[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dogs were vaccinated intradermally with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) or nucleoprotein (N protein) or a combination of both proteins. The dogs vaccinated with either the G or G plus N proteins developed virus-neutralizing antibody titers, whereas those vaccinated with only the N protein did not. All dogs were then challenged with a lethal dose of a street rabies virus, which killed all control dogs. Dogs vaccinated with the G or G plus N proteins were protected. Five (71%) of seven dogs vaccinated with the N protein sickened, with incubation periods 3 to 7 days shorter than that of the control dogs; however, three (60%) of the five rabid dogs recovered without supportive treatment. Thus, five (71%) of seven vaccinated with the rabies N protein were protected against a street rabies challenge. Our data indicate that rabies virus N protein may be involved in reducing the incubation period in dogs primed with rabies virus N protein and then challenged with a street rabies virus and, of more importance, in subsequent sickness and recovery.
Preview · Article · Jun 1992 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Thai Red Cross intradermal postexposure rabies treatment schedule was prospectively assessed in 100 Thai patients severely bitten by proven rabid animals. It consists of 0.1 ml of purified Vero cell rabies vaccine containing more than 2.5 IU of rabies antigen per 0.5 ml of reconstituted vaccine given intradermally at two sites on days 0, 3, and 7, followed by one 0.1 ml injection on days 30 and 90. The commercial vaccine used had an antigen content of 3.17 IU per 0.5 ml ampoule. Purified equine or human rabies immuno-globulin was also given on day 0 to patients with severe exposures. As much of the immunoglobulin as possible was infiltrated around the wounds. All patients were followed for 1 year post exposure. There were no deaths; the efficacy of the regimen was 100%. Antibody titre determination in a randomly selected subgroup showed seroconversion in all 10 patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physicians should carefully evaluate all exposures to animals to determine if there was a risk of exposure to rabies. The recommended treatment should be followed carefully.
No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An attenuated strain of canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2) was administered orally to 2 foxes (Vulpes fulva), 6 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and a mongoose (Herpestus auropunctatus). Blood was collected weekly from the animals to monitor CAV-2 virus-neutralizing antibody titers. All animals had increases in titers. Sera from 8 foxes, 30 mongooses, 52 raccoons, and 22 skunks trapped in the field had naturally occurring antibody to CAV-2.
No preview · Article · Mar 1988 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed an enzyme immunoassay for rabies virus by using acetone-fixed infected cell cultures as the antigen. This test was used to demonstrate virus-neutralizing antibodies in human and animal sera and was as sensitive as and easier to perform than the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition technique.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1988 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of post-exposure rabies vaccine treatment is to induce immunity, measured as neutralizing antibody, as fast as possible. This is especially important in the tropical rabies-endemic areas where simultaneous passive prophylaxis with hyperimmune serum is not practicable in the majority of cases. We compared the rate of production of antibody during the first two weeks, by six vaccine regimens in 118 subjects using two tissue culture vaccines, human diploid cell strain vaccine (HDCSV) and purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). No antibody was detected on day 5. On day 7, the highest seroconversion rate was seen in subjects given HDCSV intramuscularly at two sites on days 0 and 3 (7 of 15), but this was not significantly different from the group with the lowest rate: the conventional single-site intramuscular regimen. All subjects had antibody by day 14, at which time the highest geometric mean titer was in the group vaccinated with 0.25 ml doses of diploid cell vaccine given subcutaneously at eight sites. This regimen, together with the standard single-site diploid cell vaccine and an eight-site intradermal regimen of the same product gave significantly higher titers than the two-site intramuscular regimens of either product. No single immunization schedule emerges as best, so the speed of antibody response, economy, and the skill needed for intradermal injection should be considered when deciding on the optimum regimen for use in a particular geographic area.
No preview · Article · Feb 1987 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen-stimulated lymphocyte transformation was studied in recipients of intradermal human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV). HDCV was administered intradermally at 8 different anatomical sites, 0.1 ml each, on day 0; followed by another 4-site injection on day 7. Rabies antigen-stimulated in vitro proliferative response was evident as early as 7 days after starting immunization. It reached a peak on day 14 and had declined by day 28. The cellular proliferative response preceded and roughly correlated with the antirabies antibody response. Simultaneous administration of inosiplex, an antiviral and immunopotentiating drug, during the first 10 days of intradermal HDCV immunization did not result in heightened antibody titres or cell-mediated immune response to the vaccine. The number of T cells and the lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohaemagglutinin in inosiplex-treated vaccinees were similarly not significantly different from untreated controls. Our results confirm other previous findings that a specific cell-mediated immune response can be consistently and rapidly induced by an intradermal regimen of HDCV immunization. The addition of inosiplex to this regimen did not enhance the humoral or cell-mediated immune responses to the vaccine. The apparent lack of immunostimulating effect of inosiplex in this setting may be the result of several factors such as the immunization schedule and the immunologic parameters examined.
No preview · Article · Jan 1987 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the United States were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. Characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. The geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the United States. Distinctive reaction patterns were also identified for viral proteins from four infected bat species, and identical patterns were found in eight isolated cases of rabies in terrestrial animals. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibodies can be used to study the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of rabies among wildlife species.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1986 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primarily as a result of organized canine rabies vaccination, leash laws, and other preventive procedures aimed at the canine population, the number of rabid dogs decreased markedly in the last thirty years (Figure 10). This decrease was accompanied by a similar marked reduction in human rabies (Table 2, Figure 11). As domestic animal rabies declined, rabies in wildlife increased. Since 1958 the number of cases of rabid wildlife surpassed domestic rabies cases, and today they account for over 85% of all reported rabies cases. In 1983, a total of 5,880 laboratory-confirmed cases of rabies in the United States and its territories were reported to CDC-a decline of 398 cases compared with 1982 (7) (Table 1). The total number of cases decreased for the second consecutive year. The 13% decline in 1982 was followed by a 6.4% decline in 1983. This decrease in cases, however, was not reported by all states. The four Mid-Atlantic states--Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia--and the District of Columbia actually experienced an 83% increase in cases. These states and the District of Columbia reported 1,903 cases in 1983 (compared with 1,040 cases in 1982) which accounted for approximately one-third (32.4%) of all rabies cases nationally.
No preview · Article · Feb 1985 · MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries / Centers for Disease Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies antibody titers ranged from 0-9.3 IU/mL in 117 human volunteers one year after intradermal vaccination with one or two doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV). At that time, each volunteer received one 0.1-mL booster dose of HDCV intradermally. All 117 volunteers showed good anamnestic responses, with antibody titers rising to 0.5-54.3 IU/mL within seven days of booster injection. Vaccine safety was good; only minor reactions were experienced, all of which resolved spontaneously.
Preview · Article · Jun 1984 · American Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity of the direct immunofluorescence test on Formalin-fixed, trypsin-digested, rabies-infected brain tissue. Our results suggest that the optimal unmasking of rabies antigenic sites is obtained by using a double enzyme digestion with pepsin and trypsin in lieu of only trypsin.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1983 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A female dog, inoculated with a rabies isolate from the saliva of an apparently healthy Ethiopian dog, developed rabies but later recovered without supportive treatment. Rabies virus was isolated from the saliva collected 42, 169 and 305 days after recovery. Sixteen months after it recovered, the dog suddenly died after giving birth to two stillborn puppies. At necropsy, viral antigen could be detected in the tonsils and the brain tissue, but viable virus was isolated from the Palatine tonsils only.
No preview · Article · Feb 1983 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intradermal administration of human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV) was investigated in an attempt to reduce the current high cost of preexposure rabies prophylaxis. The study population consisted of 240 volunteers from a veterinary hospital, 165 of whom had prior vaccination with duck embryo rabies vaccine (DEV). Vaccine safety was good; only minor reactions were experienced, all of which resolved spontaneously. Serological responses to intradermal HDCV were excellent; 209 (99.5%) of the 210 persons who completed the study produced rabies antibody titers of 0.50 lU/mL or greater (range, 0.50 to 40.00 lU/mL). Two 0.1-mL doses of HDCV given intradermally 28 days apart provide a safe, effective, and economical method for human preexposure prophylaxis against rabies, irrespective of the previous DEV vaccination history of the recipient.
No preview · Article · Nov 1982 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many rabies studies at the turn of the century, the eye was considered a suitable challenge site. Its proximity to the brain and the ease of intraocular injection provided an accepted route for inoculating dogs for virus isolation, or to show their resistance to challenge after vaccination. As an exit route for this virus, the eye is obviously a minor organ, although virus may be repeatedly isolated from lacrimal fluid. The cornea may serve as diagnostic tissue in infection. However, Negri bodies have been found in corneas, and fluorescing corneal cells have been found in a wide variety of animal species and humans with rabies. A recent case history of rabies transmission by corneal transplant focused on this rare route of infection, and in the summary of postmortem findings in this bizarre case the author presents addition data not included in the preliminary report. These data further emphasize the need to evaluate carefully all donors selected for such transplants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine antibody responses to small doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV), we determined rabies antibody titers in 124 volunteers who had been vaccinated with one of five primary preexposure regimens. In a sixth group of 47 persons previously vaccinated with duck embryo rabies vaccine (DEV), we evaluated the booster responses after a 0.1-mL dose of intradermal (ID) HDCV. Persons in all five groups undergoing primary immunization received three doses of vaccine, one each on days 0, 7, and 28. The dose and route of vaccination for the five groups included 1 mL intramuscular (IM), 0.1 mL ID (two subgroups), 0.1 mL subcutaneous (SC), and 0.25 mL SC. Adequate titers developed in all persons, irrespective of the route or quantity of vaccine. The geometric mean titers (IU/mL) on day 49 in those receiving primary regimens were 12.87 (1.0 mL IM), 7.44 (0.1 mL ID by syringe), 3.05 (0.1 mL by jet injector), 3.17 (0.1 mL SC), and 6.47 (0.25 mL SC). Titers on day 90, while lower, were still acceptable. Adequate antibody titers developed in all persons previously vaccinated with DEV after a single 0.1-mL ID dose of HDCV; however, higher titers developed at day 7 in those who had shown an adequate response to DEV in the past. Results of this study suggest that HDCV may be used ID or SC for primary preexposure rabies prophylaxis and ID for booster immunization.
No preview · Article · Mar 1982 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular and humoral immune responses of mice to footpad injection of salivary gland suspensions of street rabiesvirus were investigated. Suppression of these responses with cyclophosphamide both increased the overall mortality rate from (50 to 100%) and delayed onset of disease signs and death for 1 to 2 weeks. Despite the absence of disease signs in these immunosuppressed animals, virus was present in the central nervous system, as shown by fluorescent-antibody staining of corneal epithelium. The onset of paralysis after limited immunosuppression was temporally related to a return to immune responsiveness, and passive transfer of homologous immune serum to infected immunosuppressed animals brought about their early paralysis and death. These findings indicate the importance of the immune response in the pathogenesis of street rabiesvirus infection.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1982 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dog inoculated with a rabies virus isolate from the saliva of an apparently healthy Ethiopian dog was followed for more than 9 months. Saliva and blood specimens were collected three times weekly and cerebrospinal fluid weekly. Saliva samples collected on days 42 and 169 after the dog's recovery produced fatal rabies infections in mice inoculated intracerebrally.
No preview · Article · Oct 1981 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The speed of antibody response to two administration schedules of human diploid cell strains rabies vaccine (HDCV) was measured in two groups of veterinary students as a preliminary study to the use of interferon inducers plus vaccine for rabies treatment. When four doses of HDCV were administered in three days instead of four doses in 14 days, 94.7 per cent of those injected had antibody by the seventh day, versus 31.6 per cent in the 14-day group. The maximum titer was lower and antibody fell more quickly in the group with the shorter time interval between doses. This study shows the feasibility of inducing the same rapid antibody response in humans as that noted in rhesus monkeys where the mortality from rabies virus challenge was markedly reduced after treatment with interferon inducers and HDCV.
No preview · Article · Apr 1981 · American Journal of Epidemiology