[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulative evidence has demonstrated that inflammation has an important role in human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenicity. However, the effects of high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1)-toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway associated inflammation on epidermal warts caused by HPV remain unclear. The present study investigated the HMGB1, TLR4 and nuclear factor-κB p65 expression in condyloma acuminatum (CA) and verruca vulgaris (VV). Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that p65 expression in epithelial nuclei in VV and CA was significantly higher than in normal skin (NS) (P<0.01), and p65 in CA was higher than in VV but this difference was not significant. The level of extracellular HMGB1 increased significantly and progressively from NS to VV to CA (P<0.05). The level of TLR4 on the surface of epithelial membranes in the CA samples was significantly higher than in NS (P<0.01), and TLR4 in VV samples was significantly lower than in NS (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between p65 expression in the epithelial nuclei and HMGB1 in the epithelial intercellular spaces (r=0.5199, P<0.01). These findings indicate that inflammation is intensified in warts caused by HPV. HMGB1-TLR4 pathway‑associated inflammation may therefore have a pivotal role in CA. HMGB1, rather than TLR4, may be a vital mediator of inflammation in VV. Therapies targeting HMGB1 may be a potential strategy for the treatment of HPV-associated warts.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA binding protein located in nucleus. It is released into extracellular fluid where it acts as a novel proinflammatory cytokine which interacts with Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) to activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). This sequence of events is involved in tumor growth and progression. However, the effects of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-kappaB on epidermal tumors remain unclear.
Human epidermal tumor specimens were obtained from 96 patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-kappaB p65 in human epidermal tumor and normal skin specimens. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of NF-kappaB p65 in epithelial cell nuclei in human epidermal tumor and normal tissues.
Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated a progressive but statistically significant increase in p65 expression in epithelial nuclei in benign seborrheic keratosis (SK), precancerous lesions (PCL), low malignancy basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and high malignancy squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (P <0.01). The level of extracellular HMGB1 in SK was significantly higher than in normal skin (NS) (P <0.01), and was higher than in SCC but without statistical significance. The level of TLR4 on epithelial membranes of SCC cells was significantly higher than in SK, PCL, BCC and NS(P <0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between p65 expression in the epithelial nuclei and TLR4 expression on the epithelial cell membranes (r = 0.3212,P <0.01).
These findings indicate that inflammation is intensified in parallel with increasing malignancy. They also indicate that the TLR4 signaling pathway, rather than HMGB1, may be the principal mediator of inflammation in high-grade malignant epidermal tumors. Combined detection of p65 in the epithelial nuclei and TLR4 on the epithelial membranes may assist the accurate diagnosis of malignant epidermal tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH) is a pigmentary genodermatosis characterized by a mixture of hyper- and hypo-pigmented macules distributed randomly over the body. No causative genes have been reported to date. In this study, we investigated a large five-generation Chinese family with DUH. After excluding the two known DUH loci, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis and identified a DUH locus on chromosome 2q33.3-q36.1 with a maximum LOD score of 3.49 with marker D2S2382. Exome sequencing identified a c.T1067C (p.L356P) mutation in exon 3 of ABCB6 in the DUH family. Two additional missense mutations, c.508A>G (p.Ser170Gly) in exon 1, and c.1736G>A (p.Gly579Glu) in exon 12 of ABCB6 were found in two out of six patients by mutational screening using sporadic DUH patients. Immunohistologic examination in biopsy specimens showed that ABCB6 is expressed in the epidermis and had a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. Subcellular localization examination of wild-type ABCB6 in a B16 mouse melanoma cell-line revealed that it is localized to the endosome-like compartment and dendrite tips, while disease-causing mutations of ABCB6 resulted in its retention in the Golgi apparatus. Our studies identified ABCB6 as the first pathogenic gene associated with DUH. These findings suggest that ABCB6 may be a physiological factor for skin pigmentation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 21 March 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.145.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial progressive hyperpigmentation (FPH) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by patches of hyperpigmentation in the skin which are present at birth or in early infancy and increase in size and number with age. Although previous studies showed that FPH is a monogenic trait, the genetic basis for this disease is unknown. Using a genome screening with 182 STR markers from autosomes in a three-generation Chinese family with 17 members, including 6 affected individuals, we identified a locus linked to chromosome 19p13.1-pter responsible for FPH, spanning 45.48 cM between D19S593 and 19pter. Interestingly, this region harbors the LKB1 gene, in which germline mutations were shown to be associated with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). PJS and FPH share the disorder of hyperpigmentation, the fine mapping of the FPH gene is expected to lead to a better understanding of the etiology for both FPH and PJS. The linkage of FPH locus to human chromosome 19p13.1-pter provides a genetic basis for further fine mapping.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · European journal of dermatology: EJD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the IFN-gamma and IL-4 expression of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood from patients with recurrent genital herpes (RGH) at different clinical periods and their relationship with the pathogenesis of RGH, flow cytometry was used to detect the intracellular cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-4) of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 30 patients with RGH at acute period, 20 patients with RGH at recovery period and 15 healthy volunteers. The results showed that RGH patients at acute period had a lower percentage of Tc1 subsets in peripheral blood than that of healthy controls (P < 0.001), especially a remarkable decreased percentage of Tc1 subsets (P < 0.001) among those RGH patients with recurrent number more than 3 in the recent half a year. Tc1/Tc2 ratio in the RGH patients at acute period was significantly decreased as compared with normal control group (P < 0.05). The recurrent number of acute patients in the recent half a year was significantly correlated with the percentage of Tc1 subsets and the ratio of Tc1/Tc2 (P < 0.05). A decreased percentage of Tc1 subsets was found among the RGH patients with recurrent number more than 3 in the recent half a year at recovery period in comparison with healthy volunteers (P < 0.05), and it was significantly correlated with the recurrent number in the recent half a year (P < 0.05). It is concluded that there are Tc1/Tc2 imbalance and a low level of Tc1 subsets in RGH patients who are relapsing repeatedly in the near period. The low level of Tc1 subsets may be an important factor for the recurrence of RGH and the reactivation of latent herpesvirus infection.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of bacillus calmette guerin (BCG-PSN) and thymopeptides on T-lymphocytes of normal and immunosuppressed mice, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets of single nucleic cell in thymus, spleen and peripheral blood were detected successively by flow cytometry after application of BCG-PSN and thymopeptides. Meanwhile, CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also calculated. The results showed that both BCG-PSN and thymopeptides could decrease the proportion of CD4+ CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets in the thymus, at the same time increase CD4+ T-lymphocyte, CD8+ T-lymphocyte proportion in the three tissues. The fluctuation in amplitude was greater in thymopeptides group than that in BCG-PSN group. It is concluded that acting location of thymopeptides is in thymus, its stimulating action is stronger than that of BCG-PSN, while BCG-PSN not only accelerates the differentiation in thymus, but also has some direct stimulation to peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes, and can maintain CD4+/CD8+ ratio within normal range. So, BCG-PSN is safer.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology