Y Cognié

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Paris, Ile-de-France, France

Are you Y Cognié?

Claim your profile

Publications (94)101.94 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether MVV can be transmitted by ovine embryos produced in vitro and whether the zona pellucida (ZP) provides any protection against MVV infection. Zona pellucida (ZP)-intact and ZP-free embryos, produced in vitro, at the 8-16 cell stage, were cocultured for 72h in an insert over an ovine oviduct epithelial cell (OOEC)-goat synovial membrane (GSM) cell monolayer that had been previously infected with MVV (K1514 strain). The embryos were then washed and transferred to either direct contact or an insert over a fresh GSM cell monolayer for 6 h. The presence of MVV was detected using RT-PCR on the ten washing fluids and by the observation of typical cytopathic effects (CPE) in the GSM cell monolayer, which was cultured for 6 weeks. This experiment was repeated 4 times with the same results: MVV viral RNA was detected using RT-PCR in the first three washing media, while subsequent baths were always negative. Specific cytopathic effects of MVV infection and MVV-proviral DNA were detected in GSM cells that were used as a viral indicator and cocultured in direct contact or as an insert with MVV-exposed ZP-free embryos. However, no signs of MVV infection were detected in cells that were cocultured with exposed ZP-intact or non-exposed embryos. This study clearly demonstrates that (i) in vitro, ZP-free, early ovine embryos, which had been exposed to 10(3) TCID(50)/m MVV in vitro, are capable of transmitting the virus to susceptible GSM target cells, and that (ii) the IETS recommendations for handling in vivo produced bovine embryos (use of ZP-intact embryos without adherent material and performing ten washes) are effective for the elimination of in vitro MVV infection from in vitro produced ovine embryos. The absence of interaction between ZP-intact embryos and MVV suggests that the in vitro produced embryo zona pellucida provides an effective protective barrier.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of genotype diagnosis after pre-amplification of DNA extracted from biopsies obtained by microblade cutting of ovine embryos and to evaluate the viability of biopsied embryos after vitrification/warming and transfer to recipients. Sex and PrP genotypes were determined. Sex diagnosis was done by PCR amplification of ZFX/ZFY and SRY sequences after PEP-PCR while PrP genotype determination was performed after specific pre-amplification of specific target including codons 136, 154 and 171. Embryos were collected at Day 7 after oestrus. Blastocysts and expanded blastocysts were biopsied immediately after collection whereas compacted morulae were biopsied after 24 hr of in vitro culture. Eighty-nine biopsied embryos were frozen by vitrification. Fresh and vitrified whole embryos were kept as control. DNA of biopsies was extracted and pre-amplified. Sex diagnosis was efficient for 96.6% of biopsies and PrP genotyping was determined in 95.8% of codons. After embryo transfer, no significant difference was observed in lambing rate between biopsied, vitrified control and fresh embryos (54.5%, 60% and 66.6%, respectively). Embryo survival rate was not different between biopsied and whole vitrified embryos (P = 0.38). At birth, 96.7% of diagnosed sex and 95.4% of predetermined codons were correct. Lamb PrP profiles were in agreement with parental genotype. PEP-PCR coupled with sex diagnosis and nested PCR coupled with PrP genotype predetermination are very accurate techniques to genotype ovine embryo before transfer. These original results allow planning of selection of resistant genotype to scrapie and sex of offspring before transfer of cryopreserved embryo.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments have been performed to clone the bucardo, an extinct wild goat. The karyoplasts were thawed fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies, obtained and cryopreserved in 1999 from the last living specimen, a female, which died in 2000. Cytoplasts were mature oocytes collected from the oviducts of superovulated domestic goats. Oocytes were enucleated and coupled to bucardo's fibroblasts by electrofusion. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 36h or 7d and transferred to either Spanish ibex or hybrid (Spanish ibex malex domestic goat) synchronized recipients. Embryos were placed, according to their developmental stage, into the oviduct or into the uterine horn ipsilateral to an ovulated ovary. Pregnancy was monitored through their plasmatic PAG levels. In Experiment 1, 285 embryos were reconstructed and 30 of them were transferred at the 3- to 6-cells stage to 5 recipients. The remaining embryos were further cultured to day 7, and 24 of them transferred at compact morula/blastocyst stage to 8 recipients. In Experiment 2, 154 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 44 recipients at the 3- to 6-cells stage. Pregnancies were attained in 0/8 and 7/49 of the uterine and oviduct-transferred recipients, respectively. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term, displaying very high PAG levels. One morphologically normal bucardo female was obtained by caesarean section. The newborn died some minutes after birth due to physical defects in lungs. Nuclear DNA confirmed that the clone was genetically identical to the bucardo's donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first animal born from an extinct subspecies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Theriogenology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A heterologous in vitro system, using zona-intact sheep oocytes, was used to evaluate the relationship between sperm factors of Iberian red deer thawed epididymal sperm and the percentage of cleaved oocytes. Epididymal spermatozoa were recovered from six males, diluted with freezing extender and cryopreserved. After thawing sperm motility (SM) and acrosome and membrane integrities were evaluated. Again, these parameters were assessed after incubation in freezing extender at 37 degrees C for 2 h. After cryopreservation the values for SM and acrosome and membrane integrities were high (approximately 80, 80 and 70% respectively). However, these values significantly decreased after incubation (approximately 59, 62 and 47% respectively). Red deer thawed epididymal sperm fertilized zona-intact sheep oocytes, although the percentage of cleaved oocytes was low (approximately 22%). No relationship was found between sperm parameters assessed after thawing and the percentage of cleaved oocytes. Likewise, any sperm parameter evaluated after incubation was assessed in relation to the percentage of cleaved oocytes. However, acrosome and membrane integrities were near to significance (p = 0.06 and p = 0.09 respectively). Then, we conducted a reduced model with these two variables and both were related to the percentage of cleaved oocytes (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 respectively). Thus, acrosome and membrane integrities were related to the percentage of cleaved oocytes negatively and positively respectively. It was concluded that the classical parameters assessed in deer thawed sperm samples can be good predictors of the ability to fertilize zona-intact sheep oocytes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals

  • No preview · Book · Jan 2008
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effect of coculture with goat oviduct epithelial cells (GOEC) on the pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and offspring development after direct transfer of vitrified/thawed caprine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. Oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse goat ovaries, matured and inseminated with frozen/thawed capacitated semen, and presumptive zygotes were randomly cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) (n=352) or GOEC (n=314). The percentage of cleaved embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was 28% and 20% in SOF and GOEC, respectively (P<0.05). Overall, 26 blastocysts of SOF were transferred freshly in pairs to recipient goats, whereas 58 of SOF and 36 of GOEC were vitrified and transferred directly in pairs to recipient goats after thawing without removal of cryoprotectants or morphological evaluation. The kidding rate was 92% for SOF fresh, 14% for SOF vitrified (P<0.001) and 56% for GOEC vitrified (P<0.05); the difference was also significant between vitrified groups (P<0.01). The embryo survival rate was 62% for SOF fresh, 9% for SOF vitrified (P<0.001) and 33% for GOEC vitrified (P<0.05) with a significant difference between vitrified groups (P<0.01). The results showed that the coculture of IVP goat embryos with GOEC significantly improves the pregnancy and embryo survival rates and leads to the birth of healthy offspring. However, further research using more defined GOEC coculture is required to confirm its capacity to increase the success rate of IVP embryo technology in goat.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Theriogenology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (ovPAG) concentrations in 20 Lacaune sheep during early pregnancy. Measurements were performed by using semi-purified ovPAG as standard, tracer and immunogens for antibody production in rabbits. Antisera R780 (against ovPAG(57+59kDa)) and R805 (against ovPAG5(58+61kDa)) were used respectively in RIA-780 and RIA-805. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 18, 20, 22 and 25 after artificial insemination. From day 18 after breeding onward, the mean ovPAG concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in plasma samples from pregnant ewes (n = 17) than in non-pregnant ones (n = 3). The specific activity of the tracer was 11 760 Ci/mmol in RIA-780 and 14 900 Ci/mmol in RIA-805. The minimal detection limits for RIA-780 and RIA-805 were 0.2 ng/ml and 0.3 ng/ml, respectively. The intra-assay CV of samples with low (1.0 ng/ml), medium (2.5 ng/ml) and high (4.0 ng/ml) PAG concentrations were 3%, 6% and 9% for RIA-780 and 8%, 9% and 5% for RIA-805. The inter-assay CV in the same samples were 13%, 12% and 7% for RIA-780 and 13%, 11% and 5% for RIA-805. The recovery was higher than 95% in both assays. No cross-reaction was observed with members of aspartic proteinase family as well as with other tested proteins. In both RIA-780 and RIA-805, inhibition of the binding of the tracer by antisera was parallel between standard curve and serial dilutions of pregnant ewe samples. In conclusion, the two homologous RIA systems are suitable for early quantification of ovPAG concentrations in ewe plasma samples from day 18 after breeding.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (ovPAG) concentrations in 20 Lacaune sheep during early pregnancy. Measurements were performed by using semi-purified ovPAG as standard, tracer and immunogens for antibody production in rabbits. Antisera R780 (against ovPAG(57+59kDa)) and R805 (against ovPAG5(58+61kDa)) were used respectively in RIA-780 and RIA-805. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 18, 20, 22 and 25 after artificial insemination. From day 18 after breeding onward, the mean ovPAG concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in plasma samples from pregnant ewes (n = 17) than in non-pregnant ones (n = 3). The specific activity of the tracer was 11 760 Ci/mmol in RIA-780 and 14 900 Ci/mmol in RIA-805. The minimal detection limits for RIA-780 and RIA-805 were 0.2 ng/ml and 0.3 ng/ml, respectively. The intra-assay CV of samples with low (1.0 ng/ml), medium (2.5 ng/ml) and high (4.0 ng/ml) PAG concentrations were 3%, 6% and 9% for RIA-780 and 8%, 9% and 5% for RIA-805. The inter-assay CV in the same samples were 13%, 12% and 7% for RIA-780 and 13%, 11% and 5% for RIA-805. The recovery was higher than 95% in both assays. No cross-reaction was observed with members of aspartic proteinase family as well as with other tested proteins. In both RIA-780 and RIA-805, inhibition of the binding of the tracer by antisera was parallel between standard curve and serial dilutions of pregnant ewe samples. In conclusion, the two homologous RIA systems are suitable for early quantification of ovPAG concentrations in ewe plasma samples from day 18 after breeding.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After artificial insemination and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro production of embryos (IVP) represents the third generation of techniques aimed at a better control of animal reproduction. This technique involves four major steps (Figure 1): oocyte collection, oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro development of the resulting embryos (IVD). These different steps are now well established in domestic ruminant species (cattle, sheep and goat) although the variability of the number and quality of the oocytes collected and the low viability of frozen – thawed in vitro produced embryos still limit the large-scale use of this promising technology. Beyond the potential use of IVP in breeding schemes, this technique is also required for the establishment of new biotechnologies such as cloning and animal transgenesis. Additionally, the knowledge of oocyte and embryo physiology acquired through IVP techniques may stimulate the further development of other techniques such as MOET.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amongst the 200 deer subspecies worldwide, more than 40 are considered as endangered. In vitro embryo production may represent an efficient way to produce and disseminate offspring from sparse remaining individuals in these species. With a view to establishing a method of in vitro embryo production, we assessed the ovarian response after hormonal stimulation (oFSH), oocyte yield following laporoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) and oocyte developmental competence according to seasonal reproductive status in sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon). Twelve adult sika deer hinds were allocated between two groups and submitted weekly to oFSH follicular growth stimulation followed by LOPU. Hinds in Group A (n=6) were treated first during the breeding season (5 weeks), and then during the non-breeding season (3 weeks). Hinds in Group B (n=6) were submitted to similar procedures but in the reverse order (treated first during the non-breeding season). Cumulus-oocytes complexes (COC) recovered from Group B were allowed to mature in vitro for 24 h in TCM-199 medium supplemented with oFSH, goat follicular fluid and 100 microM cysteamine. In vitro fertilization was performed with frozen/thawed semen in SOFaa medium supplemented with 20% estrous sheep serum and presumptive zygotes were cultured in the presence or absence of ovine oviductal epithelial cell monolayer (oOEC) in SOFaa-BSA medium. Mean number of follicles aspirated per hind per session decreased significantly between breeding and non-breeding season in Group A (9.8+/-0.7 versus 3.2+/-0.7, mean+/-S.E.M., respectively, P<0.001) but did not change between the non-breeding and the subsequent breeding season in Group B (5.3+/-0.7 and 5.7+/-0.7, respectively, P>0.05). Irrespective of the season, good quality COC with complete and compact cumulus investments were recovered allowing a high cleavage rate after in vitro maturation and fertilization. Whereas development to the blastocyst stage did not occur in SOF medium alone, high development rates to the blastocyst stage were observed in oOEC co-culture regardless of season (22% and 34% of total oocytes in co-culture during non-breeding and breeding season, respectively).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to design a vitrification method suited to field embryo transfer experiments in goat. In a first experiment, a standard vitrification protocol, previously designed for sheep embryos was compared to slow freezing of goat embryos. No significant difference was observed on kidding rate (48% versus 69%, respectively), nor on embryo survival rate (35% versus 45%). Second experiment: all embryos were vitrified. After warming, embryos were either transferred directly (direct transfer), or after in vitro dilution of the cryoprotectants (conventional transfer). The kidding rate was not affected by the transfer method (38% versus 23%, respectively). However, embryo survival rate tended to be higher after direct transfer (26% versus 14%). Third experiment: OPS vitrification was compared to standard vitrification. The kidding rate was not affected (22% versus 39%, respectively), but the embryo survival rate was lower after OPS (14% versus 28%). Fourth experiment: 0.4M sucrose was added with cryoprotectants in vitrification. The kidding rate after direct transfer was significantly enhanced after addition of sucrose (56% versus 27%, respectively), whereas embryo survival rate was not significantly affected (32% versus 18%). Fifth experiment: vitrification with sucrose supplementation was compared to slow freezing. No significant difference was observed after direct transfer on kidding rate (52% versus 31%, respectively), but embryo survival rate tended to be higher after vitrification (34% versus 21%). In conclusion, our results indicate that addition of 0.4M sucrose in association with direct transfer improves significantly the viability of goat vitrified embryos.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the last fifty years, considerable progress in breeding performances of domestic species has been obtained due to a better knowledge obtained in physiology and in particular nutrition, growth, reproduction and lactation. This progress has been united with that of genetic progress accomplished in the different animal species in a context of an improved control of sanitary conditions of herds and a more accurate control of the existing breeding systems. The use of hormonal substances to better control reproduction functions and growth has become decisive within this progress. However, a profound tendency that restrains their use to certain critical moments in the life of an animal has appeared in Europe these last fifteen years, obliging researchers to search for alternatives via a better control of food, genetics and breeding systems, in order to guarantee to consumers a better, a priori, quality of animal products. Physiological functions that offer possibilities of exogenous hormonal control, usable hormonal substances and animal speculations are presented. A clarification of the toxicological risks that these substances present, the control and traceability of their use and the current regulations are given. Finally, the research that will allow making progress around the question of hormone use in breeding in a context of a remodelled society is evoked.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Productions Animales -Paris- Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-
  • Source

    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Techniques for in vitro production (IVP) of viable embryos have been thoroughly developed in several domestic species in view to improve breeding efficiency. When applied to wild life, these techniques may also help the maintenance of biodiversity through amplification of sparse animals offspring and facilitation of genetic material exchange. During the successive steps of IVP, i.e. oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and early embryo development (IVD) to the blastocyst stage, gametes and embryos are faced with unusual environment, including oxidative stress, known to be detrimental to their survival. In the present study, starting from methods developed in domestic species, we have adapted IVP to produce viable red deer embryos. In a first experiment, cumulus cells were removed from in vitro matured oocytes either before or after IVF. The presence of cumulus cells during IVF did not affect final cleavage or development rates. In a second experiment, in vitro matured oocytes were fertilized in the presence of cumulus cells and cultured in SOFaaBSA medium alone or in the presence of ovine oviduct epithelial cell (oOEC) monolayer. Whereas, oviduct cells did not improve the cleavage rate, they significantly increased the rate of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (from 3 to 25% of total oocytes). Ten blastocysts from oOEC coculture were transferred after freezing and thawing to five recipient hinds and gave rise to three pregnancies. The three pregnant hinds gave birth to three live and normal calves.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seasonality of ovulatory activity is observed in European sheep and goat breeds, whereas tropical breeds show almost continuous ovulatory activity. It is not known if these tropical breeds are sensitive or not to temperate photoperiod. This study was therefore designed to determine whether tropical Creole goats and Black-Belly ewes are sensitive to temperate photoperiod. Two groups of adult females in each species, either progeny or directly born from imported embryos, were used and maintained in light-proof rooms under simulated temperate (8 to 16 h of light per day) or tropical (11 - 13 h) photoperiods. Ovulatory activity was determined by blood progesterone assays for more than two years. The experiment lasted 33 months in goats and 25 months in ewes. Marked seasonality of ovulatory activity appeared in the temperate group of Creole female goats. The percentage of female goats experiencing at least one ovulation per month dramatically decreased from May to September for the three years (0%, 27% and 0%, respectively). Tropical female goats demonstrated much less seasonality, as the percentage of goats experiencing at least one ovulation per month never went below 56%. These differences were significant. Both groups of temperate and tropical Black-Belly ewes experienced a marked seasonality in their ovulatory activity, with only a slightly significant difference between groups. The percentage of ewes experiencing at least one ovulation per month dropped dramatically in April and rose again in August (tropical ewes) or September (temperate ewes). The percentage of ewes experiencing at least one ovulation per month never went below 8% and 17% (for tropical and temperate ewes respectively) during the spring and summer months. An important seasonality in ovulatory activity of tropical Creole goats was observed when females were exposed to a simulated temperate photoperiod. An unexpected finding was that Black-Belly ewes and, to a lesser extent, Creole goats exposed to a simulated tropical photoperiod also showed seasonality in their ovulatory activity. Such results indicate that both species are capable of showing seasonality under the photoperiodic changes of the temperate zone even though they do not originate from these regions.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2004 · BMC Physiology
  • Source
    Maurice Mahieu · Yves Cognié · Philippe Chemineau
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ovulation rate (OR) and litter size (LS) were recorded in local hair sheep of Martinique and in local x Lacaune-viande crossbreeds, in order to assess prenatal losses. Local hair sheep LS and OR were 1.91 and 2.41, respectively. Prenatal losses increased with OR, from 0.22 (OR = 2) up to 1.50 (OR > 3). The ewes (69.7%) with LS = 1 had actually lost at least one ovum, against 25.9% of the ewes with LS > 1. Ewes grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis (Stargrass) had lower LS than those grazing Digitaria decumbens (Pangola), in relation with a lower nutritional level and, maybe, more parasitism effects. No seasonal or age at lambing effect was shown. The OR and LS were dramatically decreased on local x Lacaune-viande crossbred ewes (minus 1.32 and 0.67 unit, respectively, P < 0.05). This suggests a possible negative effect of the tropical environment on the crossbreeds' reproductive function.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2004 · Reproduction Nutrition Development
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Today, although not efficient enough to replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production for small ruminants is a platform for new reproductive technologies, such as embryo sexing, transgenesis and cloning. The in vitro embryo-production system developed for sheep and goats is more efficient now than 15 years ago, but could still be improved. Laparoscopic collection of oocytes in live animals treated with gonadotrophin indicates a promising future for the application of this technology to genetic improvement programmes. Oocyte maturation in defined medium with epidermal growth factor and cysteamine appears as efficient as oocyte maturation in follicular fluid-supplemented medium and allows future study of the effect of other factors involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from these species. Further efforts have to be made to standardise the semen-capacitating process and to improve the quality and freezability of in-vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The optimisation of IVP procedures for deer species has required the study of the seasonal variation of oocyte competence and the development of a specific methodology to allow the culture of embryos up to the blastocyst stage.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Reproduction Fertility and Development
  • L Gruner · G Aumont · T Getachew · J.C. Brunel · C Pery · Y Cognié · Y Guérin
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compared to INRA 401 lambs reared in France, Black Belly (BB) lambs reared in Guadeloupe (F.W.I.) were highly resistant to both primary and secondary experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. To investigate this huge inter-breed difference, a nucleus flock of BB was constituted, and experiments were conducted to: (i) confirm this difference in lambs born in France, (ii) check whether it was similar for Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta, and (iii) find out whether this difference was age-related. Forty BB lambs, 84 F1 lambs (BB sires×INRA 401 ewes) and 88 INRA 401 lambs born in two cohorts were used in an experimental design involving three host breeds, both genders and two age-groups (3.5- and 7-month-old when first infected). The limited availability of BB lambs made the study incomplete. Infection consisted of the administration of two doses of 10 000 infective larvae of one of the nematode species, separated by an anthelmintic treatment and an interval of 1 week before the second dose was administered. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were done on Days 28 and 35 after each infection; ewe lambs of the INRA 401 and F1 breeds were necropsied, the worm burden was established, the length of the female worms measured and the eggs in utero counted.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present review aims at presenting different methods for pregnancy diagnosis. Since these methods are to be used in the herds, precocity, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy to predict pregnant and non-pregnant ewes, and the possibility to determine fetal numbers are carefully analysed. The progesterone assay is accurate as early as day 17th after fecundation; but the fertilization day must be precisely known. The pregnancy specific or associated glycoproteins (PSPB/PAG) assay is highly sensitive and specific at day 22 in blood and at day 32 in milk samples. However, this assay does not allow to predict the fetal number. The ultrasonography B-mode used on 30 days of gestation gives very good or excellent performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity depending on the practitioner. The method is also able to predict the real time fetal number.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Productions Animales -Paris- Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-
  • Y Cognié · G Baril · N Poulin · P Mermillod
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review presents an overview of the technical bases of in vivo and in vitro embryo production in sheep and goat. The current limitations of in vivo production, such as variability of response to the hormonal treatment, fertilization failure in females showing a high ovulatory response, and the importance of premature regressed CL in the goat, are described along with possibilities for improvement. The new prospects offered by in vitro embryo production, by repeated ovum pick-up from live females and by juvenile breeding, are presented along with their limiting steps and research priorities. The recent improvements of embryo production and freezing technologies could be used for constitution of flocks without risks of disease transmission and will allow wider propagation of valuable genes in small ruminants populations in the future.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Theriogenology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
101.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1986-2006
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      • Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1998-2003
    • University of Liège
      Luik, Wallonia, Belgium
  • 2001
    • University of Tours
      • UMR CNRS 7247 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC)
      Tours, Centre, France