and STA2 phases was studied. Significantly, upregulated genes during the EXP and STA1 phases were associated with transport, amino acid catabolism, biosynthesis, and nucleotide/nucleoside salvage. In STA2, upregulation of genes encoding transporters and enzymes involved in the synthesis and catabolism of Arg suggests that this amino acid could have a key role in the fuelling of carbon toward SA synthesis, whereas upregulation of genes involved in pH stress response, such as membrane modifications, suggests a possible response to environmental conditions imposed on the cell at the end of the fermentation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB), a biodegradable bio-plastic, requires acetyl-CoA as precursor and NADPH as cofactor. Escherichia coli has been used as a heterologous production model for P3HB, but metabolic pathway analysis shows a deficiency in maintaining high levels of NADPH and that the acetyl-CoA is mainly converted to acetic acid by native pathways. In this work the pool of NADPH was increased 1.7-fold in E. coli MG1655 through plasmid overexpression of the NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gapN) from Streptococcus mutans (pTrcgapN). Additionally, by deleting the main acetate production pathway (ackA-pta), the acetic acid production was abolished, thus increasing the acetyl-CoA pool. The P3HB biosynthetic pathway was heterologously expressed in strain MG1655 Δack-pta/pTrcgapN, using an IPTG inducible vector with the P3HB operon from Azotobacter vinelandii (pPHBAv ). Cultures were performed in controlled fermentors using mineral medium with glucose as the carbon source. Accordingly, the mass yield of P3HB on glucose increased to 73 % of the maximum theoretical and was 30 % higher when compared to the progenitor strain (MG1655/pPHBAv ). In comparison with the wild type strain expressing pPHBAv , the specific accumulation of PHB (gPHB/gDCW) in MG1655 Δack-pta/pTrcgapN/pPHBAv increased twofold, indicating that as the availability of NADPH is raised and the production of acetate abolished, a P3HB intracellular accumulation of up to 84 % of the E. coli dry weight is attainable.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
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    Susy Carmona · Francisco Bolívar · Adelfo Escalante
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN El ácido shikímico (SA), uno de los intermediarios de la ruta común de biosíntesis de compuestos aromáticos o vía del ácido shikímico, presente en bacterias y plantas principalmente, es utilizado como precursor para la síntesis química del antiviral oseltamivir-fosfato. Dicho antiviral es utilizado para el tratamiento de la influenza común y en los casos de infección por los virus H5N1, H3N2 y A/H1N1 ABSTRACT Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the shikimic acid pathway, which is the common route for the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds mainly in bacteria and plants. SA is used as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of the antiviral oseltamivir phosphate. This drug is used for treatment of seasonal flu and cases of H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 virus infection. Given the potential scenario of a pandemic influenza, diverse research groups have implemented strategies of
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Natural aromatic polymers, mainly melanins, have potential and current applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The biotechnological production of this class of compounds is based on tyrosinase-dependent conversion of L-tyrosine and other aromatic substrates into melanins. The purpose of this work was to apply metabolic engineering for generating Escherichia coli strains with the capacity to synthesize an aromatic polymer from a simple carbon source. The strategy was based on the expression in E. coli of the MutmelA gene from Rhizobium etli, encoding an improved mutant tyrosinase. To direct the carbon flow from central metabolism into the common aromatic and the L-tyrosine biosynthetic pathways, feedback inhibition resistant versions of key enzymes were expressed in strains lacking the sugar phosphotransferase system and TyrR repressor. The expressed tyrosinase consumed intracellular L-tyrosine, thus causing growth impairment in the engineered strains. To avoid this issue, a two phase production process was devised, where tyrosinase activity was controlled by the delayed addition of the cofactor Cu. Following this procedure, 3.22 g/L of melanin were produced in 120 h with glucose as carbon source. Analysis of produced melanin by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed similar characteristics to a pure eumelanin standard. This is the first report of a process for producing melanin from a simple carbon source at grams level, having the potential for reducing production cost when compared to technologies employing L-tyrosine as raw material.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: The glycolytic intermediate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a precursor of several cellular components, including various aromatic compounds. Modifications to the PEP node such as PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) or pyruvate kinase inactivation have been shown to have a positive effect on aromatics production capacity in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In this study, pyruvate kinase and PTS-deficient B. subtilis strains were employed for the construction of derivatives lacking shikimate kinase activity that accumulate two industrially valuable chemicals, the intermediates of the common aromatic pathway, shikimic and dehydroshikimic acids. The pyruvate kinase-deficient strain (CLC6-PYKA) showed the best production parameters under resting-cell conditions. Compared to the PTS-deficient strain, the shikimic and dehydroshikimic acids specific production rates for CLC6-PYKA were 1.8- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively. A batch fermentor culture using complex media supplemented with 83 g/l of glucose was developed with strain CLC6-PYKA, where final titers of 4.67 g/l (shikimic acid) and 6.2 g/l (dehydroshikimic acid) were produced after 42 h. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: During the last two decades many efforts have been directed towards obtaining efficient microbial processes for the production of shikimic acid (SA); however, feeding high amounts of substrate to increase the titer of this compound has invariably rendered low conversion yields, leaving room for improvement of the producing strains. In this work we report an alternative platform to overproduce SA in a laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli strain, based on plasmid-driven constitutive expression of six genes selected from the pentose phosphate and aromatic amino acid pathways, artificially arranged as an operon. Production strains also carried inactivated genes coding for phosphotransferase system components (ptsHIcrr), shikimate kinases I and II (aroK and aroL), pyruvate kinase I (pykF) and the lactose operon repressor (lacI). The strong and constitutive expression of the constructed operon permitted SA production from the beginning of the cultures, as evidenced in 1L batch-mode fermentors starting with high concentrations of glucose and yeast extract. Inactivation of the pykF gene improved SA production under the evaluated conditions by increasing the titer, yield and productivity of this metabolite compared to the isogenic pykF+ strain. The best producing strain accumulated up to 43g/L of SA in 30h and relatively low concentrations of acetate and aromatic byproducts were detected, with SA accounting for 80% of the produced aromatic compounds. These results were consistent with high expression levels of the glycolytic pathway and synthetic operon genes from the beginning of fermentations, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis. Despite the consumption of 100g/L of glucose, the yields on glucose of SA and of total aromatic compounds were about 50% and 60% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. The obtained yields and specific production and consumption rates proved to be constant with three different substrate concentrations. The developed production system allowed continuous SA accumulation until glucose exhaustion and eliminated the requirement for culture inducers. The obtained SA titers and yields represent the highest reported values for a high-substrate batch process, postulating the strategy described in this report as an interesting alternative to the traditionally employed fed-batch processes for SA production.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Microbial Cell Factories
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional strategies for production of thermo-induced recombinant protein in E. coli consist of a two-phase culture, with an initial growth stage at low temperature (commonly 30°C) followed by a production stage where temperature is increased stepwise (commonly up to 42°C). A disadvantage of such strategies is that growth is inhibited upon temperature increase, limiting the duration of the production stage and consequently limiting recombinant protein production. In this work, a novel oscillatory thermo-induction strategy, consisting on temperature fluctuations between 37 and 42°C or 30 and 42°C, was tested for improving recombinant protein production. In addition, the induction schemes were combined with one of three different nutrient feeding strategies: two exponential and one linear. Recombinant human preproinsulin (HPPI), produced under control of the λPL-cI857 system in the E. coli BL21 strain, was used as the model protein. Compared to the conventional induction scheme at constant temperature (42°C), longer productive times were attained under oscillatory induction, which resulted in a 1.3- to 1.7-fold increase in maximum HPPI concentration. Temperature oscillations led to a 2.3- to 4.0-fold increase in biomass accumulation and a decrease of 48 to 62% in the concentration of organic acids, compared to conventional induction. Under constant induction, growth ceased upon temperature increase and the maximum concentration of HPPI was 3.9g/L, regardless of the post-induction feeding strategy used. In comparison, the combination of temperature oscillations and a high nutrient-feeding rate allowed sustained growth after induction and reaching up to 5.8g/L of HPPI.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Biotechnology

Publication Stats

14k Citations
583.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979-2015
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • • Departamento de Ingeniería Celular y Biocatálisis
      • • Institute of Biotechnology
      • • Department of Molecular Microbiology
      • • Department of Cellular Engineering and Biocatalysis
      • • Departament of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
      • • Department of Molecular Genetics
      • • Institute for Biomedical Investigation
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
    • City of Hope National Medical Center
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Duarte, CA, United States
  • 1996-2009
    • Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos
      • Centre of Biotechnological Research (CEIB)
      Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
  • 2004
    • Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo
      Villa Gustavo A. Madero, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1998
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 1978-1980
    • Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      San Francisco, California, United States