[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been established. This study analyzed the effects of radiation therapy (RT) for such metastases and identified clinical features and predictors of survival in these patients.
We retrospectively investigated 55 patients with adrenal metastasis from HCC who had been treated with RT. Radiation doses to the adrenal lesions ranged from 26 to 60 Gy, while the intrahepatic lesions were treated by surgical resection, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), liver transplantation, and/or RT. RT was conducted to adrenal lesions after their intrahepatic lesions were controlled more than 2 months. The parameters studied included survival rates and tumor responses to RT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate survival rate and the Cox regression model was used to identify potential predictors of outcome.
The patients treated by RT had adrenal metastasis on the right side (41), the left (6), or on both sides (8). In all 55 patients, the median survival duration was 13.6 months and there was 100% pain relief after completion of RT. Adverse effects were mild to moderate. Unfavorable pretreatment predictors determined by univariate analysis were associated with multiple intrahepatic foci, metastases to additional organs, high gamma-glutamyltransferase and alpha-fetoprotein levels, liver function of Child-Pugh classification B and uncontrolled primary HCC. By multivariate analysis, unfavorable predictors were multiple intrahepatic foci, metastases to additional organs and uncontrolled primary HCC.
Radiotherapy as treatment for adrenal metastases in HCC is a good palliative therapy that is associated with reasonable safety. It appears reasonable that such patients should be considered to be treated with radiotherapy. Multiple intrahepatic foci, metastases to additional organs and uncontrolled primary HCC were unfavorable predictors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the clinical features and independent predictors of survival in patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively analysed 115 PCa patients with bone metastases between 1997 and 2009. The overall survival rate after bone metastases was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic factors were identified by univariate analysis using a log-rank test and by multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The follow-up rate was 100%, the follow-up cases during 1, 3 and 5 years were 103, 79 and 55, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 89.1%, 60.9% and 49.8%, respectively, with a median survival time of 48.5 months for patients with bone metastases from PCa. In univariate analysis, age, Gleason score, clinical stage, the number of bone lesions, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level, invasion of neighbouring organs and non-regional lymph node metastases were correlated with prognosis. By multivariate analysis using Cox regression, ALP level, Gleason score and non-regional lymph node metastases were independent prognostic factors. These prognostic factors will help us to determine the appropriate dose and fraction of radiotherapy for these patients.
Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the clinical features and prognostic factors of bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation (LT).
All adult patients undergoing LT from 2001 to 2010 were reviewed. Patients with HCC bone metastases after LT received external beam radiotherapy(EBRT) during this period. Demographic variables, laboratory values, and tumor characteristics were determined before LT and EBRT. Total radiation dose ranged from 8 to 60 Gy(median dose 40.0 Gy).
The trunk was the most common site of bone metastases with finding of expansile soft-tissue masses in 23.3% of patients. Overall pain relief from EBRT occurred in 96.7% (29/30). No consistent dose-response relationship was found for palliation of with doses between 30 and 56 Gy (P = 0.670). The median survivals from the time of bone metastases was 8.6 months. On univariate and multivariate analyses, better survival was significantly associated with a better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and well-controlled intrahepatic tumor, but not with lower alpha-fetoprotein levels. The median time from LT to bone metastases was 7.1 months. Patients exceeding the Shanghai criteria presented with bone metastases earlier than those within the Fudan criteria. Patients with soft-tissue extension always had later bone metastases. The majority of deaths were caused by liver failure due to hepatic decompensation or tumor progression.
The prognostic factors of bone metastases of HCC following LT are KPS and well-controlled intrahepatic. Even though survival is shorter for these patients, EBRT provides effective palliation of pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown.
We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery were assigned to the radiation group (RT). The clinical target volume included the renal fossa, the course of the ureter to the entire bladder, and the paracaval and para-aortic lymph nodes, which were at risk of harbouring metastatic disease in 53 patients. The tumour bed or residual tumour was targeted in 14 patients. The median radiation dose administered was 50 Gy. The 66 patients who received intravesical chemotherapy were assigned to the non-radiation group (non-RT).
The overall survival rates for the RT and non-RT groups were not significantly different (p = 0.198). However, there was a significant difference between the survival rates for these groups based on patients with T3/T4 stage cancer. A significant difference was observed in the bladder tumour relapse rate between the irradiated and non-irradiated bladder groups (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis indicated that improved overall survival was associated with age < 60 years, T1 or T2 stage, absence of synchronous LN metastases, and EBRT. Acute gastrointestinal and bladder reactions were the most common symptoms, but mild non-severe (> grade 3) hematologic symptoms also occurred.
EBRT may improve overall survival for patients with T3/T4 cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour recurrence in all patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively. CT/MR imaging showed the primary tumours and pelvic lymph node metastases visibly shrank or even disappeared after HIFU+LRT treatment. There were significant differences among four groups with regard to overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves (P = 0.018 and 0.015). Further comparison between each pair of groups suggested that the long-term DSS of the HIFU+LRT group was higher than those of the other three groups, but there was no significant difference between the HIFU+LRT group and the CRT group. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model showed that both HIFU+LRT and CRT were independently associated with DSS (P = 0.001 and 0.035) and had protective effects with regard to the risk of death. Compared with CRT, HIFU+LRT significantly decreased incidences of radiation-related late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade ≥ II. In conclusion, long-term survival of patients with advanced PCa benefited from strengthening local control of primary tumour and regional lymph node metastases after HT. As an alternative to CRT, HIFU+LRT showed good efficacy and better safety.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcome of external beam radiotherapy for abdominal lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with recurrent gastric cancer.
The clinical data of 79 patients with abdominal LN metastases developing after curative resection of gastric tumor were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 79 patients, 37 received radiation (40-60 Gy in fractions of 2.0 Gy daily, five times weekly; termed the radiation group), and 42 received chemotherapy or supportive care (the nonradiation group). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate survival, and a Cox regression model was used to identify predictors of prognosis.
After radiation, complete response and partial response were observed in 29.7% and 54.1% of patients, respectively. Clinical symptoms were relieved in 19 of 21 patients (90.5%) after completing radiation. Median survival time was 11.4 months in the radiation group and 4.8 months in the nonradiation group. Overall survival for patients with and without radiation was 43.2% and 19.0% at 1 year and 27.6% and 4.1% at 2 years, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of death in the radiation group from the time of diagnosis of LN metastases was 0.253 (p < 0.001). The most common adverse effect of radiation was gastrointestinal toxicity, but it was mild in most patients.
Abdominal LN metastases from gastric cancer are sensitive to radiation. Delivery of 50 Gy is effective as palliative treatment and may prolong overall survival.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study was performed to identify clinical features and independent predictors of survival in patients with bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Patients (n = 205) with bone metastases from HCC received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) between 1997 and 2007. Demographic variables, laboratory values, tumor characteristics, and treatment modalities were determined before EBRT. The total radiation dose ranged from 32 to 66 grays (Gy) (median, 50 Gy) and was focused on the involved bone.
In 80 of 205 (39.0%) patients with bone metastasis from HCC, tumors were characterized by osteolytic, expansile soft-tissue masses. Overall pain relief from EBRT occurred in 204 patients (99.5%). No consistent dose-response relation was found for palliation of bone metastases with doses between 32 and 66 Gy (P = .068), but the retreatment rate was higher in patients with expansile soft tissue. On univariate analysis, shorter survival was associated with poorer Karnofsky performance status (KPS), higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and alpha-fetoprotein levels, tumor size >5 cm, uncontrolled intrahepatic tumors, multifocal bone lesions, involvement of spinal vertebrae, extraosseous metastases, and a shorter disease-free interval after an initial diagnosis of HCC. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment-unfavorable predictors were associated with lower KPS, higher tumor markers, and uncontrolled intrahepatic tumor when KPS was considered. The median survival was 7.4 months.
The results of the current study provide detailed information regarding clinical features, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors for HCC with bone metastases in a relatively large cohort of patients treated with EBRT. These prognostic factors will help in determining which dose and fraction are appropriate.