BA Chandramouli

Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Hubli, Karnataka, India

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Publications (90)143.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We studied the clinical, electrophysiological, imaging and pathological features of 18 patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). This descriptive study included 18 patients (six males, 12 females) with RE who were evaluated for demographic and phenotypic details, electroencephalogram (EEG) results, MRI results, pathological features, virological markers and outcome. Radiological staging as per Bien et al. and pathological staging in accordance with Robitaille et al. were performed. Simple partial seizures were the most common initial manifestation. During the disease course, epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) developed in 15/18 (83.3%) and hemiparesis in 17/18 (94.4%) patients. EEG revealed hemispheric slowing (100%), interictal epileptiform discharges (100%) and ictal pattern (44.4%). Brain MRI revealed unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy (100%), white matter changes (88.2%), basal ganglia-ipsilateral caudate and putamen involvement (50.0%) and progression of atrophy on serial MRI (100%). Unusual presentations in this series included late onset (n = 1), and isolated lingual EPC (n = 1). Diagnostic biopsies in two patients revealed Robitaille stage 3 disease. The six hemispherotomy specimens showed stage 2 disease in one, stage 3 in three and stage 4 in two cases. Heterogeneity in disease stage in the different neuroanatomical regions and within the same cortical segment reflected progression of immune-mediated damage. Immunomodulation provided only temporary benefit. Patients who underwent functional hemispherotomy had reduction in seizure frequency and improved quality of life. The clinical, EEG and MRI findings are in accordance with the established literature. MRI staging was concordant with Robitaille pathological staging. Immunomodulation did result in transient reduction in seizure frequency while surgery in six produced reasonable benefit.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical spine injuries occur infrequently in children but are associated with significant disability and mortality. A retrospective analysis was performed of 84 consecutive pediatric spine injuries treated at our institute from January 2002 to December 2011. The mean age was 14.7 years. There were 18 patients (21%) in group A (0-12 years) and 66 patients (79%) in group B (13-18 years). Overall, injury was more common in boys (ratio of 6:1). Trivial fall was the predominant cause in group A and fall from height in group B. There were 30 children (36%) with injuries of the upper cervical spine, 53 (63%) with injuries of the lower cervical spine and 1 patient (1%) with a combined injury of upper cervical spine and thoracic spine. Overall, 22% of the group A children and 67% of the group B patients had more severe injuries (Frankel grades A, B and C); 21% (18/84) were treated by surgical fusion. Where follow-up was available, 17 out of 22 children (77%) had good outcome (Frankel grade >C). In conclusion, mechanisms and patterns of injury in children are age related and the majority of the children had good outcome.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pediatric Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Dexmedetomidine, a predominant alpha-2-adrenergic agonist has been used in anesthetic practice to provide good sedation. The drug is being recently used in neuroanesthesia during awake surgery for brain tumors and in functional neurosurgery. This prospective study analyzed the hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine infusion during electrocorticography in patients undergoing surgery for mesial temporal sclerosis. Dexmedetomidine infusion was administered during intra-operative electrocorticography recording, 15 minutes after the end tidal MAC of N2O and isoflurane were decreased to zero. Anesthesia was maintained with O2 : air mixture = 50:50, vecuronium and fentanyl. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded across at induction, 2 min prior to dexmedetomidine (PreDEX), 5 min during dexmedetomidine infusion (DEX; 1 μg/kg), 5 min after stopping dexmedetomidine and 10 minutes after stopping dexmedetomidine. Forty patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (M: F = 27:13, mean age = 28.15 ± 10.9 years; duration of epilepsy = 12.0 ± 7.9 years) underwent anterior temporal lobe resection with amygdalohippocampectomy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Infusion of dexmedetomidine caused a transient fall in HR in 87.5% of patients and an increase in MAP in 62.5% of patients, which showed a tendency to revert back towards PreDEX values within 10 min after stopping the infusion. Sixty-five percent of the patients showed ≤25% reduction and 10% of them showed >25% reduction in HR. 47.5% of the patients showed ≤25% increase and 15% of them showed >25% increase in MAP. These changes were over a narrow range and within physiological limits. The infusion of dexmedetomidine for a short period causes reduction of HR and increase in MAP in patients, however the variations are within acceptable range.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anesthetic-induced suppression of cortical electrical activity is a major concern during epilepsy surgery. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been recently evaluated in a few small series for its effect on the electrocorticographic spikes intra-operatively. Methods: In this prospective study, electrocorticogram (ECoG) was monitored during dexmedetomidine infusion in 34 patients (M:F=23:11, age=29.2 ± 10.9 years; duration of epilepsy=15.3 ± 8.9 years) undergoing anterior temporal lobe resection with amygdalo-hippocampectomy for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (Right: 18, Left: 16). Anesthesia was induced with thiopental/propofol and maintained with oxygen-N2O-isoflurane. ECoG was recorded for 5 min after the end tidal MAC of N2O and isoflurane were decreased to zero; anesthesia was maintained with O2:Air=50:50, vecuronium and fentanyl. ECoG was recorded using a 4-contact strip electrode for: (a) 5 min prior to dexmedetomidine (PreDEX), (b) 5 min during dexmedetomidine infusion (DEX; 1 μg/kg) and (c) 5 min after stopping dexmedetomidine (PostDEX). Results: The ECoG spikes were manually counted in all the channels. The mean spike rate in the 2 channels with maximum spikes (MAX CH A and MAX CH B) was normalized to a 3-min duration. RM-ANOVA and post hoc comparison of three phases were used to compare the spike rates. The mean spike rate during Dex phase was higher compared to preDEX (MAX CH B: p=0.007 and MAX CH A: p=0.079) and PostDEX (MAX CH B: p=0.17, MAX CH A: p=0.79) phases. The spike rate increased in 67.6% patients, while 11.8% patients showed ≤ 25% reduction and 20.6% patients showed >25% reduction in spike frequency. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is useful during intra-operative ECoG recording in epilepsy surgery as it enhances or does not alter spike rate in most of the cases, without any major adverse effects.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Epilepsy Research
  • N Manoj · A Arivazhagan · A Mahadevan · D I Bhat · H R Arvinda · B I Devi · S Sampath · B A Chandramouli

    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Neurology India
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of drug resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. Methods This study analyzed the outcome of patients with MTS following anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (ATL-AH) over ten years and correlated theelectrophysiological and radiological factorswith the post operative seizure outcome. Results Eighty seven patients were included in the study. Sixty seven(77.2%) patients had an Engel Class 1 outcome, 9 (11.4%) had Class 2 outcome. Engel's class 1 outcome was achieved in 89.9% at 1 year, while it reduced slightly to 81.9% at 2 yr and 76.2% at 5 year follow up. Seventy seven (88.5%) patients had evidence of hippocampal sclerosis on histopathology. Dual pathology was observed in 19 of 77 specimens with hippocampal sclerosis, but did not influence the outcome. Factors associated with an unfavorable outcome included male gender (p = 0.04), and a higher frequency of pre-operative seizures (p = 0.005), whereas presence of febrile seizures (p = 0.048) and loss of hippocampal neurons in CA4 region on histopathology (p = 0.040) were associated with favorable outcome.The effect of CA4 loss on outcome is probably influenced by neuronal loss in other subfields as well since isolated CA4 loss was rare.. Abnormal post operative EEG at the end of one week was found to be a significant factor predicting unfavorable outcome (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the pre-operative seizure frequency was the only significant factor affecting outcome. Conclusions The present study observed excellent seizure free outcome in a carefully selected cohort of patients with MTS with refractory epilepsy. Presence of dual pathology did not influence the outcome.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of the neurological sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Epidemiology of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) world-wide shows an increase in incidence linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Materials and methods: This retrospective review of case records analyzed the trends of hospital-based incidence of PCNSL over two decades (1991-2010), relation to immune status and effect of steroids on yield of stereotactic biopsy (STB). Results: A total of 76 cases of PCNSL were diagnosed over a period of two decades. Incidence of lymphomas amongst all biopsied lesions showed a gradual increase from 0.18% at the beginning of study period to 0.41% at the end of study period. Only 8.6% (3 of 35 tested) of the PCNSL patients were positive for HIV. The mean age of patients with HIV infection (31.3 ± 3.5 years) was significantly lower compared with those without HIV infection (44.7 ± 10.9 years) (P = 0.033). Diagnosis was obtained by open biopsy in 32 patients (42.1%) and STB in 44 patients (57.9%). Open biopsy yielded a histological confirmation of PCNSL in all cases. Among those who underwent STB, the incidence of negative biopsy with short duration of steroids (≤ 1 week) was 33.3% and increased to 57.1% with increasing duration of steroid treatment (>1 week). Conclusions: This study documented an increase in hospital based incidence of PCNSL in our institute, independent of HIV association. Steroid intake administration for more than a week prior to biopsy adversely affected the yield of STB in PCNSL.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Neurology India
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    ABSTRACT: Stereotactic biopsy of brainstem lesions have been performed with varying indications, with most of the literature reporting on children. The present study retrospectively analyzed all cases that underwent stereotactic biopsy for brainstem lesion in both adult and pediatric population between 1994 and 2009 in a single tertiary neurosurgical center. The clinical and radiological features, technique of the procedure, morbidity, diagnostic accuracy, spectrum of diagnosis, and variations in adult and pediatric population were analyzed. Eighty-two patients were included in the study. Computed tomography (CT) was used as guidance in 73 (38 children and 35 adults) patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 9 (3 children and 6 adults). The biopsy was performed in a procedure room under local anesthesia in most adults, while children required sedation. Glioblastoma comprised 29.3% of all pathologies in children, compared with only 4.9% of the pathologies in adult population (P = 0.007). Tuberculosis was the next major diagnosis (9.8%). In 12 patients, initial biopsy was inconclusive. Following a repeat biopsy in 5 of these patients, a diagnosis was possible for 75/82 (91.5%) patients by STB. The location of the target, the choice of entry, the radiological characteristic of the lesion, enhancement pattern, and age group did not significantly correlate with the occurrence of inconclusive biopsy. Permanent complications occurred in two patients (2.4%). There was no mortality in this series. Stereotactic biopsy has an important role in brainstem lesions, more significantly in adults, due to wider pathological spectrum. It can be performed safely under local anesthesia through a twist drill craniostomy in most of the adults.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the MRI findings in 16 patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE), further analysed serial MRI changes in 11 of them and correlated it with clinical features. The diagnosis of RE was based on the European consensus statement (Brain, 128, 2005, 454). Details related to demographical, clinical, MRI observations were analysed. Forty MRIs of brain of 16 patients were reviewed. Eleven patients had undergone serial brain MRIs ranging from two to five occasions. All the patients had unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy, predominantly in the perisylvian region (n = 13). Other features were white matter signal changes (n = 14), and ipsilateral caudate (n = 6) and putamen (n = 4) atrophy. Signal alterations in putamen and caudate were noted in four each. In all the 11 patients with serial MRI, there was progression of cerebral atrophy and a trend towards increase in MRI staging. The MRI signal changes remained same in five patients, resolved in three patients, differential change in two patients and increased in one patient. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed facilitated diffusion (n = 5), and MR spectroscopy showed reduced N-acetyl-aspartate and elevated lactate (n = 2). Pattern recognition of MRI findings and the changes in serial MRI might serve as a surrogate marker of disease viz. unihemispheric progressive focal cortical atrophy and signal changes predominantly in the perisylvian distribution and caudate followed by putamen involvement. This might assist in understanding and monitoring of the disease progression.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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    ABSTRACT: Although histopathological diagnosis is essential in decision of therapeutic strategy for gliomas, sometimes the tumors diagnosed in one histological entity show thoroughly different clinical courses. This phenomenon is believed to be due primarily to the presence of the genetic subgroup. In fact, relationship between treatment response and certain genetic characteristics is indicated (e.g. better chemosensitivity in glioma with losses of 1p/19q (−1p/19q)). It is highly likely that genetic classification of glioma is useful to select the adjuvant treatment. Additionally, gain of 7q (+7q) and −1p/19q are early events in 2 distinct tumor lineages, astrocytic tumors and oligodendroglial tumors, respectively, and these tumors obtain additional genetic aberration (−9p, 10q) with tumor progression. On the other hand, concerning the tumors without +7q or −1p/19q, little is known about clinically important genetic aberration. Therefore the study on such tumors could provide useful information for the prognosis prediction and the determination of treatment strategy. METHODS: We selected 39 cases of gliomas without +7q or −1p/19q from 200 adult supratentorial glioma cases surgically treated and analyzed chromosomal DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) from 2005 to 2012. We correlated clinical features of these tumors with histological characteristics, CNAs and IDH1 status. RESULTS: The clinical course of gliomas without +7q or −1p/19q was not correlated with additional genetic aberration of -9p or 10q, which have been known as genetic markers for poor prognosis, and absence of +7q or −1p/19q was maintained at the time of recurrence. The tumors without +7q or −1p/19q showed relatively favorable prognosis although mutation of IDH1 was infrequent in these tumors (35.8 %). CONCLUSION: The gliomas without +7q or −1p/19q have clinical features distinct from the +7q and −1p/19q gliomas. Prognostic markers for each subgroups could help establish therapeutic strategy against the tumor.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Neuro-Oncology
  • T.J. Aniruddha · A. Arivazhagan · B.A. Chandramouli
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    ABSTRACT: Closed continuous lumbar subarachnoid drainage is an accepted strategy in the management of cerebrospinal fuid (CSF) leaks. Post lumbar drain haematoma as a complication has been reported in various planes including intraventricular, subdural, subarachnoid, intraparenchymal and spinal extradural locations, most often in patients receiving anticoagulants. Supratentorial extradural haematoma secondary to intracranial hypotension due to spinal CSF drainage are extremely rare and have been reported in a few cases. We present a rare case of near fatal fronto-temporo-parietal extradural haematoma following a lumbar CSF drain and review the literature. We report a 50 year old lady who developed CSF rhinorrhea following trans-sphenoidal decompression of non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. A lumbar CSF drainage was placed to manage the CSF leak. She became unconscious within 24 hours of placement of lumbar drain and an urgent CT scan demonstrated a large supratentorial extradural hematoma which required an emergency evacuation. A review of the fve previously reported similar cases was performed in the light of the present case and salient features highlighted. The present report emphasizes the fact that a simple procedure like lumbar CSF drainage can have rare life threatening complications and needs immediate recognition and management.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Neurology Asia
  • Rajeev Sharma · B A Chandramouli · Prateek Nayak

    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Neurology India
  • Rashmi Belodu · Nagarathna S · Ravikumar R · Rakesh Kumar · Chandramouli B A
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    ABSTRACT: A brain abscess which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare entity. Here, we have described a gentle man who presented with the signs and symptoms of a mass lesion which was localized to the temporal lobe. The clinical examination and computerized tomography revealed the diagnosis of a temporal abscess. The loculated mass was tapped and it was sent for histopathology, which confirmed the presence of an organizing abscess. A laboratory investigation of the pus revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae. The treatment included total excision and the administration of prolonged antibiotics, which led to a good outcome in the patient.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013
  • A Kulkarni · B Thota · M R Srividya · K Thennarasu · A Arivazhagan · V Santosh · B A Chandramouli
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    ABSTRACT: The role of insulin- like growth factors and their regulatory proteins (IGFBP isoforms) in gliomas, particularly glioblastoma, has been a subject of active research in recent years. There is paucity of literature on their expression and impact on clinical outcome in anaplastic astrocytomas. To evaluate the expression patterns of IGFBP isoforms in anaplastic astrocytoma and correlate with clinical outcome, a retrospective study of 53 adult patients operated for supratentorial lobar anaplastic astrocytoma was performed. The protein expression of IGFBP isoforms (IGFBP-2, -3, -5 and -7), was studied by immunohistochemistry on all samples. The patients were followed up and outcome was documented. The median age at presentation in the present study was 35 years. The pattern of staining was intra cytoplasmic, homogenous and diffuse for IGFBP-2, -3 and -5 and granular for IGFBP-7. IGFBP-2 expression was significantly low in anaplastic astrocytoma as compared to other isoforms (P < 0.001). IGFBP-3 expression was higher than the other isoforms. However, its' expression correlated with favorable overall survival and demonstrated a trend towards significance on univariate analysis. The present study is the first of its kind to describe comprehensively the pattern of expression of IGFBP isoforms (IGFBP-2, -3, -5 and -7) in anaplastic astrocytomas. IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 expression patterns and correlation to prognosis were distinct in anaplastic astrocytoma patients, contradictory to what has been reported in glioblastoma, thus giving further evidence that anaplastic astrocytomas are molecularly distinct from glioblastoma.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Pathology & Oncology Research
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    ABSTRACT: The search for molecular markers which predict response to chemotherapy is an important aspect of current neuro-oncology research. MGMT promoter methylation is the only proved marker of glioblastoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of topoisomerase expression on glioblastoma survival and study the mechanisms involved. The transcript levels of all isoforms of the topoisomerase family in all grades of diffuse astrocytoma were assessed. A prospective study of patients with glioblastoma treated by a uniform treatment procedure was performed with the objective of correlating outcome with gene expression. The ability of TOP2A enzyme to relax the super coiled plasmid DNA in the presence of temozolomide was evaluated to assess its effect on TOP2A. The temozolomide cyctotoxicity of TOP2A-silenced U251 cells was assessed. The transcript levels of TOP2A, TOP2B, and TOP3A are upregulated significantly in GBM in comparison with lower grades of astrocytoma and normal brain samples. mRNA levels of TOP2A correlated significantly with survival of the patients. Higher TOP2A transcript levels in GBM patients predicted better prognosis (P = 0.043; HR = 0.889). Interestingly, we noted that temozolomide inhibited TOP2A activity in in-vitro enzyme assays. We also noted that siRNA knock down of TOP2A rendered a glioma cell line resistant to temozolomide chemotherapy. We demonstrated for the first time that temozolomide is also a TOP2A inhibitor and established that TOP2A transcript levels determine the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma to temozolomide therapy. Very high levels of TOP2A are a good prognostic indicator in GBM patients receiving temozolomide chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
  • B V Savitr Sastri · A Arivazhagan · V Santosh · BA Chandramouli

    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Neurology India
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    Bhoomika R Kar · Shobini L Rao · B A Chandramouli · K Thennarasu
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated age-related differences in neuropsychological performance in 400 Indian school children (5-15 years of age). Functions of motor speed, attention, executive functions, visuospatial functions, comprehension, learning, and memory were examined. Growth curve analysis was performed. Different growth models fitted different cognitive functions. Neuropsychological task performance improved slowly between 5 and 7 years, moderately between 8 and 12 years and slowly between 13 and 15 years of age. The overall growth patterns of neuropsychological functions in Indian children have been discussed with the findings reported on American children. The present work describes non-linear, heterogeneous, and protracted age trends of neuropsychological functions in Indian children and adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Focal intradural infections of the brain include empyema and abscess in the supratentorial and infratentorial spaces. These are amenable to surgical management. Various other issues may complicate the course of management, e.g. hydrocephalus with infratentorial lesions or cortical venous thrombosis with supratentorial lesions. Here, we review the management and identify factors affecting outcome in these patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all children (aged Results: There were 231 children who underwent treatment for focal intradural abscess/empyema at our institute. These included 57 children with cerebral abscess, 65 with supratentorial empyema, 82 with cerebellar abscess and 27 with infratentorial empyema. All patients underwent emergency surgery (which was either burr hole and aspiration of the lesion or craniotomy/craniectomy and excision/evacuation), along with antibiotic therapy, typically 2 weeks of intravenous and 4 weeks of oral therapy. The antibiotic regimen was empiric to begin with and was altered if any sensitivity pattern of the causative organism(s) could be established by culture. Hydrocephalus was managed with external ventricular drainage initially and with ventriculoperitoneal shunt if warranted. Mortality rates were 4.8% for cerebral abscess, 9.6% for cerebellar abscess, 10.8% for supratentorial subdural empyema and 3.7% for posterior fossa subdural empyema. The choice of surgery was found to have a strong bearing on the recurrence rates and outcome in most groups, with aggressive surgery with craniotomy leading to excellent outcomes with a low incidence of residual/recurrent lesions. Conclusions: Antibiotic therapy, emergency surgery and management of associated complications are the mainstays of treatment of these lesions. We strongly advocate early, aggressive surgery with antibiotic therapy in children with focal intradural infections.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • Savitr B Sastri · Srinivas Dwarakanath · BA Chandramouli

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Neurology India

Publication Stats

947 Citations
143.11 Total Impact Points


  • 1989-2015
    • Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences
      Hubli, Karnataka, India
  • 2011-2014
    • Vikram Hospital Bangalore
      Bengalūru, Karnataka, India
    • Government of Karnataka, India
      Bengalūru, Karnataka, India
  • 2013
    • Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital , Chitradurga
      Chitaldurg, Karnātaka, India
  • 2008-2011
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1999-2011
    • National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Bengalūru, Karnātaka, India