[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autonomous goose parvovirus (GPV) and the human helper-dependent adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) share a high degree of homology. To determine if this evolutionary relationship has a biological impact, we studied viral replication in human 293 cells and in embryonated goose eggs coinfected with both viruses. Similar experiments were performed with the minute virus of mice (MVM), an autonomous murine parvovirus with less homology to AAV2. In human 293 cells, both GPV and MVM augmented AAV2 replication. In contrast, AAV2 markedly enhanced GPV replication in embryonated goose eggs under conditions where a similar effect was not observed with MVM. AAV2 did not replicate in embryonated goose eggs and AAV2 inactivated by UV-irradiation also enhanced GPV replication. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a human helper-dependent member of the Parvoviridae can provide helper activity for an autonomous parvovirus in a natural host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously it was shown that a 53-nucleotide viral replication origin, derived from the left-end (3') telomere of minute virus of mice (MVM) DNA, directed integration of infecting MVM genomes into an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based episome in cell culture. Integration depended upon the presence, in the episome, of a functional origin sequence which could be nicked by NS1, the viral initiator protein. Here we extend our studies to the genomic right-end (5') origin and report that three 131- to 135-nucleotide right-end origin sequences failed to target MVM episomal integration even though the same sequences were functional in NS1-driven DNA replication assays in vitro. Additionally, we observed amplification of episomal DNA in response to MVM infection in cell lines harboring episomes which directed integration, but not in cell lines containing episomes which did not direct integration, including those with inserts of the MVM right-end origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA sequence motifs which direct adeno-associated virus type 2 site-specific integration are being investigated using
a shuttle vector, propagated as a stable episome in cultured cell lines, as the target for integration. Previously, we reported
that the minimum episomal targeting elements comprise a 16-bp binding motif (Rep binding site [RBS]) for a viral regulatory
protein (Rep) separated by a short DNA spacer from a sequence (terminal resolution site [TRS]) that can serve as a substrate
for Rep-mediated nicking activity (R. M. Linden, P. Ward, C. Giraud, E. Winocour, and K. I. Berns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
USA 93:11288–11294, 1996; R. M. Linden, E. Winocour, and K. I. Berns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:7966–7972, 1996). We now
report that episomal integration depends upon both the sequence and the position of the spacer DNA separating the RBS and
TRS motifs. The spacer thus constitutes a third element required for site-specific episomal integration.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2000 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies with adeno-associated virus (AAV) have shown that site-specific integration is directed by DNA sequence motifs that are present in both the viral replication origin and the chromosomal preintegration DNA and that specify binding and nicking sites for the viral regulatory Rep protein. This finding raised the question as to whether other parvovirus regulatory proteins might direct site-specific recombination with DNA targets that contain origin sequences functionally equivalent to those described for AAV. To investigate this question, active and inactive forms of the minute virus of mice (MVM) 3' replication origin, derived from a replicative-form dimer-bridge intermediate, were propagated in an Epstein-Barr virus-based shuttle vector which replicates as an episome in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in mammalian cells. Upon MVM infection of these cells, the infecting genome integrated into episomes containing the active-origin sequence reported to be efficiently nicked by the MVM regulatory protein NS1. In contrast, MVM did not integrate into episomes containing either the inactive form of the origin sequence reported to be inefficiently nicked by NS1 or the active form from which the NS1 consensus nick site had been deleted. The structure of the cloned MVM episomal recombinants displayed several features previously described for AAV episomal and chromosomal recombinants. The findings indicate that the rules which govern AAV site-specific recombination also apply to MVM and suggest that site-specific chromosomal insertions may be achievable with different autonomous parvovirus replicator proteins which recognize binding and nicking sites on the target DNA.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1998 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group protein 1 (HMG1) is an abundant non-histone chromosomal protein which plays a role in several nuclear events involving DNA. Here we demonstrate that HMG1 physically interacts with the human adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep protein. HMG1 promotes the formation of Rep-DNA complexes and stimulates the activity of Rep in site- and strand-specific cleavage of DNA and the hydrolysis of ATP, functions required for viral gene regulation, replication and site-specific integration of viral DNA into human chromosome 19. We show that HMG1 enhances Rep-mediated repression of the AAV p5 promoter in transfected cells, suggesting that HMG1 and Rep also interact in vivo. HMG1, Rep and DNA can be immunoprecipitated as a ternary complex. Kinetic studies indicate that complexes of Rep with DNA have similar stabilities in the presence and absence of HMG1. These results suggest that the effect of HMG1 on Rep binding is exerted at the step of complex formation and thereby may reflect an activity of HMG1 in promoting the assembly of complex cellular nucleoprotein structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has attracted considerable interest as a potential vector for gene delivery. Wild-type virus is notable for the lack of association with any human disease and the ability to stably integrate its genome in a site-specific manner in a locus on human chromosome 19 (AAVS1). Use of a functional model system for AAV DNA integration into AAVS1 has allowed us to conclude that the recombination event is directed by cellular DNA sequences. Recombinant junctions isolated from our integration assay were analyzed and showed characteristics similar to those found in latently infected cell lines. The minimal DNA signals within AAVS1 required for targeted integration were identified and shown to contain functional motifs of the viral origin of replication. A replication mediated model of AAV DNA integration is proposed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1996 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome integrates site specifically into a defined region of human chromosome 19 (termed AAVS1). Using a functional assay for AAV integration into AAVS1 DNA propagated as an episome, we obtained evidence that a 33-nucleotide AAVS1 DNA sequence contains the minimum signal required for targeted integration. The recombination signal comprises a DNA-binding motif for the AAV regulatory Rep protein [Rep binding site (RBS)] separated by an eight-nucleotide spacer from a sequence that can act as a substrate for Rep endonucleolytic activity [terminal resolution site (TRS)]. Mutations in either the AAVS1-encoded RBS or TRS elements abort targeted integration. Since both the RBS and TRS elements are present in the viral origin of replication and are required for AAV replication, targeted integration into chromosome 19 AAVS1 DNA may involve a replicative type of recombination that is discussed. An additional chromosome 19 element, which is responsible for DNA rearrangements in episomes propagating AAVS1 DNA, was identified and shown not to be required for AAV episomal integration, despite its location adjacent to the recombination signal.
Preview · Article · Aug 1996 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A model system using an episomal Epstein-Barr virus shuttle vector was recently developed to study the adeno-associated virus (AAV) site-specific integration event in chromosome 19q13.3-qter (C. Giraud, E. Winocour, and K.I. Berns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:10039-10043, 1994). In this study, we analyze the recombinant junctions generated after integration of the AAV genome into an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle vector carrying 8.2, 1.6, or 0.51 kb of the chromosome 19 preintegration sequence (AAVS1 locus). In most of the recombinants, one end of the viral genome was joined to a portion of the AAVS1 DNA previously shown to be a minimum target for AAV integration. Within this AAVS1 segment, the AAV insertion points were strikingly clustered around a binding site for the AAV regulatory protein. In all cases, the second junction with AAV occurred with vector DNA outside of the AAVS1 segment. With respect to the viral genome, one junction with the shuttle vector DNA occurred either within the AAV inverted terminal repeat (itr), or near the P5 promoter, approximately 100 nucleotides distal to a modified itr. The modified itr in 5 of 11 recombinants involved a head-to-tail organization. In one such instance, the AAV insert contained slightly more than one genome equivalent arranged in a head-to-tail manner with a junction close to the P5 promoter; the AAV insert in this recombinant episome could be rescued by adenovirus infection and replicated to virus particles. The significance of the head-to-tail organization is discussed in terms of the possible circularization of AAV DNA before or during integration.
Preview · Article · Dec 1995 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different regions of an 8.2-kb cloned DNA segment containing the target for adeno-associated virus (AAV) integration in human chromosome 19q13-3-qter (AAVS1 locus) were subcloned in an Epstein-Barr virus-based shuttle vector and propagated as episomes in a derivative of the 293 human embryonic kidney cell line. Preferential recombination with an infecting AAV genome was assessed by measuring the frequency of recombinants among the shuttle vectors recovered in Escherichia coli. The signals which direct recombination with the AAV genome were localized to a 510-nt region at the 5' end of the 8.2-kb AAVS1 DNA. Hence, the results indicate that site-specific integration of AAV is directed by a specific DNA sequence on human chromosome 19. An unusual degree of DNA heterogeneity in the recovered vector was also associated with the 510 nt at the 5' end of AAVS1 DNA, suggesting that the AAV chromosomal integration locus may be involved in genomic instability.
Preview · Article · Nov 1994 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adeno-associated virus (AAV) rep gene encodes a series of overlapping, multifunctional, nonstructural proteins (Rep proteins) which regulate the viral life cycle and which are also capable of trans-regulating nonviral gene expressions (reviewed in Berns, 1990, Microbiol. Rev. 54, 316-329). To investigate the expression of the AAV rep gene in a cellular chromosomal context, SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo (OD4) cells were infected with an AAV/neo hybrid virus and progeny resistant to the antibiotic G418 were selected and amplified. Chromosomal integration and RNA transcription of the AAV and neo DNA inserts were confirmed by Southern and Northern blotting procedures. One of the G418R cell lines stably expressed a protein which reacted specifically with AAV anti-Rep antiserum in Western immunoblots. The stable integration of AAV rep DNA, which did not interfere with cell proliferation under normal growth conditions, was associated with two changes in cellular phenotype: eight of nine lines were markedly more sensitive to UV light (254 nm) than were the parental OD4 cells; and seven of the nine lines had lost the capacity to promote SV40 origin DNA amplification in vitro, in contrast to the parental OD4 cells. OD4 cells transformed to G418R by AAV/neo DNA constructs with a deleted rep gene, or by a neo DNA construct lacking AAV DNA, did not display these phenotypic changes. It is suggested that stable integration of the AAV rep gene interferes with cellular processes connected with DNA repair and gene amplification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adeno-associated virus (AAV) rep gene encodes a series of overlapping, multifunctional, nonstructural proteins (Rep proteins) which regulate the viral life cycle and which are also capable of trans-regulating nonviral gene expressions (reviewed in Berns, 1990, Microbiol. Rev. 54, 316–329). To investigate the expression of the AAV rep gene in a cellular chromosomal context, SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo (OD4) cells were infected with an AAV/neo hybrid virus and progeny resistant to the antibiotic G418 were selected and amplified. Chromosomal integration and RNA transcription of the AAV and neo DNA inserts were confirmed by Southern and Northern blotting procedures. One of the G418R cell lines stably expressed a protein which reacted specifically with AAV anti-Rep antiserum in Western immunoblots. The stable integration of AAV rep DNA, which did not interfere with cell proliferation under normal growth conditions, was associated with two changes in cellular phenotype: eight of nine lines were markedly more sensitive to UV light (254 nm) than were the parental OD4 cells; and seven of the nine lines had lost the capacity to promote SV40 origin DNA amplification in vitro, in contrast to the parental OD4 cells. OD4 cells transformed to G418R by AAV/neo DNA constructs with a deleted rep gene, or by a neo DNA construct lacking AAV DNA, did not display these phenotypic changes. It is suggested that stable integration of the AAV rep gene interferes with cellular processes connected with DNA repair and gene amplification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irradiation of simian virus 40 (ori mutant)-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells (OD4 line) with UV light induced a cellular capacity which supported a full cycle of helper-independent adeno-associated virus replication. Monochromatic UV light at 254 nm was about 1,000-fold more effective than UV light at 313 nm, indicating that cellular nucleic acid is the primary chromophore in the UV-induced process leading to permissiveness for adeno-associated virus replication. The UV irradiation and the infection could be separated for up to 12 h without substantial loss of permissiveness. During this time interval, the induction process was partly sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting a requirement for de novo protein synthesis.
Preview · Article · Apr 1989 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection of nonpermissive cells with adeno-associated virus (AAV) or AAV inactivated by uv light inhibited their multiplication in culture and interfered with their transit through the cell cycle. The perturbation of the cell cycle led to the accumulation of cells in the late S and/or G2 phases. The AAV-mediated inhibition of growth was dependent upon high concentrations of input virus and the types of cells. Presenescent embryonic fibroblasts of Syrian hamster and human origin were the most sensitive cell types examined; in contrast, immortalized lines of Syrian hamster and human origin were relatively resistant. We suggest that the inhibition of cell division results from a reaction between a cellular target and the incoming AAV virion (or a component of the virion) and that parental viral gene expression is not required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the helper-independent replication of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in cells synchronized by pretreatment with hydroxyurea, reversal of polyamine depletion, or physical mitotic detachment. In Chinese hamster cells (OD4 line) treated with hydroxyurea prior to infection. AAV underwent a complete cycle of replication. Transfection of such cells with plasmid-cloned AAV DNAs also gave rise to infectious viral progeny. Synchronization of OD4 cells by reversal of polyamine depletion or mitotic detachment led to independent AAV DNA synthesis (and infectious viral progeny in the case of the former procedure), but these procedures were not as effective as hydroxyurea pretreatment. Independent AAV DNA synthesis was also detected in some other cell lines of Chinese hamster, human, and monkey origin treated with hydroxyurea prior to infection. The results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous notions, the AAV infectious process is not absolutely dependent upon the addition of a coinfecting helper virus.
Preview · Article · May 1987 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structures of recombinant genomes formed by recombination between simian virus 40 (SV40) and adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) DNAs after either DNA cotransfection or coinfection by virions were characterized. Two types of structures were found. Group A structures, found after cotransfection and in one of seven recombinants arising from coinfection, represented a simple deletion of SV40 sequences replaced by a slightly shorter AAV sequence. Group B structures were found in six of seven recombinants arising after virion coinfection. All contained either the left or right terminal sequences (approximately 250 to 450 bases) of the AAV genome adjacent to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Only 350 to 650 bases (including the origin) remained of the SV40 sequence. The joined SV40-AAV sequences were present in the recombinant genome as a tandem repeat of a size that can be packaged into SV40 capsids.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1985 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A linear simian virus 40 origin-containing DNA fragment replicated in monkey COS cells, generating tandemly repeated (head-to-tail)
structures. Electron microscopy revealed circle-and-tail configurations characteristic of rolling-circle replication intermediates.
Circularization of the same DNA before transfection led to a theta type of replication which generated supercoiled DNA molecules.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1985 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linear forms of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, when added to transfection mixtures containing circular SV40 and phi X174 RFI
DNAs, enhanced the frequency of SV40/phi X174 recombination, as measured by infectious center in situ plaque hybridization
in monkey BSC-1 cells. The sequences required for the enhancement of recombination by linear DNA reside within the SV40 replication
origin/regulatory region (nucleotides 5,171 to 5,243/0 to 128). Linearization of phi X174 RFI DNA did not increase the recombination
frequency. The SV40/phi X174 recombinant structures arising from transfections supplemented with linear forms of origin-containing
SV40 DNA contained phi X174 DNA sequences interspersed within tandem head-to-tail repeats derived from the recombination-enhancing
linear DNA. Evidence is presented that the tandem repeats are not formed by homologous recombination and that linear forms
of SV40 DNA must compete with circular SV40 DNA for the available T antigen to enhance recombination. We propose that the
enhancement of recombination by linear SV40 DNA results from the entry of that DNA into a rolling circle type of replication
pathway which generates highly recombinogenic intermediates.
Full-text · Article · May 1985 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombination between simian virus 40 (SV40) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been detected, by infectious center in situ plaque hybridization procedures, after both DNA contransfection and virion coinfection of monkey BSC-1 cells. The number of cells producing recombinants (1 in a 1000) was the same irrespective of the way in which the SV40 and AAV genomes were delivered to the cell, despite the fact that 5-10 times more cells were infected after virion coinfection. Several other dosage-response parameters of the recombination process consequent to virion coinfection were comparable to those after DNA cotransfection. The sole difference observed between the two infection systems was that the SV40/AAV recombinants formed after virion coinfection contained an inordinately high proportion of AAV terminal DNA sequences. By separating the SV40 and AAV infections in time, such that the AAV infection was delayed until after certain events in the SV40 cycle had taken place, an optimum phase for recombination in the SV40 cycle was identified. This phase occurs a few hours after infection, well before the onset of SV40 DNA replication and the synthesis of SV40-specific early proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three simian virus (SV40)-phi X174 recombinant genomes were isolated from single BSC-1 monkey cells cotransfected with SV40 and phi X174 RF1 DNAs. The individual cell progenies were amplified, cloned, and mapped by a combination of restriction endonuclease and heteroduplex analyses. In each case, the 600 to 1,000 base pairs of phi X174 DNA (derived from different regions of the phi X174 genome) were present as single inserts, located in either the early or late SV40 regions; the deletion of SV40 DNA was greater than the size of the insert; and the remaining portions of the hybrid genome were indistinguishable from wild-type SV40 DNA, as judged by both mapping and biological tests. Hence, apart from the deletion which accommodates the phi X174 DNA insert, no other rearrangements of SV40 DNA were detected. The restriction map of a SV40-phi X174 recombinant DNA isolate before molecular cloning was indistinguishable from those of two separate cloned derivatives of that isolate, indicating that the species cloned was the major amplifiable recombinant structure generated by a single recombinant-producing cell. The relative simplicity of the SV40-phi X174 recombinant DNA examined is consistent with the notion that most recombinant-producing BSC-1 cells support single recombination events generating only one amplifiable recombinant structure.
Preview · Article · Nov 1983 · Journal of Virology