Arie van Haeringen

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (75)452.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Noonan syndrome (NS), a heterogeneous developmental disorder associated with variable clinical expression including short stature, congenital heart defect, unusual pectus deformity and typical facial features, is caused by activating mutations in genes involved in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Case presentation Here, we present a clinical and molecular characterization of a small family with Noonan syndrome. Comprehensive mutation analysis of NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, CBL, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, MAP2K2, MAP2K1, SPRED1, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS was performed using targeted next-generation sequencing. The result revealed a recurrent mutation in NRAS, c.179G > A (p.G60E), in the index patient. This mutation was inherited from the index patient’s father, who also showed signs of NS. Conclusions We describe clinical features in this family and review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlations for NS patients with mutations in NRAS. Neither of affected individuals in this family presented with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), which together with previously published results suggest that the risk for NS individuals with a germline NRAS mutation developing JMML is not different from the proportion seen in other NS cases. Interestingly, 50 % of NS individuals with an NRAS mutation (including our family) present with lentigines and/or Café-au-lait spots. This demonstrates a predisposition to hyperpigmented lesions in NRAS-positive NS individuals. In addition, the affected father in our family presented with a hearing deficit since birth, which together with lentigines are two characteristics of NS with multiple lentigines (previously LEOPARD syndrome), supporting the difficulties in diagnosing individuals with RASopathies correctly. The clinical and genetic heterogeneity observed in RASopathies is a challenge for genetic testing. However, next-generation sequencing technology, which allows screening of a large number of genes simultaneously, will facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis of patients with RASopathies.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Offspring of consanguineous couples are at increased risk of congenital disorders. The risk increases as parents are more closely related. Individuals that have the same degree of relatedness according to their pedigree, show variable genomic kinship coefficients. To investigate whether we can differentiate between couples with high- and low risk for offspring with congenital disorders, we have compared the genomic kinship coefficient of consanguineous parents with a child affected with an autosomal recessive disorder with that of consanguineous parents with only healthy children, corrected for the degree of pedigree relatedness. Methods: 151 consanguineous couples (73 cases and 78 controls) from 10 different ethnic backgrounds were genotyped on the Affymetrix platform and passed quality control checks. After pruning SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, 57,358 SNPs remained. Kinship coefficients were calculated using three different toolsets: PLINK, King and IBDelphi, yielding five different estimates (IBDelphi, PLINK (all), PLINK (by population), King robust (all) and King homo (by population)). We performed a one-sided Mann Whitney test to investigate whether the median relative difference regarding observed and expected kinship coefficients is bigger for cases than for controls. Furthermore, we fitted a mixed effects linear model to correct for a possible population effect. Results: Although the estimated degrees of genomic relatedness with the different toolsets show substantial variability, correlation measures between the different estimators demonstrated moderate to strong correlations. Controls have higher point estimates for genomic kinship coefficients. The one-sided Mann Whitney test did not show any evidence for a higher median relative difference for cases compared to controls. Neither did the regression analysis exhibit a positive association between case-control status and genomic kinship coefficient. Conclusions: In this case-control setting, in which we compared consanguineous couples corrected for degree of pedigree relatedness, a higher degree of genomic relatedness was not significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having an affected child. Further translational research should focus on which parts of the genome and which pathogenic mutations couples are sharing. Looking at relatedness coefficients by determining genome-wide SNPs does not seem to be an effective measure for prospective risk assessment in consanguineous parents.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, and subdivided in TRPS I, caused by mutations in TRPS1, and TRPS II, caused by a contiguous gene deletion affecting (amongst others) TRPS1 and EXT1. We performed a collaborative international study to delineate phenotype, natural history, variability, and genotype - phenotype correlations in more detail. We gathered information on 103 cytogenetically or molecularly confirmed affected individuals. TRPS I was present in 85 individuals (22 missense mutations, 62 other mutations), TRPS II in 14, and in 5 it remained uncertain whether TRPS1 was partially or completely deleted. Main features defining the facial phenotype include fine and sparse hair, thick and broad eyebrows, especially the medial portion, a broad nasal ridge and tip, underdeveloped nasal alae, and a broad columella. The facial manifestations in patients with TRPS I and TRPS II do not show a significant difference. In the limbs the main findings are short hands and feet, hypermobility, and a tendency for isolated metacarpals and metatarsals to be shortened. Nails of fingers and toes are typically thin and dystrophic. The radiological hallmark are the cone-shaped epiphyses and in TRPS II multiple exostoses. Osteopenia is common in both, as is reduced linear growth, both prenatally and postnatally. Variability for all findings, also within a single family, can be marked. Morbidity mostly concerns joint problems, manifesting in increased or decreased mobility, pain and in a minority an increased fracture rate. The hips can be markedly affected at a (very) young age. Intellectual disability is uncommon in TRPS I and, if present, usually mild. In TRPS II intellectual disability is present in most but not all, and again typically mild to moderate in severity. Missense mutations are located exclusively in exon 6 and 7 of TRPS1. Other mutations are located anywhere in exons 4-7. Whole gene deletions are common but have variable breakpoints. Most of the phenotype in patients with TRPS II is explained by the deletion of TRPS1 and EXT1, but haploinsufficiency of RAD21 is also likely to contribute. Genotype-phenotype studies showed that mutations located in exon 6 may have somewhat more pronounced facial characteristics and more marked shortening of hands and feet compared to mutations located elsewhere in TRPS1, but numbers are too small to allow firm conclusions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · European journal of medical genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Interstitial deletion 1q24q25 is a rare rearrangement associated with intellectual disability, growth retardation, abnormal extremities and facial dysmorphism. In this study, we describe the largest series reported to date, including 18 patients (4M/14F) aged from 2 days to 67 years and comprising two familial cases. The patients presented with a characteristic phenotype including mild to moderate intellectual disability (100%), intrauterine (92%) and postnatal (94%) growth retardation, microcephaly (77%), short hands and feet (83%), brachydactyly (70%), fifth finger clinodactyly (78%) and facial dysmorphism with a bulbous nose (72%), abnormal ears (67%) and micrognathia (56%). Other findings were abnormal palate (50%), single transverse palmar crease (53%), renal (38%), cardiac (38%), and genital (23%) malformations. The deletions were characterized by chromosome microarray. They were of different sizes (490 kb to 20.95 Mb) localized within chromosome bands 1q23.3-q31.2 (chr1:160797550-192912120, hg19). The 490 kb deletion is the smallest deletion reported to date associated with this phenotype. We delineated three regions that may contribute to the phenotype: a proximal one (chr1:164,501,003-167,022,133), associated with cardiac and renal anomalies, a distal one (chr1:178,514,910-181,269,712) and an intermediate 490 kb region (chr1:171970575-172460683, hg19), deleted in the most of the patients, and containing DNM3, MIR3120 and MIR214 that may play an important role in the phenotype. However, this genetic region seems complex with multiple regions giving rise to the same phenotype. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Terminal deletions of the distal part of the short arm of chromosome 3 cause a wide range of phenotypes from normal to dysmorphic including microcephaly, developmental delay and intellectual disability. We studied the clinical consequences of a terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 in four generations of a family. The index patient is a14-month-old boy with microcephaly, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and minor dysmorphic features. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) array analysis detected a duplication on the long arm of chromosome 6. His apparently healthy mother carries the same 6q duplication, but as an unexpected finding a terminal deletion of 2.9 Mb of the short arm of chromosome 3 was observed. Further co-segregation analysis in the family for the chromosome 3 deletion showed that with the exception of the sister of the index who has autism, speech delay, and learning problems, family members in four generations of this family are carrier of this 3p deletion and apparently healthy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a study of this terminal 3p deletion in four generations. In this report, we review the literature on terminal 3p deletions and discuss the importance of molecular testing and reporting of copy number variants to achieve accurate genetic counseling in prenatal and postnatal screening. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: We present a young boy whose mild ataxia and abnormal eye movements repeatedly deteriorated with fever, making him unable to sit or walk during fever episodes. SNP-array analysis identified a 202 kb deletion in chromosome 13q33.1 containing the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)14 gene, which is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 27. This 13q deletion was also present in the proband's mother and grandmother. The mother was unable to perform tandem gait walking and had abnormal eye movements but had never sought medical attention. The grandmother predominantly had a postural tremor. FGF14 regulates brain sodium channels, especially in the cerebellum. Sodium channels can be fever sensitive. This family demonstrates phenotypic variability of FGF14 deletions (SCA 27), fever sensitivity of ataxia and the added value of SNP-array analysis in making a diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular malformations and cardiomyopathy are among the most common phenotypes caused by deletions of chromosome 1p36 which affect approximately 1 in 5000 newborns. Although these cardiac-related abnormalities are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with 1p36 deletions, most of the individual genes that contribute to these conditions have yet to be identified. In this paper, we use a combination of clinical and molecular cytogenetic data to define five critical regions for cardiovascular malformations and two critical regions for cardiomyopathy on chromosome 1p36. Positional candidate genes which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular malformations associated with 1p36 deletions include DVL1, SKI, RERE, PDPN, SPEN, CLCNKA, ECE1, HSPG2, LUZP1, and WASF2. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of PRDM16-a gene which was recently shown to be sufficient to cause the left ventricular noncompaction-SKI, PRKCZ, RERE, UBE4B and MASP2 may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy. When treating individuals with 1p36 deletions, or providing prognostic information to their families, physicians should take into account that 1p36 deletions which overlie these cardiac critical regions may portend to cardiovascular complications. Since several of these cardiac critical regions contain more than one positional candidate gene-and large terminal and interstitial 1p36 deletions often overlap more than one cardiac critical region-it is likely that haploinsufficiency of two or more genes contributes to the cardiac phenotypes associated with many 1p36 deletions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal microarray testing is commonly used to identify disease causing de novo copy number variants in patients with developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies. In such a patient we now observed an 150 kb deletion on chromosome 7q21.11 affecting the first exon of the axon guidance molecule gene SEMA3A (sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), short basic domain, secreted, (semaphorin) 3A). This deletion was inherited from the healthy father, but considering the function of SEMA3A and phenotypic similarity to the knock-out mice, we still assumed a pathogenic relevance and tested for a recessive second defect. Sequencing of SEMA3A in the patient indeed revealed the de novo in-frame mutation p.Phe316_Lys317delinsThrSerSerAsnGlu. Cloning of the mutated allele in combination with two informative SNPs confirmed compound heterozygosity in the patient. While the altered protein structure was predicted to be benign, aberrant splicing resulting in a premature stop codon was proven by RT-PCR to occur in about half of the transcripts from this allele. Expression profiling in human fetal and adult cDNA panels, confirmed a high expression of SEMA3A in all brain regions as well as in adult and fetal heart and fetal skeletal muscle. Normal intellectual development in the patient was surprising but may be explained by the remaining 20% of SEMA3A expression level demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR. We therefore report a novel autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by postnatal short stature with relative macrocephaly, camptodactyly, septal heart defect and several minor anomalies caused by biallelic mutations in SEMA3A. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: De novo germline variants in several components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex can cause Coffin–Siris syndrome (CSS), Nicolaides–Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS), and nonsyndromic intellectual disability. We screened 63 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CSS for these genes (ARID1A, ARID1B, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and SMARCE1) and identified pathogenic variants in 45 (71%) patients. We found a high proportion of variants in ARID1B (68%). All four pathogenic variants in ARID1A appeared to be mosaic. By using all variants from the Exome Variant Server as test data, we were able to classify variants in ARID1A, ARID1B, and SMARCB1 reliably as being pathogenic or nonpathogenic. For SMARCA2, SMARCA4, and SMARCE1 several variants in the EVS remained unclassified, underlining the importance of parental testing. We have entered all variant and clinical information in LOVD-powered databases to facilitate further genotype–phenotype correlations, as these will become increasingly important because of the uptake of targeted and untargeted next generation sequencing in diagnostics. The emerging phenotype–genotype correlation is that SMARCB1 patients have the most marked physical phenotype and severe cognitive and growth delay. The variability in phenotype seems most marked in ARID1A and ARID1B patients. Distal limbs anomalies are most marked in ARID1A patients and least in SMARCB1 patients. Numbers are small however, and larger series are needed to confirm this correlation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate the observed variable phenotypic expressivity associated with NRXN1 (Neurexin 1) haploinsufficiency by analyses of the largest cohort of patients with NRXN1 exonic deletions described to date and by comprehensively reviewing all comparable copy number variants in all disease cohorts that have been published in the peer reviewed literature (30 separate papers in all). Assessment of the clinical details in 25 previously undescribed individuals with NRXN1 exonic deletions demonstrated recurrent phenotypic features consisting of moderate to severe intellectual disability (91%), severe language delay (81%), autism spectrum disorder (65%), seizures (43%), and hypotonia (38%). These showed considerable overlap with previously reported NRXN1-deletion associated phenotypes in terms of both spectrum and frequency. However, we did not find evidence for an association between deletions involving the β-isoform of neurexin-1 and increased head size, as was recently published in four cases with a deletion involving the C-terminus of NRXN1. We identified additional rare copy number variants in 20% of cases. This study supports a pathogenic role for heterozygous exonic deletions of NRXN1 in neurodevelopmental disorders. The additional rare copy number variants identified may act as possible phenotypic modifiers as suggested in a recent digenic model of neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMS) is characterized by profound sensorineural hearing loss and brain anomalies. Variants in GPSM2 have recently been reported as a cause of CMS by Doherty et al. In this study we have performed exome sequencing of three CMS patients from two unrelated families from the same Dutch village. We identified one homozygous frameshift GPSM2 variants c.1473delG in all patients. We show that this variant arises from a shared, rare haplotype. Since the c.1473delG variant was found in Mennonite settlers, it likely originated in Europe. To support DNA diagnostics, we established an LOVD database for GPSM2 containing all variants thus far described. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: Several genes involved in the familial appearance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (FTAAD) have been characterized recently, one of which is SMAD3. Mutations of SMAD3 cause a new syndromic form of aortic aneurysms and dissections associated with skeletal abnormalities. We discovered a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 15, leading to disruption of SMAD3, in a boy with mild mental retardation, behavioral problems and revealed features of the aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS). Several family members carried the same deletion and showed features including aortic aneurysms and a dissection. This finding demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of SMAD3 leads to development of both thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, and the skeletal abnormalities that form part of the aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome. Interestingly, the identification of this familial deletion is an example of an unanticipated result of a genomic microarray and led to the discovery of important but unrelated serious aortic disease in the proband and family members.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Clinical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Chromothripsis represents a novel phenomenon in the structural variation landscape of cancer genomes. Here, we analyze the genomes of ten patients with congenital disease who were preselected to carry complex chromosomal rearrangements with more than two breakpoints. The rearrangements displayed unanticipated complexity resembling chromothripsis. We find that eight of them contain hallmarks of multiple clustered double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on one or more chromosomes. In addition, nucleotide resolution analysis of 98 breakpoint junctions indicates that break repair involves nonhomologous or microhomology-mediated end joining. We observed that these eight rearrangements are balanced or contain sporadic deletions ranging in size between a few hundred base pairs and several megabases. The two remaining complex rearrangements did not display signs of DSBs and contain duplications, indicative of rearrangement processes involving template switching. Our work provides detailed insight into the characteristics of chromothripsis and supports a role for clustered DSBs driving some constitutional chromothripsis rearrangements.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Deletions including chromosome 14 band q13 have been linked to variable phenotypes. With current molecular methods the authors aim to elucidate a genotype-phenotype correlation by accurately determining the size and location of the deletions and the associated phenotype. Here the authors report the molecular karyotyping and phenotypic description of seven patients with overlapping deletions including chromosome 14q13. The authors show that deletions including 14q13 result in a recognisable phenotype mainly due to haploinsufficiency of two genes (NKX2-1, PAX9). FOXG1 (on chromosome band 14q12) involvement seems to be the main determinant of phenotype severity. The patients in this study without FOXG1 involvement and deletions of up to 10 Mb have a relatively mild phenotype. The authors cannot explain why some patients in literature with overlapping but smaller deletions appear to have a more severe phenotype. A previously presumed association with holoprosencephaly could not be confirmed as none of the patients in this series had holoprosencephaly. FOXG1 appears the main determinant of the severity of phenotypes resulting from deletions including 14q13. The collected data show no evidence for a locus for holoprosencephaly in the 14q13 region, but a locus for agenesis of the corpus callosum cannot be excluded.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: We identified de novo truncating mutations in ARID1B in three individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) by exome sequencing. Array-based copy-number variation (CNV) analysis in 2,000 individuals with intellectual disability revealed deletions encompassing ARID1B in 3 subjects with phenotypes partially overlapping that of CSS. Taken together with published data, these results indicate that haploinsufficiency of the ARID1B gene, which encodes an epigenetic modifier of chromatin structure, is an important cause of CSS and is potentially a common cause of intellectual disability and speech impairment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Excess exogenous retinoic acid (RA) has been well documented to have teratogenic effects in the limb and craniofacial skeleton. Malformations that have been observed in this context include craniosynostosis, a common developmental defect of the skull that occurs in 1 in 2500 individuals and results from premature fusion of the cranial sutures. Despite these observations, a physiological role for RA during suture formation has not been demonstrated. Here, we present evidence that genetically based alterations in RA signaling interfere with human development. We have identified human null and hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 that lead to skeletal and craniofacial anomalies, including fusions of long bones, calvarial bone hypoplasia, and craniosynostosis. Analyses of murine embryos exposed to a chemical inhibitor of Cyp26 enzymes and zebrafish lines with mutations in cyp26b1 suggest that the endochondral bone fusions are due to unrestricted chondrogenesis at the presumptive sites of joint formation within cartilaginous templates, whereas craniosynostosis is induced by a defect in osteoblastic differentiation. Ultrastructural analysis, in situ expression studies, and in vitro quantitative RT-PCR experiments of cellular markers of osseous differentiation indicate that the most likely cause for these phenomena is aberrant osteoblast-osteocyte transitioning. This work reveals a physiological role for RA in partitioning skeletal elements and in the maintenance of cranial suture patency.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a 17-year-old patient with midline defects, ocular hypertelorism, neuropsychomotor development delay, neonatal macrosomy, and dental anomalies. DNA copy number investigations using a Whole Genome TilePath array consisting, of 30K BAC/PAC clones showed a 6.36 Mb deletion in the 9p24.1–p24.3 region and a 14.83 Mb duplication in the 20p12.1–p13 region, which derived from a maternal balanced t(9;20)(p24.1;p12.1) as shown by FISH studies. Monosomy 9p is a well-delineated chromosomal syndrome with characteristic clinical features, while chromosome 20p duplication is a rare genetic condition. Only a handful of cases of monosomy 9/trisomy 20 have been previously described. In this report, we compare the phenotype of our patient with those already reported in the literature, and discuss the role of DMRT, DOCK8, FOXD4, VLDLR, RSPO4, AVP, RASSF2, PROKR2, BMP2, MKKS, and JAG1, all genes mapping to the deleted and duplicated regions. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    ABSTRACT: In several laboratories, genome-wide array analysis has been implemented as the first tier diagnostic test for the identification of copy number changes in patients with mental retardation and/or congenital anomalies. The identification of a pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) is not only important to make a proper diagnosis but also to enable the accurate estimation of the recurrence risk to family members. Upon the identification of a de novo interstitial loss or gain, the risk recurrence is considered very low. However, this risk is 50% if one of the parents is carrier of a balanced insertional translocation (IT). The apparently de novo imbalance in a patient is then the consequence of the unbalanced transmission of a derivative chromosome involved in an IT. To determine the frequency with which insertional balanced translocations would be the origin of submicroscopic imbalances, we investigated the potential presence of an IT in a consecutive series of 477 interstitial CNVs, in which the parental origin has been tested by FISH, among 14,293 patients with developmental abnormalities referred for array. We demonstrate that ITs underlie ~2.1% of the apparently de novo, interstitial CNVs, indicating that submicroscopic ITs are at least sixfold more frequent than cytogenetically visible ITs. This risk estimate should be taken into account during counseling, and warrant parental and proband FISH testing wherever possible in patients with an apparently de novo, interstitial aberration.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. Studies in a variety of model organisms show that miRNAs modulate developmental processes. To our knowledge, the only hereditary condition known to be caused by a miRNA is a form of adult-onset non-syndromic deafness, and no miRNA mutation has yet been found to be responsible for any developmental defect in humans. Here we report the identification of germline hemizygous deletions of MIR17HG, encoding the miR-17∼92 polycistronic miRNA cluster, in individuals with microcephaly, short stature and digital abnormalities. We demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of miR-17∼92 is responsible for these developmental abnormalities by showing that mice harboring targeted deletion of the miR-17∼92 cluster phenocopy several key features of the affected humans. These findings identify a regulatory function for miR-17∼92 in growth and skeletal development and represent the first example of an miRNA gene responsible for a syndromic developmental defect in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan syndrome is a relatively common developmental disorder that is characterized by reduced growth, wide-set eyes and congenital heart defects. Noonan syndrome is associated with dysregulation of the Ras-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Recently, two mutations in NRAS were reported to be associated with Noonan syndrome, T50I and G60E. Here, we report a mutation in NRAS, resulting in an I24N amino acid substitution, that we identified in an individual bearing typical Noonan syndrome features. The I24N mutation activates N-Ras, resulting in enhanced downstream signaling. Expression of N-Ras-I24N, N-Ras-G60E or the strongly activating mutant N-Ras-G12V, which we included as a positive control, results in developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating that these activating N-Ras mutants are sufficient to induce developmental disorders. The defects in zebrafish embryos are reminiscent of symptoms in individuals with Noonan syndrome and phenocopy the defects that other Noonan-syndrome-associated genes induce in zebrafish embryos. MEK inhibition completely rescued the activated N-Ras-induced phenotypes, demonstrating that these defects are mediated exclusively by Ras-MAPK signaling. In conclusion, mutations in NRAS from individuals with Noonan syndrome activated N-Ras signaling and induced developmental defects in zebrafish embryos, indicating that activating mutations in NRAS cause Noonan syndrome.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · Disease Models and Mechanisms

Publication Stats

3k Citations
452.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989-2015
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1988-2013
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • • Department of Clinical Genetics
      • • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • HagaZiekenhuis van Den Haag
      's-Gravenhage, South Holland, Netherlands