[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a pro-inflammatory lipid mediator that increases vascular permeability by simultaneous activation of two pathways, one dependent on the cyclooxygenase metabolite prostaglandin E2 and the other on the sphingomyelinase metabolite ceramide. The hypothesis that part of the PAF-induced oedema is mediated via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) pathway or Rho kinase pathway was investigated. Oedema formation was induced in isolated perfused rat lungs by injection of 5 nmol PAF into the pulmonary artery. Lungs were pre-treated with specific inhibitors: edelfosine (L108) to block phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase C, xestospongin to block the IP3 receptor, 5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulphonyl-homopiperazine (ML-7) to block myosin light chain kinase, and (+)-R-trans-4-(aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y27632) to block Rho-associated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with L108 or xestospongin reduced PAF-induced oedema formation by 58 and 56%, respectively. The effect of L108 was additive to that of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor acetyl salicylic acid (88% oedema reduction). PAF-induced oedema formation was also reduced if extracellular calcium concentrations were lowered. Furthermore, treatment with ML-7 reduced oedema formation by 54%, whereas Y27632 was without effect. It is concluded that platelet-activating-factor-triggered oedema is mediated by activation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway, influx of extracellular calcium and subsequent activation of a myosin light chain kinase-dependent and Rho-associated-protein-kinase-independent mechanism.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid mediator that has been implicated in asthma, sepsis, acute lung injury and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Its actions in the lungs include vasoconstriction, bronchoconstriction, and edema formation. Despite the fact that PAF exerts these actions within minutes, they are mediated by other lipid mediators, in particular eicosanoids generated by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes and sphingolipids generated by acid sphingomyelinase.We will discuss the mechanisms of the PAF-induced pressor responses that are triggered by thromboxane A(2) and leukotrienes, as well the PAF-induced increase in vascular permeability that is mediated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and ceramide.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Pharmacological reports: PR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) contracts smooth muscle of airways and vessels primarily via release of thromboxane. Contraction of smooth muscle is thought to be mediated either by calcium and inositol trisphosphate (IP(3))-dependent activation of the myosin light chain kinase or, alternatively, via the recently discovered Rho-kinase pathway. Here we investigated the contribution of these two pathways to PAF and thromboxane receptor-mediated broncho- and vasoconstriction in two different rat models: the isolated perfused lung (IPL) and precision-cut lung slices. Inhibition of the IP(3) receptor (1-10 microM xestospongin C) or inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC (30 microM L-108) did not affect bronchoconstriction but attenuated the sustained vasoconstriction by PAF. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (35 microM ML-7) or of calmodulin kinase kinase (26 microM STO609), which regulates the phosphorylation of the myosin light chain, had only a small effect on PAF- or thromboxane-induced pressor responses. Similarly, calmidazolium (10 microM), which inhibits calmodulin-dependent proteins, only weakly reduced the airway responses. In contrast, Y-27632 (10 microM), a Rho-kinase inhibitor, attenuated the thromboxane release triggered by PAF and provided partial or complete inhibition against PAF- and thromboxane-induced pressor responses, respectively. Together, our data indicate that PAF- and thus thromboxane receptor-mediated smooth muscle contraction depends largely on the Rho-kinase pathway.
Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) induces pulmonary edema and has a key role in acute lung injury (ALI). Here we show that PAF induces pulmonary edema through two mechanisms: acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-dependent production of ceramide, and activation of the cyclooxygenase pathway. Agents that interfere with PAF-induced ceramide synthesis, such as steroids or the xanthogenate D609, attenuate pulmonary edema formation induced by PAF, endotoxin or acid instillation. Our results identify acid sphingomyelinase and ceramide as possible therapeutic targets in acute lung injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo experiments showed no increased production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in response to injurious ventilation strategies in otherwise untreated animals. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) are more sensitive markers of ventilation-induced cytokine release, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were examined for these mediators. Eighty-five adult rats were randomized to three different ventilation strategies. Rats were ventilated with low pressures and low tidal volumes [13/3; peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in cmH2O], the second group of rats was ventilated with high pressures and low PEEP resulting in high tidal volumes (32/6), and the third group was ventilated with the same high pressures but without PEEP (32/0). Animals were ventilated either for 90 or 240 min, subsequently serum and BAL were collected for analyses on IL-6 and MIP-2 content. Non-ventilated animals served as healthy controls. Ventilation with 32/0 for 90 or 240 min, led to increased serum IL-6 levels. Serum MIP-2 levels were increased by ventilation with 32/6 (90 min) and 32/0 (240 min). Ventilation under any condition, even at 13/3, resulted in elevated MIP-2 levels in the BAL fluid. Even at normal pressures pulmonary MIP-2 levels were increased, suggesting that ventilation may promote pro-inflammatory responses in healthy subjects.
Preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Clinical physiology and functional imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mainly among children incidental ingestion of conventional lamp oils (paraffin oil) is responsible for casual intoxications with severe pulmonary toxicity and fatal consequences. On the basis of the isolated blood-free perfused rat lung we developed a model to study the acute toxic effects of lamp oil. Three oils were studied: conventional paraffin lamp oil (kinematic viscosity 1.62 10(-6) m(2)/sec), the methyl ester Edenor ME C12 70 (2.7 10(-6) m(2)/s) and another ester Edenor LPL (4.5 10(-6) m(2)/s). The oils were instilled into the trachea of isolated rat lungs and the changes in lung mechanics (tidal volume, pulmonary compliance and pulmonary conductance) as well as edema formation (increase in lung weight) studied. Instillation of as little as 10 microl paraffin oil caused complete failure of lung functions within 20 min and even 2 microl caused noticeable edema. Similar results were obtained with Edenor ME C12 70, which appeared to be even more toxic than paraffin oil, while Edenor LPL was less toxic. We conclude that tracheal instillation of oils into isolated perfused rat lungs may be a useful model to study the toxicity of lamp oils in vitro. Our findings further suggest that Edenor LPL may be a safer alternative for use as a lamp oil than paraffin oil.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2003 · Food and Chemical Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an important endogenous mediator of pulmonary edema in many models of acute lung injury. PAF triggers edema formation by simultaneous activation of two independent pathways; one is mediated by a cyclooxygenase metabolite, and the other is blocked by quinine. We examined the hypothesis that the cyclooxygenase-dependent part of PAF-induced edema is mediated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). In isolated rat lungs, PAF administration stimulated release of PGE(2) into the venous effluate and increased lung weight as a measure of edema formation. Perfusion with a neutralizing PGE(2) antibody attenuated the PAF-induced edema formation. In vivo, E-prostanoid 3-receptor-deficient mice showed less pulmonary Evans blue extravasation in response to PAF injection than did mice deficient in EP1, EP2, or EP4 receptors. Perfusion of rat lungs with PGE(2) caused pulmonary edema, which was largely prevented by inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels (25 nM beta-dendrotoxin), but not by blocking calcium-dependent potassium currents (100 micro M paxilline). In line with its effects on PGE(2)-induced edema formation, beta-dendrotoxin attenuated PAF-induced edema partly if given alone, and completely in combination with quinine. Our findings suggest that PAF-triggered edema is partly mediated by the release of PGE(2), activation of EP3 receptors, and activation of voltage-gated potassium channels.
Preview · Article · Oct 2002 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) possess bronchospasmolytic and anti-inflammatory properties, which make them very attractive drugs for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Unfortunately, many PDE4 inhibitors also produce central nervous and gastrointestinal side effects, which have limited their clinical application. PDE4 has two binding sites for the archetypal PDE4 inhibitor rolipram, and it has been suggested that binding to the high-affinity rolipram binding site (HARBS) is responsible for the side effects of PDE4 inhibitors. Recently, we have synthesised the PDE4 inhibitor CC3 which shows low affinity to the HARBS. In the present study we investigated the bronchospasmolytic and anti-inflammatory properties of this novel compound in comparison to rolipram and the PDE3 inhibitor motapizone. The airway-relaxant properties of the PDE inhibitors were analysed in rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) in which airways were contracted by methacholine or in passively sensitised PCLS exposed to ovalbumin. The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated by measuring the release of TNF from endotoxin-treated human monocytes.
Up to concentrations of 10 µM none of the PDE inhibitors significantly affected bronchoconstriction elicited by 10 µM methacholine. However, if rolipram or CC3 were given in combination with motapizone, methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction was concentration-dependently attenuated. Allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in passively sensitised PCLS was attenuated by CC3 (IC50 2.7 µM), rolipram (0.23 µM) and motapizone (8 µM). Combination of equimolar concentrations of motapizone and CC3 (0.34 µM) or rolipram (0.005 µM) showed an additive effect. Endotoxin-induced TNF release from human monocytes was attenuated by all three PDE inhibitors, i.e. CC3 (IC50 4.6 µM), rolipram (0.18 µM) and motapizone (5.8 µM). Our findings suggest that PDE4 inhibitors with only low affinity for the HABRS have bronchospasmolytic and anti-inflammatory properties.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect on compartmentalization of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha response in the lung and systemically after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressure with and without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).
Prospective, randomized, animal study in an experimental laboratory of a university.
85 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Lipopolysaccharide was given intratracheally or intraperitoneally to stimulate TNF-alpha production; control animals received a similar amount of saline. Animals were subsequently ventilated for 20 min in a pressure control mode with peak inspiratory pressure/PEEP ratio of either 45/0 or 45/10 (frequency 30 bpm, I/E ratio 1:2, FIO2 = 1).
Blood gas tension and arterial pressures were recorded at 1, 10, and 20 min after start of mechanical ventilation. After killing of the animals pressure-volume curves were recorded, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for assessment of protein content and the small/large surfactant aggregate ratio. TNF-alpha was determined in serum and BAL. TNF-alpha levels were significantly increased after lipopolysaccharide stimulation; furthermore ventilation without PEEP resulted in a significant shift of TNF-alpha to the nonstimulated compartment as opposed to ventilation with a PEEP level of 10 cmH2O.
Ventilation strategies which are known to induce ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) disturb the compartmentalization of the early cytokines response in the lung and systemically. Furthermore, the loss of compartmentalization is a two-way disturbance, with cytokines shifting from the vascular side to the alveolar side and vice versa. A ventilation strategy (PEEP level of 10 cmH2O) which prevents VILI significantly diminished this shift in cytokines.
No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Intensive Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms of pulmonary edema caused by platelet-activating factor (PAF) in isolated rat lungs as well as in mice in vivo. In blood-free perfused and ventilated rat lungs, PAF increased lung weight by 0.59 +/- 0.18 g. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin (500 microM) blocked this response by one-third, and the quinolines quinine (330 microM), quinidine (100 microM), and chloroquine (100 microM) by two-thirds. Lipoxygenase inhibition (10 microM AA861) alone or in combination with thromboxane receptor antagonism (10 microM SQ29548) had no effect on PAF-induced weight gain. In combination with aspirin, quinine or quinidine completely prevented PAF-induced weight gain and the concomitant increase of the capillary filtration coefficient (K(f,c)). Pretreatment with quinine in vivo prevented not only PAF-, but also endotoxin-induced edema formation as assessed by Evans Blue extravasation. In addition, in vivo quinine prevented the endotoxin-induced release of tumor neurosis factor (TNF). Furthermore, in perfused lungs quinine reduced the PAF-induced increases in airway and vascular resistance, as well as thromboxane release. These findings demonstrate the following anti-inflammatory properties of quinolines: reduction of thromboxane and TNF formation; reduction of PAF-induced vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction; and attenuation of PAF- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced edema formation. We conclude that the PAF- induced edema consists of two separate mechanisms, one dependent on an unknown cyclooxygenase metabolite, the other one sensitive to quinolines.
No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine