[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scutellaria baicalensis extract (SbE) has been shown to exert chemopreventive effects on several types of cancer. Baicalin, a hydrophilic flavonoid found in SbE, may have opposing effects that decrease the antitumor potential of SbE against colorectal cancer. In this study, after removing baicalin, we prepared an aglycone-rich fraction (ARF) of SbE and evaluated its anti-proliferative activity and mechanisms of action. The flavonoids found in ARF, baicalin fraction (BF) and SbE were determined by high-performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC). The effects of ARF, BF, SbE and representative flavonoids on the proliferation of HCT-116 and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells were determined by an MTS assay. The cell cycle, the expression of cyclins A and B1 and cell apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis-related gene expression was visualized by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and mitochondrial membrane potential was estimated following staining with JC-1. HPLC analysis showed that ARF contained two hydrophobic flavonoids, baicalein and wogonin, and that BF contained only baicalin. SbE had little anti-proliferative effect on the colorectal cancer cells; cancer cell growth was even observed at certain concentrations. ARF exerted potent anti-proliferative effects on the cancer cells. By contrast, BF increased cancer cell growth. ARF arrested cells in the S and G2/M phases, increased the expression of cyclins A and B1, and significantly induced cell apoptosis. Multiple genes in the mitochondrial pathway are involved in ARF-induced apoptosis, and subsequent cellular functional analysis validated the involvement of this pathway. These results suggest that removing baicalin from SbE produces an ARF that significantly inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells, and that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway plays a role in hydrophobic flavonoid-induced apoptosis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and anticancer activities was performed among white (air-dried) and red (steamed) roots of notoginseng (NG, Panax notoginseng), Asian ginseng (AG, P. ginseng), and American ginseng (AmG, P. quinquefolius). Chemical profiles of different ginseng species were characterized, through simultaneous quantification of nineteen major ginsenosides, by HPLC-UV at 202 nm. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells were determined by MTS method and flow cytometry, respectively. Chemical analysis indicated that white NG possessed the most abundant ginsenosides, i.e., two- and five-fold higher than white AmG and AG. During the steaming process, extensive conversion of the original polar ginsenosides in white ginseng to new, less polar, degradation compounds in red ginseng was observed. White ginsengs produced weak antiproliferative effects, while red ginsengs exhibited a significant increase in antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects (both P < 0.01 vs. white ginseng). Among the three red ginsengs, red NG showed the best anticancer activity. Due to the low cost of NG and high bioactivity of red NG, the red NG is promising to be a useful botanical product in cancer chemoprevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacological activities, notably the anticancer properties, of bioactive constituents fromfresh American ginseng berry have not yet been well studied. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of fresh American ginseng berry extract (AGBE) and its representative triterpenoid glycosides using the human colorectal cancer cell line SW480.
Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the contents of 8 ginsenosides in AGBE were determined. The cell growth inhibitory effects of AGBE and three triterpenoid glycosides (ginsenosides Rb3, Re, and Rg3) were evaluated by proliferation assay and (3)H-thymidine incorporation assay. Cell cycle and apoptotic effects were analyzed by using flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide and annexin V.
HPLC analysis data showed that AGBE has a distinct ginsenoside profile. AGBE inhibited SW480 cell growth significantly in a time-dependent (24-96 hours) and concentration-dependent (0.1-1.0 mg/mL) manner. Ginsenosides Rb3, Re, and Rg3 also possess significant antiproliferative activities on SW480 cells. (3)H-thymidine incorporation assay indicated that AGBE and ginsenosides Rb3, Re, and Rg3 might inhibit the transferring and duplication of DNA in SW480 cells. Flow cytometric assay data suggested that AGBE arrested SW480 cells in S and G2/M phases, and significantly induced cell apoptosis.
AGBE and ginsenosides Rb3, Re, and Rg3 possessed significant antiproliferative effects and induced changes of morphological appearance on SW480 cells. The mechanisms of the antiproliferation of AGBE and tested ginsenosides involved could be cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death in Western countries. Prevention rather than treatment of heart disease can significantly improve patients' quality of life and reduce health care costs. Flavonoids are widely distributed in vegetables, fruits and herbal medicines. Regularly consuming botanicals, especially those containing flavonoids, has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascualar disease; thus, it is important to investigate how flavonoids improve cardiac resistance to heart disease and their related mechanisms of action. It has been shown that cardiomyocyte injury and death can result from ischemia-reperfusion, which is pathognomonic of ischemic heart disease. Massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) release at the onset of reperfusion produces cell injury and death. "Programming" the heart to either generate less ROS or to increase strategic ROS removal could reduce reperfusion response. Additionally, profuse nitric oxide (NO) release at reperfusion could be protective in "preconditioning" models. Botanical flavonoids induce preconditioning of the heart, thereby protecting against ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this article, we will discuss two herbs containing potent flavonoids, Scutellaria baicalensis and grape seed proanthocyanidin, which can potentially offer cardiac protection against ischemic heart disease.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the possible synergistic chemopreventive effects of American ginseng berry extract (AGBE) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human colorectal cancer cell lines, SW-480, HCT-116 and HT-29. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the contents of major ginsenosides, the active components of American ginseng, in AGBE. The anti-proliferative effects were evaluated by the cell counting method. AGBE (0.1-1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibited SW-480, HCT-116 and HT-29 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell growth decreased more with the combined treatment of 5-FU and AGBE than with 5-FU or AGBE applied alone, suggesting that AGBE can reduce the dose of 5-FU needed to achieve desired effects and thereby decrease the dose-related toxicity of the chemotherapy agent. Cell apoptosis assay showed that AGBE markedly reduced the number of viable SW-480 cells at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, but did not increase cell apoptosis significantly. Neither 5-FU nor co-treatment with 5-FU and AGBE induced cell apoptosis markedly. Cell cycle assay showed that AGBE mainly arrested SW-480 cells in the G2/M phase. 5-FU increased the percentage of SW-480 cells at the S phase of the cell cycle. The assay of combined treatment groups indicated that AGBE can heighten the arrest of SW-480 cells in the S phase induced by 5-FU, and increase the cell distribution in G2/M phase compared with 5-FU applied alone. The trend of increasing cyclin A was similar to the increase of S and G2/M phase cells in all treated groups. The enhancement of S and G2/M phase arrest, rather than cell apoptosis, should be the mechanism of synergistic effects of AGBE on 5-FU. Further in vivo and clinical trials are needed to test AGBE as a valuable chemo-adjuvant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Panax ginseng roots, including the steamed roots, have been demonstrated to possess anticancer properties. However, there have been limited published studies on the cancer preventive effects of American ginseng. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer effects of American ginseng berry extracts, and their representative bioactive compounds were evaluated. The ginsenoside content in unsteamed American ginseng berry extract (AGE) and steamed berry extract (S-AGE) were determined by HPLC. In comparison to AGE, S-AGE showed significantly stronger antiproliferative effects on HCT-116, SW-480 and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. Antiproliferative effects of representative constituents in AGE and S-AGE, ginsenosides Rb3 and Rg3, were also evaluated, showing that Rg3 had a positive effect. Using flow cytometric analyses, we found that S-AGE arrests cancer cells in G1-phase and significantly induces cell apoptosis. Using xenograft mice, we conducted an in vivo antitumor study using S-AGE after HCT-116 cell inoculation. We observed that 50 mg/kg of S-AGE showed significant antitumor effects. Our results suggested that S-AGE inhibited the colorectal cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo, and this inhibition might be achieved through cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in the cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on our previous observation, the whole Scutellaria baicalensis extract (SbE) did not show significant breast cancer cell inhibitory effect. In this study, we isolated a baicalin-deprived-fraction (SbF1) of Scutellaria baicalensis, and baicalin-fraction (SbF3), and evaluated their anti-breast cancer properties using MCF-7 cells. The content of four flavonoids in extract/fractions were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data showed that in SbF1, the major constituents are baicalein and wogonin, while SbF3 only contains baicalin. The antiproliferative effects of fractions and SbE were assayed using modified trichrome stain method. SbF1 showed significant antiproliferative effect. Treated with 100mug/ml of SbF1 for 72h inhibited MCF-7 cell growth by 81.6%, while in the same treatment concentration, SbF3 increased cell growth by 22.6%. SbF1 was recognized as an active fraction of SbE. The effects of four flavonoids in SbE, scutellarin, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin, were determined, and data showed that baicalein and wogonin significantly inhibited MCF-7 cell growth. In contrast, in certain concentrations, scutellarin and baicalin increased cancer cell growth. The effects of SbF1 on cell cycle and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. SbF1 arrested MCF-7 cells in S- and G2/M-phases, and significantly increased induction of cell apoptosis. These combined phytochemical and biological data provide evidence for further chemopreventive studies of the baicalin-deprived SbE on breast cancer.
Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oplopanax horridus or devil's club is a herbal medicine distributed in North America. The constituents and pharmacological activities of O. horridus (OPH) are largely unknown. In this study, we assayed OPH stem and berry extracts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anticancer potentials of extracts on different human cancer cell lines (SW-480, HCT-116, HT-29, MCF-7 and NSCLC) were determined by MTS method. The effect of stem extract on cancer cell cycle, expression of cyclin A, and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. HPLC data showed that the composition of OPH stem extract is more complicated than the berry extract. The wavelength of maximum absorption of the major constituent in stem and berry is 196.0 nm and 201.9 nm, respectively. Compared to the berry extract, the stem extract showed significant potent antiproliferative effect on all the studied cell lines. The stem extract at 0.1 mg/ml arrested cancer cells in S- and G2/M-phases, and significantly induced expression of cyclin A. After treatment with 0.1 mg/ml of stem extract for 72 h, apoptotic cells were increased to 45.2%, while control was 9.6%. The cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis may play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention by Oplopanax horridus stem extract.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protease inhibitors such as ritonavir can cause nausea and vomiting which is the most common reason for discontinuation. Rats react to nauseous and emetic stimuli by increasing their oral intake of non-nutritive substances like kaolin, known as pica behavior. In this study, we evaluated the effects of methylnaltrexone, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist that does not affect analgesia, on ritonavir-induced nausea and vomiting in a rat pica model.
We observed that 24 to 48 hr after administration of oral ritonavir 20 mg/kg, kaolin consumption increased significantly in rats (P < 0.01). This increase was attenuated by pretreatment with an intraperitoneal injection of methylnaltrexone (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.01) and also with naloxone (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) (P < 0.01). The areas under the curve for kaolin intake from time 0 to 120 hr were significantly reduced after administration of the opioid antagonists. Food intake was not significantly affected. Plasma naltrexone levels were measured after methylnaltrexone injection, and no detectable levels were found, indicating that methylnaltrexone was not demethylated in our experimental paradigm.
These results suggest that methylnaltrexone may have potential clinical utility in reducing nausea and vomiting in HIV patients who take ritonavir.
Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · AIDS Research and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in cardiomyocytes is related to excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). We have previously shown that grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a naturally occurring antioxidant, decreased ROS and may potentially stimulate NO production. In this study, we investigated whether GSPE administration at reperfusion was associated with cardioprotection and enhanced NO production in a cardiomyocyte I/R model. GSPE attenuated I/R-induced cell death [18.0 +/- 1.8% (GSPE, 50 microg/ml) vs. 42.3 +/- 3.0% (I/R control), P < 0.001], restored contractility (6/6 vs. 0/6, respectively), and increased NO release. The NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 200 microM) significantly reduced GSPE-induced NO release and its associated cardioprotection [32.7 +/- 2.7% (GSPE + L-NAME) vs. 18.0 +/- 1.8% (GSPE alone), P < 0.01]. To determine whether GSPE induced NO production was mediated by the Akt-eNOS pathway, we utilized the Akt inhibitor API-2. API-2 (10 microM) abrogated GSPE-induced protection [44.3% +/- 2.2% (GSPE + API-2) vs. 27.0% +/- 4.3% (GSPE alone), P < 0.01], attenuated the enhanced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 in GSPE-treated cells and attenuated GSPE-induced NO increases. Simultaneously blocking NOS activation (L-NAME) and Akt (API-2) resulted in decreased NO levels similar to using each inhibitor independently. These data suggest that in the context of GSPE stimulation, Akt may help activate eNOS, leading to protective levels of NO. GSPE offers an alternative approach to therapeutic cardioprotection against I/R injury and may offer unique opportunities to improve cardiovascular health by enhancing NO production and increasing Akt-eNOS signaling.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous effective anticancer drugs have been developed from botanical sources, and there remains a significant untapped resource in herbal medicines. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of extracts from American ginseng after steaming, the antiproliferative effects of the ginsenosides in the extracts on SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells, and their apoptotic mechanisms. American ginseng roots were steamed at 120 degrees C for 2 or 4 h. Representative ginsenosides in the unsteamed and steamed extracts were determined using HPLC. The antiproliferative effects of the ginsenosides Rb1, Rg3 and Rh2 on SW-480 cells were determined by the MTS method. The effect of extract steamed for 4 h on apoptosis of SW-480 cell was assayed by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V/PI. The expression of 84 apoptotic-related genes, including TNF, mitochondria and p53 pathways, was determined using real-time quantitative PCR array analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) was analyzed after staining with FC-1. Steaming of American ginseng increased Rg3 and Rh2 content and antiproliferative activity significantly. The quantitative PCR array data demonstrated that multiple genes in mitochondrial pathway are involved in American ginseng-induced apoptosis of SW-480 cells and the expression profiling was validated by the cellular functional assay. The mitochondrial pathway may play a key role in American ginseng-mediated cancer cell apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to distinguish the extract of notoginseng root from that of other species in the genus Panax . The content of 12 saponins in notoginseng root extracts from different sources was evaluated. Herbal extracts from different plant parts of notoginseng, Asian ginseng, and American ginseng were also evaluated. With an HPLC assay, however, it is difficult to determine whether notoginseng root extract has been adulterated with other plant parts or other Panax species before extraction. Therefore, PCA was introduced to identify adulteration in notoginseng root extract. PCA was performed on the data set obtained from the HPLC chromatogram. The HPLC-PCA assay distinguished notoginseng root extract not only from the extract of other plant parts of notoginseng but also from the extract of Asian or American ginseng plant parts.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that Asian ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, may have anti-cancer properties. However, there is limited data exploring the use of Asian ginseng as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, and minimal mechanistic studies related to their possible synergistic activities. In this study, the content of 8 ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1 and Rg3, in the extracts of white ginseng (WG) and red ginseng (RG) were determined by HPLC. Using HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells, we compared the efficacy of WG and RG. We evaluated the synergy between ginseng and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and explored the mechanism of their anti-proliferative effects. As single extract, WG or RG used at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, inhibited HCT-116 cell proliferation in a concentration-related manner. WG at 0.2 mg/mL did not show obvious synergy with 5-FU co-treatment, while RG at 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL significantly enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of 5-FU at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 microM (P < 0.05). Using flow cytometric assay, RG 0.3 mg/mL did not affect cancer cell apoptotic induction activity. However, the RG induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, while 5-FU arrested the cell in the S phase. Different ginsenoside profiles are responsible for the observed differences in pharmacological effects. The effects of 8 ginsenosides on HCT-116 cells were assayed. Rd and Rg3 showed positive anti-proliferative effect. Our data suggested a potential for RG as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer, via a synergistic action.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Archives of Pharmacal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for cancer worldwide. Although 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents in first-line therapy for colorectal cancer, serious side effects limit its clinical usefulness. Panaxadiol (PD) is the purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibit anti-tumor activity. In this study, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects of PD and 5-FU on a human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT-116.
Cell viability was evaluated by an MTS cell proliferation assay. Morphological observation was performed by crystal violet cell viability staining assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with PI/RNase or Annexin V/PI.
Cell growth was markedly suppressed in HCT-116 cells treated by 5-FU (20-100 microM) for 24 or 48 h with time-dependent effects. The significant suppression on HCT-116 cell proliferation was observed after treatment with PD (25 microM) for 24 and 48 h. Panaxadiol (25 microM) markedly (P < 0.05) enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of 5-FU (5, 10, 20 microM) on HCT-116 cells compared to single treatment of 5-FU for 24 and 48 h. Flow cytometric analysis on DNA indicated that PD and 5-FU selectively arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase and S phase (P < 0.01), respectively, compared to the control condition. Combination use of 5-FU with PD significantly (P < 0.001) increased cell cycle arrest in the S phase compared to that treated by 5-FU alone. The combination of 5-FU and PD significantly enhanced the percentage of apoptotic cells when compared with the corresponding cell groups treated by 5-FU alone (P < 0.001).
Panaxadiol enhanced the anti-cancer effects of 5-FU on human colorectal cancer cells through the regulation of cell cycle transition and the induction of apoptotic cells.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells of different plant parts of P. notoginseng were evaluated. The contents of saponins in extracts from root, rhizome, flower and berry of P. notoginseng were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The contents and proportions of saponins were different among the four plant parts. Using the cell counting method, the antiproliferative effects were evaluated and the results indicated all four extracts, at 0.05-1.0 mg/mL, showed concentration-related antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells. The flower extract had stronger effects compared with the other three extracts; at 1.0 mg/mL, it inhibited the cell growth by 93.1% (p < 0.01). The antiproliferative effects of major saponins in notoginseng, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rb1, Rb3 and Rg1, were also evaluated, and the observed effects of major constituents support the pharmacological activities of extracts. The effects of notoginseng extracts on cell cycle and apoptosis of SW480 cells were determined using flow cytometry. Notoginseng extract can arrest the cells in S and G2/M phases. Remarkably apoptosis induction activities of notoginseng extracts were observed with the flower extract possessing the most potent effect, supporting the antiproliferative effect.
Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Phytotherapy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia in diabetic conditions may cause oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells, leading to their dysfunction and insulin resistance within peripheral tissues. Previous studies suggest that American ginseng berry extract may have hypoglycemic effects, as well as offer antioxidant protection. We examined effects of American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re in a pancreatic beta-cell line, MIN-6, to determine if these two properties are related. Cells were exposed to oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide incubation and oxidative stress was measured by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. These cells showed a concentration-related response to hydrogen peroxide at 100-500 microM. In acute conditions where cells were treated with the extract for 10 min, we observed reduced oxidant injury suggesting direct scavenging effects. Chronic incubation of cells with the extract for 48 hours also demonstrated attenuation of oxidative stress. At high concentrations, Re showed a mild antioxidant effect in MIN-6 cells. Our insulin release observations also showed that the extract may help to increase insulin secretions from the cells. Our data suggest that the observed ability of ginseng to reduce blood glucose levels may be linked to its antioxidant effects on pancreatic beta-cells.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia in diabetic conditions may cause oxidative stress in pancreatic ß-cells, leading to their dysfunction and insulin resistance within peripheral tissues. Previous studies suggest that American ginseng berry extract may have hypoglycemic effects, as well as offer antioxidant protection. We examined effects of American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re in a pancreatic ß-cell line, MIN-6, to determine if these two properties are related. Cells were exposed to oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide incubation and oxidative stress was measured by oxidation of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. These cells showed a concentration-related response to hydrogen peroxide at 100–500 μM. In acute conditions where cells were treated with the extract for 10 min, we observed reduced oxidant injury suggesting direct scavenging effects. Chronic incubation of cells with the extract for 48 hours also demonstrated attenuation of oxidative stress. At high concentrations, Re showed a mild antioxidant effect in MIN-6 cells. Our insulin release observations also showed that the extract may help to increase insulin secretions from the cells. Our data suggest that the observed ability of ginseng to reduce blood glucose levels may be linked to its antioxidant effects on pancreatic ß-cells.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng root extract (NGRE) and its major constituents on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. We used high performance liquid chromatography to determine the contents of major saponins in NGRE. The anti-proliferative effects were evaluated by the cell counting method, and concentration-related anti-proliferative effects were observed. At 1.0 mg/ml, NGRE inhibited cell growth by 85.8% (P<0.01), probably linked to the higher concentration of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1. The pharmacologic activities of notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 on the cells were antiproliferative. We tested the effects of NGRE on DNA synthesis by measuring [3H]-thymidine incorporation. NGRE induced cell apoptosis at 0.5 and 1 mg/ml. Two-day treatment with 300 microM of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 increased cell apoptosis significantly. Cell cycle and cyclin A assay showed that NGRE arrested cells in the synthesis phase and increased the expression of cyclin A remarkably. NGRE also enhanced the actions of two chemotherapeutic agents, 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan. Cell growth decreased more with the combined treatment of NGRE and 5-fluorouracil (or irinotecan) than with the chemotherapy agent applied alone, suggesting that notoginseng can reduce the dose of 5-fluorouracil (or irinotecan) needed to achieve desired effects. Further in vivo and human trials are warranted to test whether notoginseng is a valuable chemo-adjuvant with clinical validity.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · International Journal of Oncology