C McGrath

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Publications (118)118.28 Total impact

  • Hai Ming Wong · Yi Feng Wen · Nigel Martyn King · Colman Patrick Joseph McGrath
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Epidemiological studies on developmental defects of enamel (DDE) have focused on its potential contributory factors and prevalence while there is limited evidence on the longitudinal changes in the epidemiological profile of DDE. Thus, the objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether any type of DDE changes with time. Methods: A total of 668 participants were initially recruited in 2010, and 432 participants were successfully followed up and examined for DDE both at the age of 12 in 2010 and 15 in 2013. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as index teeth and were examined 'wet' by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. Results: The mouth prevalence and tooth prevalence of 'any defect' showed a significant decrease from 2010 to 2013 (P < 0.001). This was predominantly due to the decrease in diffuse opacities (P < 0.001). Significant difference in the distribution of the extent of DDE was also found for diffuse opacities at both the participant and tooth levels irrespective of the types of tooth (P < 0.0001). Median extent score for diffuse opacities in 2013 was lower than those in 2010 at both participant and tooth level irrespective of the types of tooth (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Diffuse opacities, in terms of prevalence and severity, did fade out over time. The observed overall change in DDE was due to the dominating effect of diffuse opacities over demarcated opacities and hypoplasia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology
  • B.S.S. Cheng · C. McGrath · S.M. Bridges · C. Yiu
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To adapt an existing medical questionnaire on patient-provider communication for use in the dental setting, and to evaluate the performance of the measure in a first dental encounter (validity and reliability). Methods: A patient feedback questionnaire on consultation skills was adapted for use in dental settings through content and convergent validity. A survey of dentist consultation skills was conducted among adults attending a teaching hospital. Patients self-completed a 16-item Dental Patient Feedback on Consultation skills (DPFC) questionnaire during their first dental consultations. Repeat assessments were conducted on ~10% of the sample. Variations in DPFC re- sponses (scale and item level) were examined in relation to socio-demographics and dental attendance pattern in bivariate and regression analyses. Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient - ICC) were examined. Results: A DPFC questionnaire was derived following minor modifications. The clarity of items ranged from 81.1-100% and content validity index ranged from 0.73-1.00. Exploratory item factor analysis showed a one-dimensional construct. The response rate to the survey was 90.5% (389/430). Variations in DPFC scores with respect to global rating of satisfaction were apparent (P<0.001). Cronbach’s alpha value was0.94 and ICC value was 0.89. Bivariate and regression analyses identified dental attendance pattern as a key factor associated with DPFC (P<0.05); but no significant differences were observed with respect to socio-demographic factors. Conclusions: A DPFC questionnaire was adapted with acceptable validity and reliability. Dental service utilization pattern was associated with dentist-patient clinical communication rather than socio-demographics.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to establish norm values for facial proportion indices among 12-year-old southern Chinese children, to determine lower facial proportion, and to identify gender differences in facial proportions. A random population sample of 514 children was recruited. Fifteen facial landmarks were plotted with ImageJ (V1.45) on standardized photos and 22 Facial proportion index values were obtained. Gender differences were analyzed by 2-sample t-test with 95 % confidence interval. Repeated measurements were conducted on approximately 10 % of the cases. The rate of adopted subjects was 52.5 % (270/514). Intraclass correlation coefficient values (ICC) for intra- examiner reliability were >0.87. Population facial proportion index values were derived. Gender differences in 11 of the facial proportion indices were evident (P < 0.05). Upper face-face height (N- Sto/ N- Gn), vermilion height (Ls-Sto/Sto-Li), upper face height-biocular width (N-Sto/ExR-ExL) and nose -face height (N-Sn/N-Gn) indices were found to be larger among girls (P < 0.01). Males had larger lower face-face height (Sn -Gn/ N-Gn), mandibulo-face height (Sto-Gn/N-Gn), mandibulo-upper face height (Sto-Gn/N-Sto), nasal (AlR-AlL/N-Sn), upper lip height-mouth width (Sn-Sto/ChR-ChL), upper lip-upper face height (Sn-Sto/N-Sto) and upper lip-nose height (Sn-Sto/N-Sn) indices (P < 0.05). Population norm of facial proportion indices for 12-year-old Southern Chinese were derived and mean lower facial proportion were obtained. Sexual dimorphism is apparent.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Head & Face Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
  • Ahmad Faisal Bin Ismail · Colman Patrick McGrath · Cynthia K.Y. Yiu
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review investigated the oral health status of children with type 1 diabetes. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS and EMBASE. The search included all studies published from inception of database to January 2014. A total of 1179 abstracts were analyzed for selection in 2 phases. The first phase selection was based on the title and abstracts alone. The selected abstracts were then included for second phase, where full articles were obtained. The selection was carried out by 2 independent reviewers (Kappa value=0.809). Only 37 articles were included for final analysis in this review. There is conflicting evidence in the caries experience between children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children. For periodontal health, most studies reported significantly greater plaque accumulation and higher gingival index in children with type 1 diabetes. Cohort studies reported no significant differences in perioodontal parameters over time. There is conflicting evidence regarding the caries experience of children with type 1 diabetes, but they exhibit poorer periodontal health status with greater plaque accumulation compared to healthy children. Further studies are warranted to assess the oral health status of children with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • G H M Lee · C McGrath · C K Y Yiu
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    ABSTRACT: The unmet dental needs of pre-school children indicate there are barriers in 'accessing' appropriate oral health care and this warrants consideration of care providers' beliefs. To explore the beliefs and attitudes of dentists in Hong Kong towards providing oral health care to pre-school children; and to determine difference in attitudes between general dental practitioners (GDPs) and paediatric dentists (PDs). A random sample of 476 GDPs (-25% of all registered dentists) and all registered PDs (28) were invited to participate in the study. Both groups were asked to complete the Barriers to Childhood Caries Treatment (BaCCT) questionnaire: a 29-item measure considering child, parent, dentist and health care system factors. Differences in attitudes of GDPs and PDs were examined in bivariate and regression analyses. The overall response rate of the study was 61.5% (310/504). There were significant differences in overall BaCCT scores and across all domains between GDPs and PDs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, variations across many aspects (as described at an item level) were apparent. Regression analyses confirmed differences in BaCCT between GDPs and PDs, controlling for practice and other factors. Differences exist between GDPs' and PDs' perceptions of barriers to care for early childhood caries. This has implications for how to address 'access' issues with likely implications on how to overcome barriers to care for pre-school children.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Community dental health
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    Min Gu · Yanqi Yang · Angus C H Ho · Ricky W K Wong · Urban Hägg · Colman P J McGrath
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    ABSTRACT: The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess daytime sleepiness in Chinese adolescents using the Paediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to identify associations between PDSS answers and craniofacial characteristics. A group of 265 Chinese adolescents aged 11-17 years self-completed the PDSS, and their extra- and intra-oral craniofacial characteristics were recorded. Among the participants, 59.7% (157) experienced one or more daytime sleepiness events. No significant associations were found between total PDSS scores and the craniofacial parameters, but when PDSS answers were assessed at the item level, several craniofacial characteristics were found to be positively associated with daytime sleepiness, such as hypertrophic tonsils (P = 0.05), a relatively large tongue (P < 0.01), a bilateral Class II molar relationship (P < 0.05) and increased overjet (P < 0.05). A short lower face (P < 0.01) and a convex profile (P < 0.01) were found to be negatively associated with daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness is commonly reported among Chinese adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment and there are potential associations between the condition and craniofacial characteristics. An assessment of daytime sleepiness is recommended to orthodontists in young patients presenting with hypertrophic tonsils, relative large tongues and Class II tendency malocclusions, and appropriate medical referrals should also be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Open Dentistry Journal
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    Hai Ming Wong · Si-Min Peng · Yi Feng Wen · Nigel M King · Colman P J McGrath
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study. Methods Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects’ background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined ‘wet’ by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. Results With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0–3 years was associated with the occurrence of ‘any defect’ (p = 0.017) and diffuse opacities (p = 0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by ‘any defect’ compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p = 0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed. Conclusion No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • M. CROWE · M. O' SULLIVAN · J. NUNN · C. MCGRATH
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate associations between dental-problems during early childhood and child health, primary-caregivers (PCG) health, and child/PCG relationships. Methods: Data were derived from the Growing Up in Ireland study, involving a nationally representative sample of 9-month-old children (N=11,134) in 2007/2008, followed-up at age 3 (N=9,793). Data analysed, included reported dental-problems, information on child health, PCG health, and child/PCG relationships at both time points. Standardized measures were used to assess infant, child and PCG health employing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Parental Stress Scale and the Child-Parent Relationship Scale (CPR-S Pianta). Reported dental-problems in early childhood were categorized as: (i) no problems; (ii) problems at 9-months only; (iii) problems at age 3 only; (iv) problems at both time points. Bivariate and regression analyses were carried out on statistically reweighted data to determine associations between reported dental-problems during early childhood [i-iv] and subsequent child health, PCG health, and child/PCG relationship at age 3, controlling for socio-demographics. Results: During early childhood dental-problems were reported among 7.5% (736) of children (at least once); 2.7% (302) at 9-months and 5.0% (493) at age 3. Reported dental-problems were associated with Child health: SDQ Total difficulties scores (P<0.01); PCG health: Parental stress scores (P<0.01); and PCG/child relationships: Pianta CPR-S scores (P<0.01). Those reported to experience dental-problems at both time points generally fared the worst. Controlling for socio-demographic factors in regression analyses, reported dental-problems remained significantly associated with child health, PCG health, and child/PCG relationships. Conclusions: Findings from the Growing up in Ireland study identified that reports of dental-problems were common in early childhood (affecting ~ 1 in 13 children). Significant associations between reported dental-problems in early childhood and child health (behavioural difficulties) and PCG health (parental stress) were evident. Furthermore, negative aspects of the child/PCG relationships were also associated with reported dental-problems in early childhood.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014
  • M. CROWE · M. O' SULLIVAN · J. NUNN · C. MCGRATH
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the relationship between reported dental problems in infancy (at age 9 months) and early childhood (at age 3 years) and infant, child, and primary caregivers’ health. Method: Data were derived from the longitudinal infant cohort of the Growing Up in Ireland study, involving a nationally representative sample of 9-month olds (N=11,134) in 2007/2008, followed-up at age 3 years (N=9,793) in 2010/2011. Data analysed, included reported dental problems, information on child health and primary caregivers’ health (PCG) when children were 9-months and 3-years of age. Standardised, valid and reliable measures were used to assess for infant/child/PCG health including the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Parental Stress Scale and the Parental Depression Scale. Bivariate and regression analyses were carried out on statistically reweighted data to determine associations between reported dental problems and infant/child health and PCG health, controlling for socio-demographics (gender of child, gender of PCG and receipt of social welfare benefits as a proxy for socio-economic status). Result: PCG’s reported that 302 infants (2.7%) at 9-months of age and 493 children (5.0%) at 3-years of age experienced ‘dental problems’. Reported dental problems at 9-months of age were associated with infant health - ICQ fussy-difficult score (p<0.01) and PCG health - Parental Stress Score (p<0.05) and Parental Depression (p<0.01). Reported dental problems at age 3, were associated with child health - SDQ Total Difficulties Score (p<0.05) and PCG health - Parental Stress Score PCG (p<0.01). Controlling for socio-demographic factors in regression analyses reported dental problems remained significantly associated with infant health, child health and PCG health. Conclusion: Dental problems were reported among more than 1 in 50 infants at 9-months old, and among 1 in 20 children at age 3. Reported dental problems were associated with infant, child and PCG health.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify and review the psychometric properties of instruments available for measuring oral health literacy. Materials and methods: A comprehensive computerised search was carried out using six databases. The final papers were rated for level of evidence and scientific quality. Results: A total of 621 potentially relevant articles were retrieved in the primary search. Twenty-nine studies using 13 oral health literacy instruments were included in the final analysis. After applying an international standards framework, all included studies were categorised as evidence level '2c'. Qualities of evidence were rated with STROBE guidelines. Psychometric analysis indicated various levels of validity and reliability across the instruments. Conclusions: As an emerging field, the number and reliability of oral health literacy instruments is rapidly growing, although many are in preliminary stages of testing. The majority of these focus on functional literacy and were developed in English for North American contexts. Further work is indicated to measure oral health literacy as a wider construct across diverse populations.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Oral health & preventive dentistry
  • C.E. OKUNSERI · M.C.M. WONG · D.T. YAU · C. MCGRATH · A. SZABO
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We investigated the prevalence of erosive tooth wear (ETW), juice/drink consumption and associated factors in adults in the United States. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey data for 2003-2004. ETW is defined as erosive tooth wear on at least one surface of at least one examined tooth. Drink/juice consumption collected via a Food Frequency Questionnaire was processed with DietCalc software to obtain average daily consumption frequency for all queried drinks and juice categories including milk. Survey-weighted descriptive and multivariable analyses with interaction terms were performed. Results: Our study sample consisted of 3773 adults (20 years and above) and 80% had evidence of erosive tooth wear. We found significant difference in the percent of ETW for age (lowest in 20-24 year old 63%), gender (lowest in female 76%) and race/ethnicity (lowest in African American 65%). Among those with and without ETW, consumption of soft drink was highest and that of tomato/vegetable juice was lowest. There was a significant difference in the consumption of fruit juice, milk and tomato/vegetable juices among those with and without ETW (p<0.005). After adjustment for demographic factors, drink/juice consumption was not predictive of ETW. Conclusion: We found substantial levels of erosive tooth wear in adults that is affected by demographic factors in a complex way. Drink/juice consumption in adults were not associated with ETW after adjusting for demographics.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • R. DAI · C. MCGRATH · O.L.T. LAM · E.C.M. LO · L.S.W. LI · Y. WEN
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study was to review clinical, microbiological, and immunological aspects of oral health, as well as oral health related behaviors among patients following stroke. Method: A structured search strategy was applied to three electronic databases to identify effective papers. Outcomes regarding tooth condition, periodontal condition, oral hygiene status, and dental attendance were extracted. Comprehensive Mete Analysis 2.0 software was used to pool those outcomes which were suitable for meta-analysis. Narrative summaries of key findings were provided for those outcomes which were not amenable to be synthesized. Result: The initial search yielded 19927 papers, 60 potentially effective studies (Kappa: 0.974) and 23 effective papers (Kappa: 0.965) in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The standardized differences in mean values of the parameters (fixed effect, random effect model) for patients with stroke compared to control groups were: number of remaining teeth (-0.325, -0.271), DMFT index (0.246, 0.246), plaque index (0.305, 0.356), gingival index (0.716, 0.653), periodontal health status- clinical attachment loss (0.437, 0.490) and probing depth (0.470, 0.579). In addition, a lower chance of dental attendance was observed among patients with stroke (odds ratio: 0.493, 0.480). Qualitative assessments were inconclusive. Conclusion: There is an increasing interest in oral health of patients with stroke. Patients with stroke had a poorer clinical oral health status across a range of parameters (tooth loss, dental caries experience, and periodontal status). Coupled with this, their dental attendance was less frequent. Further studies employing standardized assessments of oral health/oral health behaviors are needed to confirm these oral health disparities.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • C. MCGRATH · H.L. BRODER
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To systematically review all clinical, population and psychometric data on the use of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) since its development 20 years ago in 1994. Method: A systematic literature search was carried out using four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus) of publications from 1994 to 2014. Abstracts and articles that described the use of OHIP were considered by two independent readers using predefined exclusion criteria. Selected studies were grouped by category and reviewed. Result: An initial search identified 3262 papers, 1348 ‘potentially effective publications’ were screnned (Kappa >0.80) and 656 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria - ‘effective’ publications for the review (Kappa >0.80). OHIP has been translated into over 40 different languages and employed in over 60 different countries, but evidence of cross-cultural validation is scant. The validity and reliability of OHIP have been widely reported; and mostly, it performs well. Various short-form measures exist (at least eight), with OHIP-14 being the most common version employed (376 out of 656 studies); however, issues of content validity and responsiveness of OHIP-14 in certain contexts are evident. Increasingly, OHIP is being employed in prospective studies to assess outcomes from clinical interventions (176 of the 656 reports), but few studies have interpreted or measured ‘change’ that is meaningful for a clinical or population health prospective. Conclusion: OHIP is widely used globally and has generally performed well in terms of psychometrics, albeit that there are cross-cultural concerns. The use of the short-form OHIP-14 is particularly popular, but it may not be the most appropriate measure to use in some particular contexts. Increasingly, OHIP is being used in prospective studies; however, the challenge remains to interpret what ‘change’ in OHIP scores actually means, and to determine its value and use in routine clinical practice as a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM). Happy Birthday OHIP!
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The psychosocial and quality of life (QoL) of patients with deformed or missing ears are frequently compromised. The aim of this study is to develop innovative techniques using CAD/CAM technology in prosthetic auricular rehabilitation and provide improvement in the treatment outcomes, including their psychology and QoL. Methods. This is a preliminary clinical cohort study. Six patients requesting for auricular reconstruction were recruited and rehabilitated with implant-supported prosthesis using CAD/CAM technology. Different treatment outcomes including QoL and psychological changes were assessed at different time points. Results. A significant reduction in severity of depressive symptoms (P = 0.038) and an improving trend of satisfaction with life were found at 1 year postoperatively when compared with the preoperative findings. The domain scores in ''Body image", ''Family/friends/strangers", and ''Mood" were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 1 year postoperatively than 1 week postoperatively. However, only 50% of the patients wear their auricular prosthesis regularly. Conclusion. This preliminary study has confirmed that implant-supported auricular prosthesis could induce improvement in the psychology and QoL with statistically significant differences in the domains of the body image, social interaction, and mood. Our present findings can inform research design and hypotheses generation of future studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · International Journal of Dentistry
  • S.M. Peng · H.M. Wong · N.M. King · C McGrath
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between dental caries experience and adiposity status (general, central, and peripheral adiposity) in 12-year-old children in Hong Kong. Methods: A random sample of 668 12-year-old students was recruited. Clinical assessment for dental caries (DMFT) was conducted using WHO criteria. Anthropometric measurements for body height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TRSKF) were performed to assess general adiposity (weight-height ratio, body mass index); central adiposity (WC; waist-hip ratio, WHR), and peripheral adiposity (TRSKF). Associations between adiposity indices and dental caries experience [prevalence DMFT > 0, 'high' experience (DMFT ≥ SiC Index value) and 'very high' experience (DMFT ≥ SiC10 Index value)] were examined in bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: The response rate was 76.9% (n = 514/668). Regression analyses (adjusted for oral hygiene practice, snacking habits, and socio-demographic factors) identified that WHR z score was associated with 'high' dental caries experience (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.70, p = 0.02), and that WHR z score was associated with 'very high' dental caries experience (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10, 2.11, p = 0.01). TRSKF z score was associated with 'very high' dental caries experience (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.10, 1.96, p = 0.01). Conclusions: In a population-based sample of 12-year-old children in Hong Kong, dental caries experience was associated with adiposity. Central and peripheral, but not general adiposity was associated with dental caries experience.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Caries Research
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the relationship between caregivers' oral health literacy (OHL) and the oral health status of their children in an Asian population. A random sample of 301 child/caregiver dyads was recruited from kindergartens in Hong Kong. Two locally-developed and validated OHL assessment tasks were administered to caregivers with Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry-30 (HKREALD-30) assessing word recognition and Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task for Paediatric Dentistry (HKOHLAT-P) assessing comprehension. Their children's oral health status was assessed [dental caries experience - decayed, missing, filled teeth index - (dmft) and oral hygiene status - Visible Plaque Index (VPI)]. Caregivers' literacy was associated with children's oral health status. The HKOHLAT-P had a stronger association with children's oral health than HKREALD-30. HKOHLAT-P and HKREALD-30 remained associated with dmft in the adjusted negative binomial regression models (accounting for socio-demographics), Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.97, p=0.02, and 0.96, p=0.03, respectively. In the adjusted model, HKOHLAT-P was associated with VPI (IRR 0.90, p<0.05), but no association between HKREALD-30 and VPI was evident. The main conclusion of this study was that caregiver oral health literacy was associated with their child's oral health status. A comprehension instrument had a more robust association with children's oral status than a word recognition instrument. This study has implications for general public health education for designing community-level interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Patient Education and Counseling
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    ABSTRACT: Oral health literacy is a newly emerging field with considerable research potential. To validate an original instrument, the Hong Kong Oral Health Literacy Assessment Task (HKOHLAT-P) for paediatric dentistry. A convenient sample of 200 child/parent dyads attending a dental hospital in Hong Kong was selected. Convergent validity was tested by examining the association of HKOHLAT-P scores with those derived from the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Dentistry (TOFHLiD) and Hong Kong Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (HKREALD-30). The predictive validity of HKOHLAT-P was determined by testing the association between HKOHLAT-P and children's caries experience (dmft) and the Chinese Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of HKOHLAT-P were also evaluated. HKOHLAT-P was positively correlated with TOFHLiD and HKREALD-30 (P < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with children's dmft and ECOHIS. In the regression model, HKOHLAT-P was associated with TOFHLiD, HKEALD-30, children's dmft, and ECOHIS (P < 0.05) after controlling for participants' demographic characteristics. The intra-class correlation coefficient of HKOHLAT-P was 0.63 and the Cronbach's α was 0.71. Initial testing of HKOHLAT-P suggested that it is a valid and reliable instrument.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
  • W.H. CHU · S.M. PENG · H.M. WONG · C. MCGRATH
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The study aimed to investigate the relationships between dental caries experience and school neighbourhood environment. Methods: Forty-five schools were randomly selected from 18 districts in Hong Kong. Within each school all Form 1 and Form 2 (equivalent to US Grades 6 and 7) students born during April 1st to May 31st, 1997 were invited to participate in the study. Oral health assessment included a dental caries assessment by way of counting the number of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) according to the methods and criteria recommended by the WHO. School neighbourhood environment was determined by the number of individual convenient store and the number of fast food restaurants within 5-minute walking distance from each school address. In addition, Social Deprivation Index (SDI) of each school address was determined. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between dental caries experience and school neighbourhood environment. Results: Of the 668 student that were recruited in the survey, 205 (30.7%) student had dental caries experience (DMFT > 0); 96 (14.4%) had ‘high’ caries experience (DMFT > SiC Index); 42 (6.3%) had ‘very high’ caries experience (DMFT > SiC10 Index). The mean (SD) of number of convenient store, the number of fast food restaurant, and SDI of 45 schools was 6.1 (4.3), 2.9 (2.3), and 0.13 (0.01), respectively. No significant association between dental caries experience and school neighbourhood environment was observed (p> 0.05). Conclusion: School neighbourhood environment is not associated with dental caries experience among a population-based sample of 12-year-old students in Hong Kong.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2013
  • M. GU · A.C.H. HO · Y. YANG · C. MCGRATH · R.W.K. WONG · U. HAGG
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a severe condition which can impair growth and cognitive ability of children. Due to its close relationship with dento-facial morphologies, orthodontists are increasingly involved in the diagnosis and treatment of SDB. The objective of this study was to assess SDB problems among adolescents employing the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale(PDSS) questionnaire and to identify association between PDSS and dento-facial characteristics. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 teenagers (99 boys and 166girls; age: 13.74±2.01years, range, 11-17 years old) who sought orthodontic treatment at a University teaching hospital. Approval has been obtained from local ethic committee in advance. Participants self-completed the PDSS questionnaires (an eight-item scale). Dento-facial morphologies including extra- and intra-oral characteristics were recorded. Associations between PDSS variables (at item level) and dentofacial characteristics were analysed using the Pearson chi-square test or T test. Result: Most (59.2%, 157) experienced a daytime sleepiness event ‘always or frequently’ .Experience of one or more aspects of daytime sleepiness ‘always or frequently’ was associated with brachy face (short face) (P<0.01); and deep-bite (P<0.05). In addition, Class II molar relationship, a large tongue (P<0.01) and increased overjet (P<0.05) were associated with several experiences of daytime sleepiness aspects (items rated as occurring ‘always or frequently’). Conclusion: Daytime sleepiness was commonly reported among adolescents seeking orthodontics. Frequency of daytime sleepiness was associated with several dento-facial characteristics (shorter face, deep-bite, molar- relationship, tongue size and overjet).
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2013

Publication Stats

1k Citations
118.28 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2014
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Tung Wah Group of Hospitals
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Shenzhen Second People's Hospital
      Shen-ch’üan-shih, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 1999
    • University College London
      • Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998-1999
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom