[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM) toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM) agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs) and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05). The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the associations between ocular problems and serum levels of immunoglobulins in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed population 20years after exposure in context of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study was explored. Serum immunoglobulins (Ig) levels including IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG, and subclasses of IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) in 372 SM-exposed patients were titrated and compared with 128 unexposed controls considering their ocular problems. In exposed patients with tearing and blurring of vision, serum IgM levels were significantly lower than matched controls (P=0.026 and 0.027, respectively). Serum IgM levels in exposed patients with normal ocular conditions were significantly lower (P<0.050) than that of matched controls. Serum levels of IgA, IgE and IgG and IgG3 levels were not significantly different between the two groups with abnormal and normal ocular conditions. Mean serum IgG1 levels in exposed patients with normal ocular conditions were significantly higher than the matched controls (P<0.05) except for tearing and photophobia. Mean serum IgG2 levels in exposed with blurring of vision and without tearing, ocular pain, photophobia, lids and bulbar conjuctival abnormalities were significantly higher than that of matched controls (P<0.050). Mean serum levels of IgG4 in exposed patients with normal ocular conditions and most of the abnormal ocular conditions were significantly lower than the matched controls (P<0.05). The results of the current study showed that even 20years after SM exposure serum immunoglobulins are different from matched normal controls and the levels of IgM and IgG4 are associated with some aspects of ocular surface problems.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible association between ophthalmic complications in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed patients with mild ocular injuries and serum soluble adhesion molecules. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sL-selectin, sP-selectin and sE-selectin in 367 SM-exposed individuals with or without eye injuries were checked and compared with 128 unexposed controls. All participants underwent ocular examinations. Serum sICAM-1 level in SM exposed with blurred vision, was significantly (p=0.021) higher than in SM exposed with no blurred vision. Serum sL-selectin level was significantly (p=0.024) higher in SM exposed with photophobia than SM exposed with no photophobia. Serum P-selectin level in exposed without any slit lamp findings was significantly (p=0.003) lower than the matched control groups. Similar finding was seen in exposed group without ocular problem compared with the control groups. Serum sE-selectin level in exposed with normal ocular condition except for photophobia and blurred vision was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the matched controls. Serum E-selectin level in exposed with photophobia condition was significantly (p=0.047) higher than the control group with photophobia. In conclusion it seems that the changes in the E- and P-selectins is a regulatory mechanism for inhibition of SM induced ocular problems, although the local levels are more important and further investigations required in more severe ocular problems in SM exposed patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive. TNT can induce some well-recognized toxic impacts comprising toxic hepatitis, aplastic anemia and cataract. The aim of study was evaluation of TNT exposed workers for systemic complication.
In a cross-sectional study, we carried out Liver Function Test (LFT), complete blood count (CBC) and slit lamp biomicroscopy to compare the prevalence and severity of these 3 complications between 47 male TNT exposed workers (with at least one year continuous experience of TNT exposure) and 43 unexposed male hospital worker who hadn't had any previous contacts with TNT. We also performed Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) to assess the probable obstructive/restrictive abnormalities, caused by TNT.
Mean alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level of TNT exposed group was significantly higher than the unexposed group (p = 0.023) Forced Expiratory Volume in one second to Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratios of both groups were in the range of restrictive pattern (82.03% and 81.42% for the exposed and unexposed group, respectively) with no meaningful difference. We didn't find out any specific TNT induced cataract and general cortical cataract (CC) and nuclear sclerotic cataract (NSC) prevalence was not significantly different.
we haven't found TNT as a chemical, causing toxic hepatitis or aplastic anemia; neither did we find it as a compound, responsible for a meaningful increase in cataract prevalence. However, due to the increased ALP serum levels and FEV1/FVC ratios among TNT workers, safety precautions are advised.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delayed keratitis is the most dangerous ocular complication of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the role of tear and serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in SM exposed subjects.
In this historical cohort study, the experimental group included 370 participants who had been exposed to SM 20 years prior. Data were compared with those of 128 unexposed participants as the control group. After completing a thorough systemic and ocular examination, serum IL-8 levels in all exposed and controls were compared. According to the statistical calculation, tear IL-8 levels, were compared in randomly selected 48 exposed and 37 controls. Based on the ocular findings, the selected subjects were divided into two subgroups, normal subjects include those participants who had no ocular signs and abnormal subjects, were those who had at least one or more ocular signs.
Bulbar conjunctiva and limbal tissues evaluation in all participants showed a significantly higher number of abnormalities in exposed group than in the control group (P=0.004 and P=0.048 respectively). Serum IL-8 levels in all exposed were significantly lower than the matched controls (P=0.002). Tear IL-8 levels in the selected exposed were significantly lower than in the selected controls (P=0.030). In exposed group with normal conditions of the lids, bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, tear status, limbus, slit lamp findings and final ophthalmic assessment, tear IL-8 levels were significantly lower than in the matched controls (P=0.022, 0.037, 0.027, 0.050, 0.039, 0.029, 0.045 respectively). With respect to the global ophthalmic assessment, tear fluid IL-8 levels in the abnormal controls were significantly lower than in the normal controls (P=0.049), but this decrease in secretion of tear IL-8 were not encountered in abnormal exposed (P=0.415).
Tear IL-8 secretion was significantly inhibited in the unexposed controls with ocular surface abnormalities, while these inhibitory responses were not encountered in SM-exposed cases with ocular surface abnormalities.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to sulfur mustard (SM). Late ocular complications have been reported even 15-20 years post-exposure. To date, no study has investigated the composition of tear proteins in tear samples of SM-intoxicated patients.
Total protein content as well as concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P were measured in unstimulated tears of chemically-injured patients who suffer from late ocular complications of SM. These levels were compared to corresponding values obtained from tears of healthy control subjects. The concentration of total proteins was measured using the Bradford method and those of VEGF, CGRP and substance P by ELISA.
Total protein concentration was significantly lower in tears of the SM compared to control group (p<0.01). In contrast, tear samples of the SM group had significantly higher VEGF and VEGF/total protein compared to control group (p<0.01). Tear CGRP concentration was found to be lower in the SM vs. control group (p<0.05) but no significant difference in CGRP/total protein was observed (p>0.05). Finally, tear substance P concentrations were not found to be significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05).
The results of this investigation indicated decreased total protein and CGRP, and elevated VEGF concentration in tears of SM-intoxicated patients who suffer from chronic ocular complications.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocular and pulmonary involvement are the most important complications of sulfur mustard (SM) that may happen many years after exposure. This study aims to evaluate the severity of ocular involvement and the correlation between late ocular and lung complications in patients exposed to SM.
This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on SM lung-injured war veterans. Status of pulmonary involvement was categorized into normal, mild, moderate, and severe based on the "Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1)".Status of ocular involvement was also categorized into normal, mild, moderate, and severe, based on the slit lamp findings. Correlation between pulmonary and ocular involvements was evaluated by Spearman rank correlation test.
Totally, 292 war veterans with clinical pulmonary involvement were included in the study. Status of pulmonary involvement was 3.8% normal, 11.2% mild, 16.1% moderate, and 68.9% severe. Status of the ocular involvement was 68.2% normal, 13.8% mild, 5.4% moderate, and 12.6% severe. Among all patients, 96.3% had pulmonary involvement and 32.5% had ocular involvement. There was a positive correlation between the severity of ocular and pulmonary involvements (p = 0.049 and r = 0.122).
The results of this study showed that although there was a positive correlation between the severity of pulmonary and ocular involvement, this correlation was weak. This might be due to the nature of the studied population or differences in the tissue susceptibilities, gas types, or exposure patterns.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocular damages induced by sulfur mustard (SM) are the important problems in exposed patients. The damaging mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study the relationship between the serum levels of inflammatory mediators and ocular injuries induced by SM was evaluated. Bulbar conjunctiva and limbal tissue abnormalities were significantly more frequent in the expose versus control group (P=0.004 and 0.048 respectively). The serum levels of IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha in the exposed group with and without Slit lamp findings were significantly lower than their counterpart in the control group. The serum levels of IL-1beta in the exposed group with Slit lamp findings were significantly lower than their counterpart in the control group. The serum levels of IL-1beta in the controls with Slit lamp findings were significantly higher than the controls without Slit lamp findings. The serum levels of IL-1Ra and MMP-9 in the exposed group with and without Slit lamp findings do not display any significant differences as compared to the similar controls. The serum levels of IL-6 in the exposed group with or without Slit lamp findings were significantly lower than their counterpart in the control group (P=0.048 and 0.008 respectively). The serum titers of the CRP and RF in the exposed group without Slit lamp findings were significantly elevated versus their counterpart in the control group (P=0.004 and 0.011 respectively). The serum levels of these inflammatory cytokines except for IL-1Ra and MMP-9, decreased in SM exposed subject independent of ocular problems. More local studies on the eyes are needed to clarify the exact role of this cytokines in ocular problems of chemical.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · International immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a dangerous chemical warfare agent since the early 20th century. Although many descriptive studies about SM-induced ocular injuries are present in the medical literature, few of them have been conducted over a large group with serious ocular involvement.
This descriptive study was conducted on 149 severe SM-intoxicated war veterans. Ocular history, anterior and posterior segment findings using a slit lamp, and direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic findings were recorded. Severity of the disease was also recorded based on a chart of the Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs.
Ocular complains included photophobia (73.2%), sense of decreased vision (72.5%), dry eye sensation (66.4%), foreign body sensation (61.1%), tearing (46.3%), and pain (43.0%). Slit lamp findings were meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD; 96%), blepharitis, punctal closure, trichiasis, tear break-up time, and tear meniscus layer abnormality (80% to 90%). Conjunctival disturbances included vascular abnormality, ischemia, hyperemia, subconjunctival fibrosis, and pterygium. Limbal changes were abnormal vessels, limbal tissue loss and pigment loss, and pannus formation. Corneal problems included epithelial and stromal disturbances, calcium deposition, and melting. The most frequent previous surgeries were punctal closure, lamellar keratoplasty (LK), and stem cell allograft. Severity of intoxication included mild (17%), moderate (25%), and severe (57%).
Chronic blepharitis and decreased tear secretion are the 2 most important and influencing factors in progression of ocular problems in SM injuries. The more severe the initial exposure, percentage of disability, and duration of ocular involvement, the higher the likelihood of mustard gas keratopathy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review describes the evaluation of acute and chronic systemic and ocular toxic effects of sulfur mustard (SM) on exposed humans. It is intended to increase the awareness of extensive and dangerous environmental hazards of this agent and describe different treatment modalities for systemic and ocular involvement. Historical information and current events were accessed through the internal and external military field manuals and Internet searches. We reviewed the history, mechanism of action, and clinical and treatment modalities relating to ocular involvement of SM poisoning, by accident, terrorism, or war exposure. SM is the most dangerous organochlorine vesicant agent, which alkylates DNA. In liquid or gas form, its main targets are the eyes, skin, and lungs. Clinical effects are like burns accompanied by loss of immunity, respiratory failure, and ophthalmic, gastrointestinal, and hematological signs. Ocular effects of SM differ in acute and chronic toxicity. There are no specific antidotes for SM poisoning; hence, preventive medicine and modalities are paramount. So the first and most efficient treatment is to remove and decontaminate the victims. Most of the acute ocular problems heal during a few weeks after exposure, but rare regression of the signs and symptoms can occur up to more than 20 years after exposure, the so-called delayed keratitis that may lead to an uncontrolled penetrating keratoplasty and blindness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eyes are very sensitive to sulfur mustard (SM) gas because they have wet surfaces. The severity of ocular damage is related to the dose and duration of exposure to SM, and recovery may take up to several years after the exposure. We conducted a large cohort study to evaluate the ocular signs and symptoms of 367 chemical war victims in Sardasht City, Iran, 20 years after their exposure to mustard gas. The results of these chemical war victims (i.e., the cases) were compared with the results for 128 unaffected civilians (i.e., the controls). Photophobia was the most significant symptom in the cases (36.8%) (compared with 20.3% in the controls) (p < or = .001). Ocular surface discomfort (burning, itching, and redness) was the second most significant symptom in the cases (29.2%) (compared with 19.5% in the controls) (p = .034). Other symptoms such as foreign-body sensation, tearing, pain, blurring of vision, and dry eye sensation were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In the slit-lamp findings, bulbar conjunctival abnormality was the most significant sign in the cases (9.3%) (compared with 1.6% in the controls) (p = .004). Limbal tissue changes were the second most significant sign in the cases (3.0%) (compared with 0.0% in the controls) (p = .048). Other slit-lamp findings related to tearing and abnormalities in the lids and cornea were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Our findings in the present study showed that photophobia and ocular surface discomfort (burning, itching, and redness) were the most significant symptoms. In addition, bulbar conjunctival abnormalities and limbal tissue changes were the most significant signs among the sulfur mustard chemical war victims.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology