[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New human mutations are thought to originate in germ cells, thus making a recurrence of the same mutation in a sibling exceedingly rare. However, increasing sensitivity of genomic technologies has anecdotally revealed mosaicism for mutations in somatic tissues of apparently healthy parents. Such somatically mosaic parents might also have germline mosaicism that can potentially cause unexpected intergenerational recurrences. Here, we show that somatic mosaicism for transmitted mutations among parents of children with simplex genetic disease is more common than currently appreciated. Using the sensitivity of individual-specific breakpoint PCR, we prospectively screened 100 families with children affected by genomic disorders due to rare deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) determined to be de novo by clinical analysis of parental DNA. Surprisingly, we identified four cases of low-level somatic mosaicism for the transmitted CNV in DNA isolated from parental blood. Integrated probabilistic modeling of gametogenesis developed in response to our observations predicts that mutations in parental blood increase recurrence risk substantially more than parental mutations confined to the germline. Moreover, despite the fact that maternally transmitted mutations are the minority of alleles, our model suggests that sexual dimorphisms in gametogenesis result in a greater proportion of somatically mosaic transmitting mothers who are thus at increased risk of recurrence. Therefore, somatic mosaicism together with sexual differences in gametogenesis might explain a considerable fraction of unexpected recurrences of X-linked recessive disease. Overall, our results underscore an important role for somatic mosaicism and mitotic replicative mutational mechanisms in transmission genetics.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A genetic etiology for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was first suggested from twin studies reported in the 1970s. The identification of gene mutations in syndromic ASDs provided evidence to support a genetic cause of ASDs. More recently, genome-wide copy number variant and sequence analyses have uncovered a list of rare and highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) or single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with ASDs, which has strengthened the claim of a genetic etiology for ASDs. Findings from research studies in the genetics of ASD now support an important role for molecular diagnostics in the clinical genetics evaluation of ASDs. Various molecular diagnostic assays including single gene tests, targeted multiple gene panels and copy number analysis should all be considered in the clinical genetics evaluation of ASDs. Whole exome sequencing could also be considered in selected clinical cases. However, the challenge that remains is to determine the causal role of genetic variants identified through molecular testing. Variable expressivity, pleiotropic effects and incomplete penetrance associated with CNVs and SNVs also present significant challenges for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by low coverage whole genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA in a single center.
The NIPT result and pregnancy outcome of 1982 consecutive cases were reviewed. The NIPT test was based on low coverage (0.1x) whole genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. All subjects were contacted for pregnancy and fetal outcome.
Of the 1982 NIPT tests, a repeat blood sample was required in 23 (1.16%). In one case, a conclusive report could not be issued, most likely due to an abnormal vanished twin fetus. NIPT was positive for common trisomies in 29 cases (T21: 23; T18: 4; T13:2), all were confirmed by prenatal karyotyping (Specificity = 100%). In addition, there were 11 cases positive for sex-chromosomal abnormalities (SCA), and 9 cases positive for other aneuploidies or deletion/duplication. Fourteen of these 20 subjects agreed for further investigations, and the abnormality was found to be of fetal origin in 7, confined placental mosaicism (CPM) in 4, of maternal origin in 2, and not confirmed in 1. Overall, 85.7% of the NIPT suspected SCA were of fetal origin, while 66.7% of the other abnormalities were due to CPM. Two of the 6 cases suspected or confirmed to have CPM were complicated by early onset growth restriction requiring delivery before 34 weeks. Fetal outcome of the NIPT-negative cases was ascertained in 1645 (85.15%). There were 3 chromosomal abnormalities not detected by NIPT, including one case each of a balanced translocation, unbalanced translocation, and triploidy. There were no known false negatives involving the common trisomies (Sensitivity = 100%).
Low coverage whole genome sequencing of maternal plasma DNA was highly accurate in detecting common trisomies. It also enabled the detection of other aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities with high positive predictive value.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic chromosomal mosaicism arising from post-zygotic errors is known to cause several well-defined genetic syndromes as well as contribute to phenotypic variation in diseases. However, somatic mosaicism is often under-diagnosed due to challenges in detection. We evaluated 10 362 patients with a custom-designed, exon-targeted whole-genome oligonucleotide array and detected somatic mosaicism in a total of 57 cases (0.55%). The mosaicism was characterized and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or chromosome analysis. Different categories of abnormal cell lines were detected: (1) aneuploidy, including sex chromosome abnormalities and isochromosomes (22 cases), (2) ring or marker chromosomes (12 cases), (3) single deletion/duplication copy number variations (CNVs) (11 cases), (4) multiple deletion/duplication CNVs (5 cases), (5) exonic CNVs (4 cases), and (6) unbalanced translocations (3 cases). Levels of mosaicism calculated based on the array data were in good concordance with those observed by FISH (10-93%). Of the 14 cases evaluated concurrently by chromosome analysis, mosaicism was detected solely by the array in 4 cases (29%). In summary, our exon-targeted array further expands the diagnostic capability of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in detecting mosaicism for cytogenetic abnormalities as well as small CNVs in disease-causing genes.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.285.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical diagnostics, both array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping have proven to be powerful genomic technologies utilized for the evaluation of developmental delay, multiple congenital anomalies, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Differences in the ability to resolve genomic changes between these arrays may constitute an implementation challenge for clinicians: which platform (SNP vs array CGH) might best detect the underlying genetic cause for the disease in the patient? While only SNP arrays enable the detection of copy number neutral regions of absence of heterozygosity (AOH), they have limited ability to detect single-exon copy number variants (CNVs) due to the distribution of SNPs across the genome. To provide comprehensive clinical testing for both CNVs and copy-neutral AOH, we enhanced our custom-designed high-resolution oligonucleotide array that has exon-targeted coverage of 1860 genes with 60 000 SNP probes, referred to as Chromosomal Microarray Analysis - Comprehensive (CMA-COMP). Of the 3240 cases evaluated by this array, clinically significant CNVs were detected in 445 cases including 21 cases with exonic events. In addition, 162 cases (5.0%) showed at least one AOH region >10 Mb. We demonstrate that even though this array has a lower density of SNP probes than other commercially available SNP arrays, it reliably detected AOH events >10 Mb as well as exonic CNVs beyond the detection limitations of SNP genotyping. Thus, combining SNP probes and exon-targeted array CGH into one platform provides clinically useful genetic screening in an efficient manner.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.77.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Chromosomal microarray analysis enables the detection of microdeletions/duplications and has become the standard in clinical diagnostic testing for individuals with congenital anomalies and developmental disabilities. In the era of genomic arrays, the value of traditional chromosome analysis needs to be reassessed.
We studied 3,710 unrelated patients by chromosomal microarray analysis and chromosome analysis simultaneously and compared the results.
We found that chromosomal microarray analysis detected the chromosomal imbalances that were identified by chromosome analysis with the exception of six cases (0.16%) that had mosaic abnormalities. Of note, one case showed mosaicism for two abnormal cell lines, resulting in a balanced net effect and a normal chromosomal microarray analysis. Further structural abnormalities such as unbalanced translocations, rings, and complex rearrangements were subsequently clarified by chromosome analysis in 18% of the cases with abnormal chromosomal microarray analysis results. Apparently balanced rearrangements were detected by chromosome analysis in 30 cases (0.8%).
Our data demonstrate that although chromosomal microarray analysis should be the first-tier test for clinical diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities, chromosome analysis remains valuable in the detection of mosaicism and delineation of chromosomal structural rearrangements.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the results of prenatal chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) on >1000 fetal samples referred for testing at our institution and to compare these data to published reports.
High resolution CMA was offered to women undergoing amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Parental samples were obtained concurrently to exclude maternal cell contamination and assist interpretation of copy number variations.
Clinically significant copy number variations were observed in 85/1115 cases (7.6%) overall, and in 45/1075 cases (4.2 %) if 40 abnormal cases with known chromosome abnormalities or familial genomic imbalances were excluded. Eighteen of the 1115 cases had variants of unclear clinical significance (1.6%). Indications yielding the most clinically significant findings were abnormal karyotype/fluorescence in situ hybridization (26/61, 42.6%), family history of chromosomal abnormality (13/137, 9.5%), abnormal ultrasound (38/410, 9.3%), abnormal serum screening (2/37, 5.4%) and advanced maternal age (5/394, 1.3%). Of 1075 cases having no previously known cytogenetic abnormality or family history, 18 (1.7%) had clinically significant genomic changes undetectable by conventional prenatal chromosome analysis.
Current experience confirms that the detection rate of CMA for prenatal chromosomal abnormalities surpasses that of conventional karyotype analysis and continues to improve with higher resolution arrays, while maintaining a low frequency of results of unclear clinical significance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) targeted to coding exons of genes of interest has been proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool to complement with Sanger sequencing for the detection of large deletions/duplications. We have developed a custom designed oligonucleotide aCGH platform for this purpose. This array platform provides tiled coverage of the entire mitochondrial genome and high-density coverage of a set of nuclear genes involving mitochondrial and metabolic disorders and can be used to evaluate large deletions in targeted genes. A total of 1280 DNA samples from patients suspected of having mitochondrial or metabolic disorders were evaluated using this targeted aCGH. We detected 40 (3%) pathogenic large deletions in unrelated individuals, including 6 in genes responsible for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes, 23 in urea cycle genes, 11 in metabolic and related genes. Deletion breakpoints have been confirmed in 31 cases by PCR and sequencing. The possible deletion mechanism has been discussed. These results illustrate the successful utilization of targeted aCGH to detect large deletions in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. This technology is particularly useful as a complementary diagnostic test in the context of a recessive disease when only one mutant allele is found by sequencing. For female carriers of X-linked disorders, if sequencing analysis does not detect point mutations, targeted aCGH should be considered for the detection of large heterozygous deletions.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders are inborn errors that often present in the neonatal period with a devastating clinical course. If not treated promptly, these diseases can result in severe, irreversible disease or death. Determining the molecular defects in metabolic diseases is important in providing a definitive diagnosis for patient management. Therefore, prenatal diagnosis for families with known mutations causing metabolic disorders is crucial for timely intervention. Here we present three families in which standard Sanger sequencing failed to provide a definitive diagnosis, but the detection of genomic deletions by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) specifically targeted to mitochondrial and metabolic disease genes, MitoMet®, was fundamental in providing accurate prenatal diagnosis. In addition, to our knowledge, two deletions are the smallest detected by oligonucleotide array CGH reported for their respective genes, OTC and ARG1. These data highlight the importance of targeted array CGH in patients with suspected metabolic disorders and incomplete or negative sequencing results, as well as its emerging role in prenatal diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CPSI deficiency usually results in severe hyperammonemia presenting in the first days of life warranting prompt diagnosis. Most CPS1 defects are non-recurrent, private mutations, including point mutation, small insertions and deletions. In this study, we report the detection of large deletions varying from 1.4 kb to >130 kb in the CPS1 gene of 4 unrelated patients by targeted array CGH. These results underscore the importance of analysis of large deletions when only one mutation or no mutations are identified in cases where CPSI deficiency is strongly indicated.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the utility of an exon coverage microarray platform in detecting intragenic deletions: one in exons 24-27 of the EP300 gene and another in exons 27 and 28 of the CREBBP gene in two patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). RSTS is a heterogeneous disorder in which approximately 45-55% of cases result from deletion or mutations in the CREBBP gene and an unknown portion of cases result from gene changes in EP300. The first case is a 3-year-old female with an exonic deletion of the EP300 gene who has classic facial features of RSTS without the thumb and great toe anomalies, consistent with the milder skeletal phenotype that has been described in other RSTS cases with EP300 mutations. In addition, the mother of this patient also had preeclampsia during pregnancy, which has been infrequently reported. The second case is a newborn male who has the classical features of RSTS. Our results illustrate that exon-targeted array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting clinically significant intragenic rearrangements that would be otherwise missed by aCGH platforms lacking sufficient exonic coverage or sequencing of the gene of interest.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for the molecular elucidation and diagnosis of disorders resulting from genomic copy-number variation (CNV). However, intragenic deletions or duplications--those including genomic intervals of a size smaller than a gene--have remained beyond the detection limit of most clinical aCGH analyses. Increasing array probe number improves genomic resolution, although higher cost may limit implementation, and enhanced detection of benign CNV can confound clinical interpretation. We designed an array with exonic coverage of selected disease and candidate genes and used it clinically to identify losses or gains throughout the genome involving at least one exon and as small as several hundred base pairs in size. In some patients, the detected copy-number change occurs within a gene known to be causative of the observed clinical phenotype, demonstrating the ability of this array to detect clinically relevant CNVs with subkilobase resolution. In summary, we demonstrate the utility of a custom-designed, exon-targeted oligonucleotide array to detect intragenic copy-number changes in patients with various clinical phenotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of robust diagnostic methods and limited resolution of conventional microscopy, submicroscopic genomic duplication copy number variants (CNVs) have been long underascertained. The development of array CGH has enabled detection of microduplications with nearly the same sensitivity as microdeletions and thus allowing them to be routinely identified throughout the human genome. However, in contrast to microdeletions, clinical interpretation of microduplications more often presents a diagnostic dilemma, as the functional impact of these genomic alterations is not well understood. Microduplications are especially difficult to interpret when they encompass several genes or a portion of a gene. Determining their significance involves investigative teamwork between both the diagnostic laboratory and the clinician. We present the steps for interpreting the clinical significance of microduplications and representative examples of these challenging cases.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insertional translocations (ITs) are rare events that require at least three breaks in the chromosomes involved and thus qualify as complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR). In the current study, we identified 40 ITs from approximately 18,000 clinical cases (1:500) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmation of the aCGH findings, and parental follow-up studies. Both submicroscopic and microscopically visible IT events were detected. They were divided into three major categories: (1) simple intrachromosomal and interchromosomal IT resulting in pure segmental trisomy, (2) complex IT involving more than one abnormality, (3) deletion inherited from a parent with a balanced IT resulting in pure segmental monosomy. Of the cases in which follow-up parental studies were available, over half showed inheritance from an apparently unaffected parent carrying the same unbalanced rearrangement detected in the propositi, thus decreasing the likelihood that these IT events are clinically relevant. Nevertheless, we identified six cases in which small submicroscopic events were detected involving known disease-associated genes/genomic segments and are likely to be pathogenic. We recommend that copy number gains detected by clinical aCGH analysis should be confirmed using FISH analysis whenever possible in order to determine the physical location of the duplicated segment. We hypothesize that the increased use of aCGH in the clinic will demonstrate that IT occurs more frequently than previously considered but can identify genomic rearrangements with unclear clinical significance.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) deficiency is characterized by a lack of sympathetic noradrenergic function. Affected individuals exhibit profound deficits in autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. The diagnosis of DBH deficiency is based on clinical findings, biochemical studies, and sequencing of DBH gene. We report here the characterization of a mosaic cytogenetic abnormality detected by array-CGH in a 16-year-old female with primary DBH deficiency together with dysmorphic features. These features could not be explained by DBH deficiency leading to further investigation. Karyotype was reported normal (46,XX), while a targeted genomic array-CGH revealed a mosaic loss for a segment of at least 1 Mb across 11p13. This segmental loss included the PAX6 and WT1 genes within the WAGR syndrome critical region. Interestingly, the derivative chromosome 11 was observed only in about 28% of cells analyzed. Utilizing a genome-wide oligonucleotide-based array, the deletion segment was estimated to encompass a segment of approximately 10 Mb. Mosaic deletions of 11p13 in WAGR are extremely uncommon. In this case it is distinctly possible that the patient's bilateral iris colobomata might be a manifestation, albeit abbreviated, of the haploinsufficiency for PAX6. This case highlights the importance of cytogenetic analysis when a mutation alone cannot account for the complete phenotype. It also emphasizes the enhanced ability of high-resolution array-CGH techniques in accurately detecting subtle rearrangements in a mosaic form. Finally, it demonstrates the possible phenotypic effects of low-level PAX6 haploinsufficiency in a dosage-sensitive manner.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A