[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is relatively new term, it can be localized anywhere inside the gastrointestinal system. It has formerly been called leiomyoma, leiomyoblastoma, and/or leiomyosarcoma.
Case report is about a female patient with indefinite difficulties described as "bother", mild anemia and anamnesis data of her mother who had been operated on for colon tumor. After blood examination, which had shown values within referential limits except for mild anemia, patient underwent radiological examination. Primarily, an abdominal cavity ultrasound had been performed, where a suspicious formation in the right hemiabdomen was found, but without distinctive anatomical localization in the abdominal cavity. Secondly, a checkup by Duplex Doppler ultrasound was made, as well as radiological examination with double contrast of colon and computed tomography, where tumor was visualized on ascendant colon with extraluminal localization.
Radiological findings were confirmed by surgery. Histopathological findings were positive for gastrointestinal stromal colon tumor.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors represent extremely rare tumors of gastrointestinal system, especially when localized at the colon but they should be included in a differential diagnosis for their malignant potential.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Medicinski pregled
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anatomic localisation of Hodgkin disease and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is very important in the disease prognosis and therapy treatment. Intrathoracic localisation in Hodgkin disease is very frequent and usually occurs in the form of lymph node enlargement. The most frequent manifestation of the thoracic Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is mediastinal and hilarlympha-denomegalia. The purpose of this research study is to analyse chest computed tomography findings in patients suffering from Hodgkin disease and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma prior to any applied therapy.
This retrospective study encompassed 73 patients diagnosed as having Hodgkin disease or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They were subjected to III chest CT examinations. The initial occurrence of the disease was found in 35 patients (24 patients suffering from Hodgkin disease and 11 suffering from Non-Hodgkin lymphoma). Simultaneously, analyses of the pretherapy chest CT findings were made.
Positive findings were reported in 66.66% patients suffering from Hodgkin disease and 45.45% patients suffering from Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enlarged lymphnodes were found in the region of the upper mediastinum (parathracheal and prevascular group) in more than 55% of the patients suffering from Hodgkin disease and in more than 35% of the patients suffering Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
The findings of this study coincide to a great extent with the findings presented in world literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen at the end of the 19th century, diagnostic imaging techniques have been continously improved by technological advances, bringing radiological diagnosis into the very center of modern medicine. Nowadays, it is hard to imagine therapy planning without previous radiological examination. Great advances in the field of computer technology have been accompanied by development of radiological techniques, and today they include not only morphological and anatomical, but also dynamic, functional and molecular imaging. This paper is an overview of new and improved radiological techniques and their implementation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Medicinski pregled
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is the most common abdominal surgical condition in newborns and infants, while intussusception is the most frequent problem in children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. The aim of this study was to show the advantages of ultrasonography in diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and intussusception and also to point out the efficiency of ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction of childhood intussusception, as a nonoperative therapeutic option.
This study had a prospective design and included 208 patients in a 2-year period (2004-2005). Both US examinations were done using a linear 7.5 MHz probe, and the main ultrasound criteria for HPS were increased pyloric muscle thickness of 3 mm and over, as well as pyloric length over 15 mm, typical ultrasonic findings of intussusception included a target sign or a pseudokidney sign. Sonographically guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusceptions was also performed.
HPS was predominant in male infants, and the mean age was 40 days. The mean pyloric muscle thickness was 4.95 mm in infants with HPS, and the average length of the antroplyloric canal was 19.26 mm. In patients with intussusception, male predominance was also observed and the mean age was 1 year and 79 days. The intussusceptum was most often located in the cecoascending (53.6%) and transverse colon (21.4%). US-guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusception was successful in 82.14% of all cases.
Our findings are in absolute agreement with literature data regarding the average age of patients, both with HPS and intussusception, thickness of the muscular layer, length of the antropyloric canal, and extremely successfid US-guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusceptions.
Ultrasonography has proved to be a remarkably precise diagnostic modality in diagnosing HPS and intussusception, but also makes nonoperative treatment of intussusceptions possible in extremely high percentage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional echotomography and duplex Doppler ultrasonography are noninvasive imaging techniques in measurement of hepatic blood flow. In the period from February 2002 to March 2004, 29,086 patients underwent ultrasound examination at the Institute of Radiology in Novi Sad, and 17,503 presented with symptoms of gastroenterology diseases and/or hepatobiliary tract diseases. 984 patients underwent duplex Doppler sonography. This prospective study included 50 patients with suspected or confirmed diagnosis of portal hypertension. All patients were examined using Siemens Versa Pro (3.5 MHz convex probe: B-mode, color and pulse Doppler). The following parameters were evaluated: Doppler sonoscore, congestion index and portal vein thrombosis. By analyzing gathered data, the diagnosis of portal hypertension was confirmed in 10% of patients at baseline, and in 6% of patients at last follow-up, six months later. Results of this investigation demonstrate the importance of duplex Doppler ultrasonography as an excellent noninvasive diagnostic method used for visualization of the direction and velocity of blood flow, as well as presence of portal vein thrombosis. This imaging modality is used as an initial diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the portohepatic circulation, especially in portal hypertension syndrome and in suspected portal vein thrombosis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Medicinski pregled
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Application of MDCT to evaluation of the urinary tract has been termed CT urography. CT urography makes possible to evaluate both renal parenchyma an urothelium with a single comprehensive examination. The aim of the study is to review preliminary experience in the field of CT urography and suggest a protocol. Protocol consists of non contrast and contrast scans (arterial, venous and excretory phase) following by postprocessing (axial, MPR, MIP and VR reconstructions). This study reviews the most frequent conditions with hematuria (nephrolithiasis, renal masses, renal pelvic and ureteral disease, bladder disease and other conditions). CT urography is becoming the primary imaging study for evaluation of patients with hematuria and other urogenital conditions. Further studies evaluating large numbers of patients are necessary to determinate the role of CT urography in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of liver tumors are important because there is a very high percentage of cases including malignant tumors of liver and biliary tract in worldwide population. The liver can be affected by benign end malignant neoplasms. The benign ones are hepatic cysts, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerative noduls, biliary cystadenomas, lipomas and fibromas. Metastatic liver tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma are the most frequent malignant tumors, but liver can also be affected by biliary cystcarcinoma, holangiocarcinoma, angiosarcoma and lymphoma. Patients suspected of having focal liver lesions should be primarily evaluated by conventional sonography and spectral color Doppler technique like screening methodes, and computed tomography by portoarteriography as high sensitive techniques are severing in differential diagnosis. Diagnostic procedures showed that diagnosis of liver tumors should be simple and reliable, and help to determine therapy approach. That extends the survival time of patients with liver carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The use of colour doppler ultrasound in estimating hepatic and portal circulation is very often in clinical practice. The estimating of liver circulation is the most frequent indication for applying doppler examination and it encompasses diagnostic of portal branch. Colour doppler is applied to liver transplantation as well, both in pre-operative patient examination and following patient's condition after the transplantation. Method: Doppler examination of liver vessels can be carried out in detail on all contemporary doppler ultrasound machines, with transducer frequency ranging from 2,5-5 MHz. Portal hypertension most often occurs as a consequence of chronic parenhimal liver disease. Its characteristics are lowered flow, dilatation of portal diameter, collateral presence, hepathofugal flow and spleen diameter growth. In the case of portal thrombosis its lumen is most frequent dilatated, filled with thrombotic masses which are of different echogenious structure, while the signs of flow are not registered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of chest trauma is traditionally established from the plain chest radiographs taken at the admission. Plain chest radiographs provide useful information on many chest wall, pleura, lung, mediastinum and diaphragm injuries with certain limitations. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is increasingly used as the diagnostic tool in many blunt trauma patients. It has been suggested in the literature that many injuries observed by CT could not be detected on conventional radiographs. High resolution and shorter time of processing offer technological advances of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) over traditional methods in the diagnosis of these injuries. Urgent surgical procedures or intensive care monitoring could be performed in unstable patient without prior use of radiologic examination. This paper presents the review on the characteristics of typical chest injuries observed in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diagnostic algorythm in patient with renal parechymal disease consists of clinical, laboratory evaluation and ultrasonography with color Doppler. Parameters evaluated by grey scale are: 1. renal length, 2. cortical echogenicity, 3. distinctness of the corticomedullary boudary. Doppler sonography demonstrates renal blood vessels, evaluates perfusion and allows functional evaluation of the kidneys. Sensitivity of US in the evaluation of renal parenchymal disease is 62-77% and specificity 58-73%. In early clinical stages of renal parenchymal disease, kidneys may appear normal on US, whereas as parenchymal disease progress, changes in echogenicity and echotexture of renal parenchyma usually manifest. Renal parenchymal disease: Different renal parenchymal disease present the same US appearance and the same disease different US appearance, that's why US guided biopsy may be necessary to determine the exact histological cause of renal failure. There are some renal medical disease (nephrocalcinosis, AIDS, analgesic nephropathy) with somewhat characteristic, although not specific US findings. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is the primary imaging modality in diagnostics of renal medical disease. It is easily available, comfortable, low cost and not on the basis of X rays. US helps in deriving decisions about further diagnostic studies and follow up patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Plain x-rays and contrast urography are important for diagnosing urinary tract diseases. The first plain film of the urinary tract was made in 1896, and the first tests using contrasts started in 1904. Excretory urography has been used since 1930. PLAIN FILM OF THE URINARY TRACT: Plain films of the urinary tract are used in the kidney area, the area of the ureter and urinary bladder. They also show structures (lumbar and sacral spine and pelvis), muscles (m. iliopsoas) as well as calculi. EXCRETORY UROGRAPHY: X-ray visualization of the urinary tract with contrast substances is intravenous urography. It is used for diagnosing diseases of the upper urinary system with symptoms such as: pain, colic, hydronephrosis, as well as acute cortical infections, urinary bladder tumors, etc. RETROGRADE UROGRAPHY: Retrograde urography is a procedure recommended when either the pyelocalyx system or the ureter are not seen unilaterally or bilaterally. CYSTOGRAPHY AND URETHROCYSTOGRAPHY: Cystography is used to visualize the bladder. It is recommended in case of intravesical obstruction. Urethrocystography is a technique for investigation of the anterior and prostatic urethra as well as the neck of the urinary bladder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The pain in the loins is usually the consequence of renal colic caused by small ureteral calculi. ULTRASONOGRAPHY: Ultrasonography is an efficient tool in the detection of calculi in the pyelocalyx system, but it may not be sufficient for the area of renal pelvis and ureter, as wll as for the ureter and the ureterovesical junction. INTRAVENOUS UROGRAPHY: Radiolucent stones, dilatation of the ureter and of the pyelocalyx system were identified on the urogram, which are common signs of ureter calculosis. Defects in the contrast can be caused by blood clots and papillary or malignant tumors of the ureter, thus causing a differential diagnosis problem. UNENHANCED HELICAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: Noncontrast spiral CT is useful for detection fo calculi as small as 3mm. It can identify their localization and size without enlargements. The primary and secondary CT signs also confirm the established diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The noncontrast spiral CT is a highly precise method for assessment of kidney pain. It is a realiable and rapid diagnostic modality for the detection of urinary stones which differentiates them from blood clots, tumors, air and other factors which create a differential diagnosis problem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In everyday gynecological clinical practice imaging modalities are becoming more and more important. Depending on the site of pathology itself, CT and MR have certain advantages and disadvantages, which are important to know in order to choose adequate diagnostic procedure. DIAGNOSIS OF GYNECOLOGICAL DISEASES: Benign conditions such as myomas, inflammatory processes and genital tract abnormalities are major indications for MR imaging. In oncology, it is necessary to perform staging of the disease by imaging modalities. Tumors of the vagina and vulva are diagnosed by clinical examination and imaging modalities are used for staging. In cervical carcinoma it is very important to define stages of the desease and invasion of the surrounding structures which is better seen on MR, but invasion of parametria can be visualized by CT as well. For endometrial cancer MR imaging is a modality of choice. For ovarian cancer both modalities are in use, CT is less expensive and gives enough information. New possibilities with MR imaging using an endovaginal coil in diagnosis of stress incontinence are also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last few years a significant advancement in radiological diagnostics has been made by the development of spiral computed tomographic technology. This technology, in comparison to conventional one, enables approach to isotropic imaging. In isotropic imaging spatial resolution is equal in all directions so it is the best possible way for getting the tridimensional images. These tridimensional images obtained by spiral computed tomography are of great importance for evaluation of anatomical details. Beside great speed and noninvasiveness, spiral scanner has capabilities for computed tomographic angiography. It means that spiral scanner depicts intracranial aneurysms with exceptional precision. This fact is of great value because the computed tomographic angiography, in some cases, can substitute completely the conventional angiography, which is an invasive method bearing risk. The sensitivity of computed tomographic angiography is around 88-96%--identical to magnetic resonance angiography. It is slightly higher or equal to conventional angiography, when intracranial aneurysms are concerned. Due to this reason the matter of algorithm of examination is imposed.