[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-ray cocrystallographic studies of the human vitamin D receptor (hVDR)-[2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (O1C3)] complex showed that the terminal hydroxy group of the 2α-functional group of O1C3 formed a hydrogen bond with Arg274 in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of hVDR to stabilize the complex; therefore, O1C3 showed 3-times greater binding affinity for VDR than the natural hormone. Here, the effects of a heteroaromatic ring on binding to hVDR instead of the terminal OH group of O1C3 and also on preliminary biological activities were studied. We synthesized 2α-[2-(tetrazol-2-yl)ethyl]-1α,25(OH)2D3 (1a) and its regioisomer 2α-[2-(tetrazol-1-yl)ethyl]-1α,25(OH)2D3 (1b), in which 1a showed much higher hVDR binding affinity and greater osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells than those of 1b. X-ray cocrystallographic analysis of the hVDR-1a complex showed new hydrogen bond formation between one of the nitrogen atoms of the tetrazole ring and Arg274.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2α-Heteroarylethyl-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogues, which were designed to form a hydrogen bond between Arg274 of human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) and a nitrogen atom of the heteroaromatic ring at the 2α-position, were synthesized. Among them, 2α-[2-(tetrazol-2-yl)ethyl]-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 showed higher osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and a greater therapeutic effect in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, osteoporosis model animals, on enhancing bone mineral density than those of active vitamin D3. X-ray cocrystallographic analysis of the hVDR-ligand complex confirms that the new hydrogen bond formation stabilized the complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to the present, numerous vitamin D derivatives have been synthesized, but most of them have straight side chains, and there are few publications described about in vitro and in vivo evaluations on bone by vitamin D derivatives. In our previous paper, we reported the synthesis of various C-2 substituted vitamin D derivatives (2b-2i) with a 2,2-dimethylcyclopentanone unit in the CD-ring side chains, and that the derivatives have strong activity for enhancing bone growth. On the basis of results, this time, we report the synthesis of 2α-substituted vitamin D(3) derivatives with chiral cyclopentanone (3-6 and 12-16). These derivatives were obtained by Pd-coupling reaction with A-ring precursor and CD-rings precursor. We evaluated novel derivatives in vitro assays, for affinities for VDR and transactivation assays by human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. In this research, we demonstrated that some novel vitamin D derivatives (12-MP, 13-MP, 15-MP and 16-LP) have strong transactivation activities in spite of lower affinity for VDR than 1. In addition, we also demonstrated that these derivatives have strong activities for enhancing bone growth using OVX therapeutic rats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we evaluated a novel skeleton in the vitamin D family, 14-epi-1α,25(OH)(2)-19-nortachysterol, and discovered its unique binding configuration in the human vitamin D receptor (VDR) with the C5,6- and C7,8-s-trans triene configuration. Because of its unprecedented form, this skeleton has a promising characteristic profile for clinical use, and also the synthesis of its derivatives should be versatile. Therefore, we synthesized the novel analog, 2α-hydroxypropoxy substituted 14-epi-1α,25(OH)(2)-19-nortachysterol, and evaluated its human VDR binding affinity. Although this substitution is one of the promising modification of vitamin D(3) such as eldecalcitol (ED-71), it had negative effects on the binding affinity, and the compound showed lower affinity than 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its parent compound, 14-epi-1α,25(OH)(2)-19-nortachysterol. It was thought that the unprecedented binding configuration of this skeleton should not allow the terminal hydroxyl group of the 2α-substituent to construct effective hydrogen bond networks around the amino acid residues in the binding pocket.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While searching for vitamin D(3) analogues which inhibit neutrophil recruitment in the lung without elevating plasma calcium level, we found that (5Z,7E)-(1S,3R)-20(R)-[(5E)-(2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-cyclopentanone-5-ylidene]methyl-9,10-secopregna-5,7,10(19)-triene-1,3-diol (TEI-A00114) had the best efficacy and calcemic action. TEI-A00114 has a vitamin D receptor affinity 2.5-fold weaker and a vitamin D binding protein affinity 330.9-fold weaker than those of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). The estimated effective doses for 40% inhibition (ED(40)) via peroral and intratracheal administration are 7.6 and 0.4μg/kg, respectively. TEI-A00114 was also tested by inhaled administration, and its ED(40) was calculated as 0.2μg/kg. The estimated 40% inhibitory concentration (IC(40)) of TEI-A00114 on interleukin (IL)-8 production induced by lipopolysaccharide and on IL-1β in human whole blood cells in vitro were 9.8×10(-8) or 1.8×10(-9)M, respectively. These levels of TEI-A00114's activities are equal to those of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). On the other hand, the calcemic action of TEI-A00114, which was evaluated at day 14 after sequential peroral quaque die administration, was 89-fold weaker (molar ratio) than that of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). These results indicate that TEI-A00114 has a dissociated profile between inhibition of neutrophil recruitment in the lung and calcemic action, suggesting its suitability over 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) as a candidate for the treatment of acute lung injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous report has demonstrated the existence of a C4-hydroxylated vitamin D(2) metabolite in serum of rats treated with pharmacological doses of vitamin D(2). However, the biological significance and metabolic fate of this metabolite have not been described. To explore its potential biological activities, we therefore synthesized 1α,4α,25-trihydroxyvitamin D(3) and its diastereoisomer, 1α,4β,25-trihydroxyvitamin D(3), using Trost Pd-mediated coupling reaction, and studied their vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding affinity, osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity, and their further metabolism by human CYP24A1 as well as by human liver microsomal fraction based on CYP- and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)-reactions.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of 14-epi-1α,25(OH)(2)previtamin D(3), 14-epi-19-nor-1α,25(OH)(2)previtamin D(3), and their 2-substituted analogs is described. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding affinity was further evaluated and 2α-methyl substituted 14-epi-1α,25(OH)(2)previtamin D(3) had 17-fold more potent affinity than 14-epi-1α,25(OH)(2)previtamin D(3).In the comparison of these compounds, the effects of thermal equilibrium, with or without 19-carbon at the A-ring, and their CD-ring structures are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Δ(16) structure as a vitamin D analog enhanced vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding affinity and induced significant cell differentiation, whereas its relative calcemic activity was reduced compared to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)). Methodologies available to introduce a double bond at C16-C17 of the D-ring on the seco-steroidal skeleton were limited; therefore, a new synthetic strategy was developed to obtain not only the Δ(16) structure, but also a new C15-functional group. Since C15-functionalization was unprecedented in vitamin D analog studies, the hybrid structure of Δ(16) and the C15-OH group at the D-ring may provide important information on the structure-activity relationship with vitamin D analogs. The synthesized 16-ene-2α-methyl-1α,15α,25-trihydroxyvitamin D(3) showed almost 3-times higher VDR binding affinity and an equipotent level of osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity in human osteosarcoma cells as compared to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C15-Substituted 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) analogs were synthesized for the first time to investigate the effects of the modified CD-ring on biological activity concerning the agonistic positioning of helix-3 and helix-12 of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). X-ray cocrystallographic analysis proved that 0.6 Å shifts of the CD-ring and shrinking of the side chain were necessary to maintain the position of the 25-hydroxy group for proper interaction with helix-12. The 15-hydroxy-16-ene derivative showed higher binding affinity for hVDR than the natural hormone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the study of the synthesis of 14-epi-19-norprevitamin D(3), we found 14-epi-19-nortachysterol derivatives through C6,7-cis/trans isomerization. We also succeeded in their chemical synthesis and revealed their marked stability and potent VDR binding affinity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of stable tachysterol analogues. Surprisingly, 14-epi-19-nortachysterol derivatives exhibited an unprecedented binding configurations for the ligand binding pocket in hVDR, C5,6-s-trans and C7,8-s-trans triene configurations, which were opposite the natural C7,8-ene-configuration of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3).
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to obtain vitamin D derivatives, which have strong activity for enhancing bone growth, we designed vitamin D derivatives with various substitutions at the C-2 position. Novel 2 α-substituted vitamin D derivatives were synthesized starting from d-glucose as a chiral template of the A-ring with a CD-ring bromoolefin unit using the Trost coupling method. We evaluated these compounds by two in vitro assays, affinity to VDR and transactivation assays, using human osteosarcoma (Hos) cells, and demonstrated the SAR of the C-2 position of VD(3). Furthermore, by using the OVX model, we found that compound 5c, which has a hydroxypropoxy side chain at C-2 and 2,2-dimethyl cyclopentanone in the CD-ring side chain, has a strong activity for enhancing bone growth, same as the reported compound, 2α-(3-hydroxypropoxy)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)1d, and this derivative shows a possibility that calcemic activity is less than 1d in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two derivatives of 14-epi-1 alpha,25-Dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D-3, 14-epi-2 alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D-3 (14-epi-MART-10) and its 2-epimeric analog (14-epi-MART-11), were synthesized using Julia coupling reaction to connect between the C5 position (steroidal numbering) of an A-ring precursor ketone derived from (-)-quinic acid and the C6 position of a protected 14-epi-CD-ring benzothiazole sulfone. The coupling and deprotection reactions generated a mixture of 14-epi-MART-10 and 14-epi-MART-11 in a moderate yield. The C2-isomers were then separated as their pivalate forms. The C2-stereochemistry of 2 alpha- and 2 beta-isomers was determined by H-1 NMR studies including NOE experiments. The pivaloyl group was removed under basic conditions to obtain the target molecules of 14-epi-MART-10 and 14-epi-MART-11. The metabolism of these two new analogs was further studied in a reconstituted cell-free human CYP24A1 system to elucidate the potential mechanism of their super agonistic action on vitamin D receptor. Our results indicate that epimerization at C14 makes the analogs less susceptible to CYP24A1 degradation and therefore more bio-available, leading to enhanced biological activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2α- and 2β-Substituted analogs of 14-epi-previtamin D3 were synthesized and isolated after thermal isomerization of 14-epi-vitamin D3 triene at 80 °C. The VDR binding affinity and transactivation activity of osteocalcin promoter in HOS cells were tested, and the 2α-methyl-substituted analog was found to have greater genomic activity than 14-epi-previtamin D3. We found that modification at the C2 position of the seco-steroidal skeleton afforded interesting effects for biological genomic activity for the previtamin D form as well as the natural vitamin D form.Graphical abstract2-Substituted analogs of 14-epi-1,25-dihydroxyprevitamin D3 were synthesized and their preliminary biological activity was evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2beta-substituted analogs of 14-epi-previtamin D(3) were synthesized for the first time by the thermal isomerization of the corresponding 14-epi-vitamin D3 that were available using coupling reaction between the A-ring phosphine oxide derived from a chiral epoxide and CD-ring cis-hydrindanone. The VDR binding affinity and transactivation activity of osteocalcin promoter in HOS cells were evaluated, and the new analogs were found to be less active, 0.01-0.18% of VDR binding affinity compared with the natural hormone and EC50 1.0-9.1 nM for transactivation activity, than 14-epi-previtamin D3 with 0.5% (VDR) and EC50 0.46 nM, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We synthesized the 4-hydroxy and 4-methoxy analogs of active vitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), 1) and its C14-epimer with the previtamin D(3) form of 14-epi-1alpha,25(OH)(2)preD(3) (14-epi-pre1). Their vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding affinity and osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity in HOS cells were evaluated, and had lower activity than the natural hormone (1) and 14-epi-pre1, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 14-epimer of MART-10, namely 14-epi-MART-10 (14-epi-2alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1alpha,25-dihydroxy-19-norvitamin D3) and its 2-epimeric analog (14-epi-MART-11) were efficiently synthesized using the Julia coupling reaction to connect between the C5 and C6 positions (steroid numbering). An A-ring precursor was prepared from (-)-quinic acid as shown in the previous MART-10 synthesis. The novel 14-epi-CD-ring coupling partner with an elongated two carbon unit as a sulfone was synthesized from 14-epi-25-hydroxy Grundmann's ketone in good yield. The subsequent coupling reaction followed by a deprotection step afforded a mixture of 14-epi-MART-10 and 14-epi-MART-11 in 40% yield. To separate 14-epi-MART-10 and 14-epi-MART-11, each primary hydroxyl group was esterified with a pivaloyl group and the resulting pivalates 2alpha and 2beta were separated by high performance liquid chromatography. After the separation, the C2-stereochemistry of each (2alpha or 2beta) was determined by 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) studies including NOE (nuclear Overhauser effect) experiments. The pivaloyl group was removed under basic conditions to obtain the target molecules of 14-epi-MART-10 and 14-epi-MART-11, respectively. The VDR (vitamin D receptor)-binding affinity, HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cell differentiation activity, antiproliferative activity in PZ-HPV-7 (immortalized normal prostate) cells and transactivation activity of the osteocalcin promoter in HOS (human osteoblast cell line) cells (serum-free conditions) were investigated. In addition, the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and the blood and urine calcium concentrations of ovariectomized (OVX) rats were examined. 14-epi-MART-10 has much greater antiproliferative and cell differentiation activities compared to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3).
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We synthesized and isolated 2 alpha-substituted analogs of 14-epi-previtamin D3 after thermal isomerization at 80 degrees C for the first time. The VDR binding affinity and transactivation activity of osteocalcin promoter in HOS cells were evaluated, and the 2 alpha-methyl-substituted analog was found to have greater genomic activity than 14-epi-previtamin D3.