[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacylases that regulate numerous biological processes in response to the environment. SirT1 is the mammalian ortholog of yeast Sir2, and is involved in many metabolic pathways in somatic tissues. Whole body deletion of SirT1 alters reproductive function in oocytes and the testes, in part caused by defects in central neuro-endocrine control. To study the function of SirT1 specifically in the male germ line, we deleted this sirtuin in male germ cells and found that mutant mice had smaller testes, a delay in differentiation of pre-meiotic germ cells, decreased spermatozoa number, an increased proportion of abnormal spermatozoa and reduced fertility. At the molecular level, mutants do not have the characteristic increase in acetylation of histone H4 at residues K5, K8 and K12 during spermiogenesis and demonstrate corresponding defects in the histone to protamine transition. Our findings thus reveal a germ cell-autonomous role of SirT1 in spermatogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly hypoxic but poorly vascularized, suggestive of deficient angiogenesis signaling. Expression profiling revealed that angiogenesis genes were significantly down-regulated as a result of the microRNA deficiency. Factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), FIH1, is derepressed under these conditions and suppresses HIF transcription. Knocking out FIH1 using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering reversed the phenotypes of microRNA-deficient cells in HIF transcriptional activity, VEGF production, tumor hypoxia, and tumor angiogenesis. Using multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9, we deleted regions in FIH1 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that contain microRNA-binding sites, which derepresses FIH1 protein and represses hypoxia response. These data suggest that microRNAs promote tumor responses to hypoxia and angiogenesis by repressing FIH1.
Preview · Article · May 2014 · Genes & development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ever since eukaryotes subsumed the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have had to closely coordinate their activities, as each encode different subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, but its causes are debated. We show that, during aging, there is a specific loss of mitochondrial, but not nuclear, encoded OXPHOS subunits. We trace the cause to an alternate PGC-1α/β-independent pathway of nuclear-mitochondrial communication that is induced by a decline in nuclear NAD(+) and the accumulation of HIF-1α under normoxic conditions, with parallels to Warburg reprogramming. Deleting SIRT1 accelerates this process, whereas raising NAD(+) levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Thus, a pseudohypoxic state that disrupts PGC-1α/β-independent nuclear-mitochondrial communication contributes to the decline in mitochondrial function with age, a process that is apparently reversible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we show that a subset of breast cancers express high levels of the type 2 phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinases α and/or β (PI5P4Kα and β) and provide evidence that these kinases are essential for growth in the absence of p53. Knocking down PI5P4Kα and β in a breast cancer cell line bearing an amplification of the gene encoding PI5P4K β and deficient for p53 impaired growth on plastic and in xenografts. This growth phenotype was accompanied by enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to senescence. Mice with homozygous deletion of both TP53 and PIP4K2B were not viable, indicating a synthetic lethality for loss of these two genes. Importantly however, PIP4K2A(-/-), PIP4K2B(+/-), and TP53(-/-) mice were viable and had a dramatic reduction in tumor formation compared to TP53(-/-) littermates. These results indicate that inhibitors of PI5P4Ks could be effective in preventing or treating cancers with mutations in TP53.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reductively metabolized glutamine is a major cellular carbon source for fatty acid synthesis during hypoxia or when mitochondrial respiration is impaired. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of what determines reductive metabolism is missing. Here we identify several cellular conditions where the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio is changed due to an altered acetyl-CoA to citrate conversion, and demonstrate that reductive glutamine metabolism is initiated in response to perturbations that result in an increase in the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio. Thus, targeting reductive glutamine conversion for a therapeutic benefit might require distinct modulations of metabolite concentrations rather than targeting the upstream signalling, which only indirectly affects the process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and epidemiology studies suggest an association with increased survival in cancer patients taking metformin, however, the mechanism by which metformin improves cancer outcomes remains controversial. To explore how metformin might directly affect cancer cells, we analyzed how metformin altered the metabolism of prostate cancer cells and tumors. We found that metformin decreased glucose oxidation and increased dependency on reductive glutamine metabolism in both cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of prostate cancer. Inhibition of glutamine anaplerosis in the presence of metformin further attenuated proliferation while increasing glutamine metabolism rescued the proliferative defect induced by metformin. These data suggest that interfering with glutamine may synergize with metformin to improve outcomes in patients with prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for the development of cancer metastases and organ fibrosis, conditions prevalent in aging. Because sirtuins affect the pathology of aging, we tested the effect of SirT1 on EMT. Reduced SIRT1 levels in HMLER breast cancer cells led to increased metastases in nude mice, and the loss of SIRT1 in kidney tubular epithelial cells exacerbated injury-induced kidney fibrosis. SIRT1 reduces EMT in cancer and fibrosis by deacetylating Smad4 and repressing the effect of TGF-β signaling on MMP7, a Smad4 target gene. Consequently, less E-cadherin is cleaved from the cell surface and β-catenin remains bound to E-cadherin at the cell-cell junctions. Our findings suggest that the SIRT1/Smad4/β-catenin axis may be a target for diseases driven by EMT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myocytes. This potential declines with aging. We investigated whether the sirtuin SIRT1 had a function in MSCs by creating MSC specific SIRT1 knock-out (MSCKO) mice. Aged MSCKO mice (2.2 years old) showed defects in tissues derived from MSCs; i.e. a reduction in subcutaneous fat, cortical bone thickness and trabecular volume. Young mice showed related but less pronounced effects. MSCs isolated from MSCKO mice showed reduced differentiation towards osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro, but no difference in proliferation or apoptosis. Expression of β-catenin targets important for differentiation was reduced in MSCKO cells. Moreover, while β-catenin itself (T41A mutant resistant to cytosolic turnover) accumulated in the nuclei of wild-type MSCs, it was unable to do so in MSCKO cells. However, mutating K49R or K345R in β-catenin to mimic deacetylation restored nuclear localization and differentiation potential in MSCKO cells. We conclude that SIRT1 deacetylates β-catenin to promote its accumulation in the nucleus leading to transcription of genes for MSC differentiation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · EMBO Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in stem cells and frequently overexpressed and tyrosine-phosphorylated in cancer. CDCP1 promotes cancer cell metastasis. However, the mechanisms that regulate CDCP1 are not well-defined. Here we show that hypoxia induces CDCP1 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α-, but not HIF-1α-, dependent fashion. shRNA knockdown of CDCP1 impairs cancer cell migration under hypoxic conditions, whereas overexpression of HIF-2α promotes the growth of tumor xenografts in association with enhanced CDCP1 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue microarray samples from tumors of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma shows that increased CDCP1 expression correlates with decreased overall survival. Together, these data support a critical role for CDCP1 as a unique HIF-2α target gene involved in the regulation of cancer metastasis, and suggest that CDCP1 is a biomarker and potential therapeutic target for metastatic cancers.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SIRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that governs a number of genetic programs to cope with changes in the nutritional status of cells and organisms. Behavioral responses to food abundance are important for the survival of higher animals. Here we used mice with increased or decreased brain SIRT1 to show that this sirtuin regulates anxiety and exploratory drive by activating transcription of the gene encoding the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) to reduce serotonin levels in the brain. Indeed, treating animals with MAO-A inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) normalized anxiety differences between wild-type and mutant animals. SIRT1 deacetylates the brain-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor NHLH2 on lysine 49 to increase its activation of the MAO-A promoter. Both common and rare variations in the SIRT1 gene were shown to be associated with risk of anxiety in human population samples. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 mediates levels of anxiety, and this regulation may be adaptive in a changing environment of food availability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) is the central biosynthetic precursor for fatty-acid synthesis and protein acetylation. In the conventional view of mammalian cell metabolism, AcCoA is primarily generated from glucose-derived pyruvate through the citrate shuttle and ATP citrate lyase in the cytosol. However, proliferating cells that exhibit aerobic glycolysis and those exposed to hypoxia convert glucose to lactate at near-stoichiometric levels, directing glucose carbon away from the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty-acid synthesis. Although glutamine is consumed at levels exceeding that required for nitrogen biosynthesis, the regulation and use of glutamine metabolism in hypoxic cells is not well understood. Here we show that human cells use reductive metabolism of α-ketoglutarate to synthesize AcCoA for lipid synthesis. This isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1)-dependent pathway is active in most cell lines under normal culture conditions, but cells grown under hypoxia rely almost exclusively on the reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate for de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, renal cell lines deficient in the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein preferentially use reductive glutamine metabolism for lipid biosynthesis even at normal oxygen levels. These results identify a critical role for oxygen in regulating carbon use to produce AcCoA and support lipid synthesis in mammalian cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent deacetylases that counter aging and diseases of aging. Sirtuin research has focused on SirT1, which deacetylates transcription factors and cofactors in the nucleus. More recent findings highlight SirT3 as a mitochondrial sirtuin that regulates metabolism and oxidative stress. This review focuses on new data linking SirT3 to management of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, which may have profound implications for aging and late-onset diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has become increasing clear that alterations in cellular metabolism have a key role in the generation and maintenance of cancer. Some of the metabolic changes can be attributed to the activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. Here, we show that the mitochondrial sirtuin, SirT3, acts as a tumor suppressor via its ability to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulate hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) or tumor cell lines expressing SirT3 short-hairpin RNA exhibit a greater potential to proliferate, and augmented HIF-1α protein stabilization and transcriptional activity in hypoxic conditions. SirT3 knockdown increases tumorigenesis in xenograft models, and this is abolished by giving mice the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, overexpression of SirT3 inhibits stabilization of HIF-1α protein in hypoxia and attenuates increases in HIF-1α transcriptional activity. Critically, overexpression of SirT3 decreases tumorigenesis in xenografts, even when induction of the sirtuin occurs after tumor initiation. These data suggest that SirT3 acts to suppress the growth of tumors, at least in part through its ability to suppress ROS and HIF-1α.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that airborne particulate matter air pollution (PM) activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in alveolar epithelial cells through a pathway that requires the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of p53. We sought to examine the source of mitochondrial oxidant production and the molecular links between ROS generation and the activation of p53 in response to PM exposure. Using a mitochondrially targeted ratiometric sensor (Ro-GFP) in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (rho0 cells) and cells stably expressing a small hairpin RNA directed against the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, we show that site III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is primarily responsible for fine PM (PM2.5)-induced oxidant production. In alveolar epithelial cells, the overexpression of SOD1 prevented the PM2.5-induced ROS generation from the mitochondria and prevented cell death. Infection of mice with an adenovirus encoding SOD1 prevented the PM2.5-induced death of alveolar epithelial cells and the associated increase in alveolar-capillary permeability. Treatment with PM2.5 resulted in the ROS-mediated activation of the oxidant-sensitive kinase ASK1 and its downstream kinase JNK. Murine embryonic fibroblasts from ASK1 knock-out mice, alveolar epithelial cells transfected with dominant negative constructs against ASK1, and pharmacologic inhibition of JNK with SP600125 (25 microM) prevented the PM2.5-induced phosphorylation of p53 and cell death. We conclude that particulate matter air pollution induces the generation of ROS primarily from site III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and that these ROS activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through ASK1, JNK, and p53.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Senescence is a potential tumor-suppressing mechanism and a commonly used model of cellular aging. One current hypothesis to explain senescence, based in part on the correlation of oxygen with senescence, postulates that it is caused by oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we further test this theory by determining the mechanisms of hyperoxia-induced senescence. Exposure to 70% O(2) led to stress-induced, telomere-independent senescence. Although hyperoxia elevated mitochondrial ROS production, overexpression of antioxidant proteins was not sufficient to prevent hyperoxia-induced senescence. Hyperoxia activated AMPK; however, overexpression of a kinase-dead mutant of LKB1, which prevented AMPK activation, did not prevent hyperoxia-induced senescence. Knocking down p21 via shRNA, or suppression of the p16/pRb pathway by either BMI1 or HPV16-E7 overexpression, was also insufficient to prevent hyperoxia-induced senescence. However, suppressing p53 function resulted in partial rescue from senescence, suggesting that hyperoxia-induced senescence involves p53. Suppressing both the p53 and pRb pathways resulted in almost complete protection, indicating that both pathways cooperate in hyperoxia-induced senescence. Collectively, these results indicate a ROS-independent but p53/pRb-dependent senescence mechanism during hyperoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As tumors develop, they outgrow the vascular network that supplies cells with oxygen and nutrients needed for survival. In response to decreased oxygen levels, the tumor cells initiate a program of adaptation by inducing the transcription of multiple genes via the activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Proteins encoded by a subset of genes induced by HIF promote tumorigenesis by acting directly on both the tumor cells and the microenvironment in which the tumor cells reside. The mechanism(s) by which hypoxia activates HIF is a subject of intensive research. Understanding how hypoxia activates HIF will provide targets for the development of therapies that could specifically target growing tumors by not allowing adequate adaptation to hypoxia, which is necessary for cancer progression. Here we outline how mitochondria regulate the activity of HIF during hypoxia.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial complex II is a tumor suppressor comprised of four subunits (SdhA, SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD). Mutations in any of
these should disrupt complex II enzymatic activity, yet defects in SdhA produce bioenergetic deficiency while defects in SdhB,
SdhC, or SdhD induce tumor formation. The mechanisms underlying these differences are not known. We show that the inhibition
of distal subunits of complex II, either pharmacologically or via RNA interference of SdhB, increases normoxic reactive oxygen
species (ROS) production, increases hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α) stabilization in an ROS-dependent manner, and increases
growth rates in vitro and in vivo without affecting hypoxia-mediated activation of HIF-α. Proximal pharmacologic inhibition
or RNA interference of complex II at SdhA, however, does not increase normoxic ROS production or HIF-α stabilization and results
in decreased growth rates in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the enhanced growth rates resulting from SdhB suppression are
inhibited by the suppression of HIF-1α and/or HIF-2α, indicating that the mechanism of SdhB-induced tumor formation relies
upon ROS production and subsequent HIF-α activation. Therefore, differences in ROS production, HIF proliferation, and cell
proliferation contribute to the differences in tumor phenotype in cells lacking SdhB as opposed to those lacking SdhA.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Molecular and Cellular Biology