Publications (223)595.49 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: to determine the incidence and risk factors of carotid stenosis progression in patients with asymptomatic moderate carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Methods: Patients with asymptomatic moderate CAS in duplex ultrasound (DUS) were identified from 2003 to 2008, and only those with more than one DUS were included during a 5-year follow-up after index DUS. Study end-points were carotid stenosis progression to severe stenosis ≥70%, development of ipsilateral neurologic symptoms (INS), and death. Results: One hundred twenty-nine carotid arteries in 124 patients were included in the study. Carotid stenosis progression occurred in 41 (31.8%) arteries, and 4 (3.2%) patients developed INS during a mean follow-up of 49 months (range, 2-128 months). The 5-year freedom from carotid stenosis progression and development of INS were 63.5% ± 5.3% and 98.1% ± 1.4%, respectively, with no difference from those of statin. There was no significant predictor of carotid stenosis progression, and it was not significantly associated with development of INS. The 5-year actuarial patient survival and symptom-free survival were 95.3% ± 2.7 and 93.4% ± 3.0%, respectively, with no difference from those of statin. The only independent predictor of death and INS/death was a remote history of INS (HR 18.166, P = 0.021, HR 4.840, P = 0.046). Conclusions: The incidence of carotid stenosis progression in asymptomatic moderate CAS was high even in popular use of aspirin and statin. Although development of INS was not associated with carotid stenosis progression, it was a risk factor of long-term morbidity and survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intravenous (IV) fluid warming in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods: Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to receive either IV fluids at room temperature (control group) or warmed IV fluids (warm fluids group). Each patient received a standardized goal-directed fluid regimen based on stroke volume variances. Oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 min intervals for 2 h after induction of anaesthesia. Results: A total of 52 patients were enrolled in the study. The drop in core temperature in the warm fluids group was significantly less than in the control group 2 h after the induction of anaesthesia. This significant difference was seen from 30 min after induction. Conclusion: IV fluid warming was associated with a smaller drop in core temperature than room temperature IV fluids in laparoscopic colorectal surgery incorporating goal-directed fluid therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We aimed to see the frequency of concomitant ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Korean patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and to determine risk factors for an early postoperative acute myocardial infarction (PAMI) after elective open or endovascular AAA repair. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a database of patients who underwent elective AAA repair over the past 11 years. Patients were classified into 3 groups: control group; group I, medical IHD treatment; group II, invasive IHD treatment. Rates of PAMI and mortality at 30 days were compiled and compared between groups according to the type of AAA repair. Results: Six hundred two elective repairs of infrarenal or juxtarenal AAAs were enrolled in this study. The patients were classified into control group (n = 398, 66.1%), group I (n = 73, 12.1%) and group II (n = 131, 21.8%). PAMI developed more frequently after open surgical repair (OSR) than after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) (5.4% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.012). In OSR patients (n = 373), PAMI developed 2.1% in control group, 18.0% in group I and 7.1% in group II (P < 0.001). In EVAR group (n = 229), PAMI developed 0.6% in control group, 4.3% in group I and 2.2% in group II (P = 0.211). On the multivariable analysis of risk factors of PAMI, PAMI developed more frequently in patients with positive functional stress test. Conclusion: The prevalence of concomitant IHD was 34% in Korean AAA patients. The risk of PAMI was significantly higher after OSR compared to EVAR and in patients with IHD compared to control group. Though we found some risk factors for PAMI, these were not applied to postoperative mortality rate.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the association between borderline ankle-brachial index (ABI) and clinical outcome in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: From August 2009 to August 2012, ABI was measured in 1291 patients who underwent PCI. Patients with borderline ABI were compared with those who had normal ABI. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat revascularization. Results: Of the 1291 patients, 1154 (82%) had normal ABI and 89 (7%) had borderline ABI. The median overall follow-up duration was 19 (interquartile range 13-26) months. After adjustment with IPTW, the incidence of stroke (HR, 6.28; CI 95%, 1.95-20.19; P < 0.01) and MACCE (HR, 2.54; CI 95%, 1.40-4.62; P < 0.01) were higher in the borderline ABI group. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of stroke (HR, 4.68; CI 95%, 1.18-18.52; p = 0.03) and MACCE (HR, 2.12; CI 95%, 1.09-4.11; P = 0.03) were still significantly higher. Conclusion: The presence of borderline ABI was associated with worse clinical outcome and increased stroke rate compared with normal ABI during the short-term follow-up period in patients who underwent coronary intervention.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Although current guidelines for pulmonary embolism (PE) treatment recommend surgical embolectomy when thrombolysis is contraindicated or has failed, their clinical outcomes rarely have been compared directly. Methods: After excluding patients aged under 18years and those with submassive or non-massive PE, 45 consecutive patients (median age, 68years; 62% female; 31% experienced cardiac arrest before PE treatment onset; 33% had cancer diagnosis history; and 29% received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]) who underwent only thrombolysis (TL group; n=19) or surgical embolectomy (SE group; n=26, including 4 who had failed thrombolysis) for acute massive PE from 2000 to 2013 at Samsung Medical Center were enrolled to assess cardiac mortality as primary outcome. Results: Median follow-up duration was 17.2months. In the SE group, significantly higher proportions of patients had recent surgery and ECMO. Overall 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 24% (n=11), without significant difference between the SE (15%) and TL (37%) groups (P=0.098); however, cardiac mortality rate was significantly higher in the TL than SE group (Log rank P=0.023). TL was an independent multivariate predictor of cardiac death (P=0.03). Conclusion: In this small retrospective single center experience, surgical embolectomy is associated with lower cardiac mortality risk than thrombolysis, which might render it first-line treatment option for acute massive PE for patients without life-limiting comorbidities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is one of the most important lethal complications in pregnant mothers. It is also associated with the subsequent development of chronic hypertension. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical risk factors of postpartum chronic hypertension in women diagnosed with HDP. Six hundred patients as HDP, who diagnosed and followed-up at least 6 month after delivery, were included in the study. We divided the included subjects in 2 groups based on the development of postpartum chronic hypertension: presenting with the chronic hypertension, “case group” (n = 41) and without chronic hypertension, “control group” (n = 559). Clinical and demographic factors were evaluated. By multiple regression analysis, early onset hypertension with end-organ dysfunction, smoking, higher prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS), were associated with progression to chronic hypertension in the postpartum period. The value of area under the curves (AUC) for the 5 models, that generated to combine the significant factors, increased from 0.645 to 0.831, which indicated improved prediction of progression to the chronic hypertension. Additional multivariate analysis revealed significant specific risk factors. This retrospective single hospital-based study demonstrated that the clinical risk factors, that is early onset hypertension with end-organ dysfunction, smoking, and higher prepregnancy BMI, were significant independent predictors of chronic hypertension in women after delivery. Identification of risk factors allowed us to narrow the subject field for monitoring and managing high blood pressure in the postpartum period.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new CT-based diagnostic method of protrusio acetabuli (PA) was introduced. However, prevalence of PA by this method and correlation between PA and other manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is unknown in Korean MFS patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PA diagnosed by a CT-based method in Korean patients with MFS, the association of PA with other manifestations of MFS, and the contribution of PA to MFS diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 146 MFS patients with the presence of a causative FBN1 mutation and 146 age- and sex-matched controls from a single tertiary care center. All MFS patients underwent a complete assessment of criteria based on the revised Ghent nosology. PA was assessed quantitatively using a CT-based circle-wall distance (CWD) method. PA was diagnosed in 77.4% of patients in the MFS group and in 11.0% of the control group. CWD was significantly different between the two groups (1.50 mm vs. -0.64 mm, P<0.001). The presence of PA did not correlate with the presence of ectopia lentis, aortic root diameter, or history of aortic dissection. The presence of PA did not have a significant impact on the final diagnosis of MFS. Even though the presence of PA does not related to the cardinal clinical features of MFS or influence MFS diagnosis, its presence may be helpful for the suspicion of MFS when aortic dissection or aneurysm is found on CT angiography of the aorta because of the high frequency of PA in MFS patients. Graphical Abstract
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of frequent tuberculosis in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA), a possible relationship between TA and tuberculosis has been proposed. However, there are no studies to date that have examined clinical manifestations in patients diagnosed with TA with or without tuberculosis. Two hundred sixty-seven patients were diagnosed with TA according to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria between September 1994 and April 2014. Patients with TA were classified into groups with or without tuberculosis. Among the 267 patients with TA studied, 47 patients (17.7 %) who had a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis (34 patients), concurrent diagnosis of tuberculosis with TA (10 patients), or diagnosis of tuberculosis during the follow-up period for TA (3 patients) were included in the group with tuberculosis. The group with tuberculosis comprised of 33 patients (70.2 %) with pulmonary tuberculosis, 12 patients (25.5 %) with tuberculous lymphadenitis, and 2 patients (4.3 %) with tuberculosis of the skin and colon, respectively. Comorbid disease and patients' signs and symptoms were not significantly different between TA patients with and without tuberculosis. Additionally, the site of disease involvement in angiographic findings and distribution of angiographic type were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, tuberculosis including tuberculous lymphadenitis was frequently observed in patients with TA. Clinical features and angiographic findings in TA were not different according to the presence or absence of concomitant tuberculosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because vagally mediated reflex bradycardia occurs frequently during gastrectomy and is potentially harmful, we compared the incidence of clinically significant reflex bradycardia between patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) and open gastrectomy (OG) and examined whether the type of surgery (OG vs. LG) was an independent risk factor for clinically significant reflex bradycardia. This prospective observational study evaluated 358 adult patients (age 18-70 years) who were undergoing elective OG or LG for gastric cancer resection. Symptomatic reflex bradycardia was defined as a sudden decrease in heart rate to <50 beats per minute (bpm), or to 50-59 bpm with a systolic blood pressure <70 mmHg, associated with a specific surgical maneuver. If bradycardia or hypotension developed, atropine or ephedrine was administered, in accordance with a predefined treatment protocol. The overall incidence of symptomatic reflex bradycardia was 24.6 % (88/358). Univariate analysis revealed the incidence of symptomatic reflex bradycardia in the LG group was significantly lower than that in the OG group [13.0 % (13/100) vs. 29.1 % (75/258), p = 0.002]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the type of surgery (OG vs. LG), advanced age, preoperative bradycardia, type of muscle relaxant (vecuronium vs. rocuronium), no use of intravenous remifentanil, and low core temperature, were independent risk factors for symptomatic reflex bradycardia (odds ratio 3.184; 95 % confidence interval 1.490-6.800; p = 0.003). The LG approach was associated with a reduced risk of clinically significant reflex bradycardia compared with the OG approach.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) presents with primary skeletal manifestations such as tall stature, chest wall abnormality, and scoliosis. These primary skeletal manifestations affect the growth pattern in MFS. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use normal growth charts to evaluate the growth status of MFS. We aimed to develop disease-specific growth charts for Korean MFS patients and to use these growth charts for understanding the growth patterns in MFS and managing of patients with MFS. Anthropometric data were available from 187 males and 152 females with MFS through a retrospective review of medical records. Disease-specific growth charts were generated and 3, 25, 50, 75, and 97 percentiles were calculated using the LMS (refers to λ, μ, and σ, respectively) smoothing procedure for height and weight. Comparisons between MFS patients and the general population were performed using a one-sample t-test. With regard to the height, the 50th percentile of MFS is above the normative 97th percentile in both genders. With regard to the weight, the 50 percentile of MFS is above the normative 75th percentile in male and between the normative 50th percentile and the 75th percentile in female. The disease-specific growth charts for Korean patients with MFS can be useful for monitoring growth patterns, planning the timing of growth-reductive therapy, predicting adult height and recording responses to growth-reductive therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because Takayasu arteritis (TA) predominantly affects females, few data regarding gender differences have been reported. The aim of the present study is to describe clinical features and angiographic findings of patients with TA according to gender. According to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria, 294 patients were diagnosed with TA between September 1994 and April 2014 at a single tertiary hospital. We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data at the time of diagnosis. Among the 294 patients studied, 257 (87.4%) were female (male:female ratio=1:6.9). Female patients had a higher tendency to exhibit blood pressure differences between arms (p=0.595) and a weak pulse at the brachial artery (p=0.063). In male patients, we observed higher serum creatinine levels (p=0.038) and hypertension more frequently (p=0.061) than in females. Females exhibited more common lesions in the thoracic aorta and its branches, while males had more frequent lesions in the abdominal aorta and its branches. An analysis of angiographic classification according to the International TA Conference in Tokyo 1994 classification revealed that male patients had a higher incidence of type IV and females showed a higher incidence of types I, IIa, and IIb. Female patients with TA have more frequent involvement of the thoracic aorta and its branches, whereas involvement of the abdominal aorta and its branches is more common in males. Considering these gender-specific differences, adjustment of diagnostic criteria for TA according to gender may be necessary.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of body-mass index (BMI) on spinal anesthesia is still controversial, with discrepant results reported in previous studies. To compare spinal anesthesia in obese and non-obese subjects, the anesthesia profiles in patients who underwent spinal anesthesia using intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine were compared. A total of 209 patients undergoing elective total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) surgery under spinal anesthesia were divided into an NO (non-obese) group (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 141) and an O (obese) group (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 68). Anesthesia was deemed successful if a bilateral T12 sensory block occurred within 15 minutes of intrathecal drug administration, and if the level of sensory block was higher than T12 when the surgery ended. Logistic regression analysis with multiple variables known to influence spinal anesthesia was performed to identify which parameters independently determined the spinal anesthesia outcome. Similar doses of bupivacaine were administered to the NO and O groups. The incidence of anesthesia failure was significantly lower in the O group [n = 43 (30.5%) in the NO group vs. n = 10 (18.9%) in the O group, p = 0.014]. The independent predictors for successful anesthesia in all patients were dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine [odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95% CI: 1.64-2.73] and obese status (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, OR 2.86, 95% CI: 1.25-6.52). Time to first report of postoperative pain and time to first self-void were significantly longer in the O group. These results suggest that the duration of block with hyperbaric bupivacaine is prolonged in obese patients and obesity is independently associated with spinal anesthesia outcomes, as is bupivacaine dosage. A further study enrolling patients with morbid obesity and using a fixed bupivacaine dosage is required to confirm the effect of obesity on spinal anesthesia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the incidence and the risk factors of emergence agitation in adults undergoing general anesthesia for nasal surgery. We retrospectively examined 792 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent general anesthesia for elective nasal surgery between July 2012 and August 2013. Patients in the postanesthesia care unit with a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale≥+1 at any time were considered to have emergence agitation. The overall incidence of emergence agitation is 22.2%. From multivariate regression analysis, the following six variables were found to be significantly associated with emergence agitation (P<0.05): younger age, recent smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain on the numerical rating scale (NRS)≥5, presence of a tracheal tube, and presence of a urinary catheter. Presence of a tracheal tube was the greatest risk factor, increasing the risk of developing emergence agitation by approximately fivefold (odds ratio, 5.448; 95% confidence interval, 2.973 to 9.982). Younger age was also a strong risk factor (odds ratio, 0.975 for each 1-year increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.964 to 0.987). Current smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain of NRS≥5, and the presence of a urinary catheter nearly doubled the risk of emergence agitation. Emergence agitation following general anesthesia is a common complication in adult nasal surgery patients. To reduce the occurrence and consequences of agitation episodes, elimination of the associated risk factors is necessary, especially in at-risk patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists database of anesthesia-related medical disputes (July 2009-June 2014), causative mechanisms and injury patterns were analyzed. In total, 105 cases were analyzed. Most patients were aged < 60 yr (82.9%) and were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≤ II (90.5%). In 42.9% of all cases, the injuries were determined to be 'avoidable' if the appropriate standard of care had been applied. Sedation was the sec most common type of anesthesia (37.1% of all cases), following by general anesthesia. Most sedation cases (27/39, 69.2%) showed a common lack of vigilance: no pre-procedural testing (82.1%), absence of anesthesia record (89.7%), and non-use of intra-procedural monitoring (15.4%). Most sedation (92.3%) was provided simultaneously by the non-anesthesiologists who performed the procedures. After the resulting injuries were grouped into four categories (temporary, permanent/minor, permanent/major, and death), their causative mechanisms were analyzed in cases with permanent injuries (n=20) and death (n=82). A 'respiratory events' was the leading causative mechanism (56/102, 54.9%). Of these, the most common specific mechanism was hypoxia secondary to airway obstruction or respiratory depression (n=31). The sec most common damaging event was a 'cardiovascular events' (26/102, 25.5%), in which myocardial infarction was the most common specific mechanism (n=12). Our database analysis demonstrated several typical injury profiles (a lack of vigilance in seemingly safe procedures or sedation, non-compliance with the airway management guidelines, and the prevalence of myocardial infarction) and can be helpful to improve patient safety.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) are complications of portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Their pathophysiological mechanisms clearly differ. HPS is characterized by a defect in arterial oxygenation induced by pulmonary vascular dilatation. In contrast, PPHTN is predominantly due to excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, but is rarely associated with hypoxia. We report a case of a patient who had both HPS and PPHTN at the time of presentation. HPS was aggravated after sildenafil administration for the treatment of PPHTN. We demonstrated increased amount of intrapulmonay shunt after sildenafil challenge by using agitated saline contrast transthoracic echocardiography.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Singleton-Merten syndrome (SMS) is an autosomal-dominant multi-system disorder characterized by dental dysplasia, aortic calcification, skeletal abnormalities, glaucoma, psoriasis, and other conditions. Despite an apparent autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance, the genetic background of SMS and information about its phenotypic heterogeneity remain unknown. Recently, we found a family affected by glaucoma, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities. Unlike subjects with classic SMS, affected individuals showed normal dentition, suggesting atypical SMS. To identify genetic causes of the disease, we performed exome sequencing in this family and identified a variant (c.1118A>C [p.Glu373Ala]) of DDX58, whose protein product is also known as RIG-I. Further analysis of DDX58 in 100 individuals with congenital glaucoma identified another variant (c.803G>T [p.Cys268Phe]) in a family who harbored neither dental anomalies nor aortic calcification but who suffered from glaucoma and skeletal abnormalities. Cys268 and Glu373 residues of DDX58 belong to ATP-binding motifs I and II, respectively, and these residues are predicted to be located closer to the ADP and RNA molecules than other nonpathogenic missense variants by protein structure analysis. Functional assays revealed that DDX58 alterations confer constitutive activation and thus lead to increased interferon (IFN) activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. In addition, when we transduced primary human trabecular meshwork cells with c.803G>T (p.Cys268Phe) and c.1118A>C (p.Glu373Ala) mutants, cytopathic effects and a significant decrease in cell number were observed. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DDX58 mutations cause atypical SMS manifesting with variable expression of glaucoma, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities without dental anomalies. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Samsung Medical Center
Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
- Department of Cardiology
Konkuk University Medical Center
Changnyeong, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
- Department of Surgery