A.G. Messenger

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (99)449.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common non-scarring alopecia characterized by widening of the midline hair part at the crown (vertex). In 1977, Ludwig developed a scale that graded the degree of visible vertex hair thinning from I (least severe) to III (most severe). However, by the time patients exhibit the full manifestations of 'Ludwig I', they have already lost a significant volume of hair. Although current therapies may realistically halt progression of hair loss, improvements in hair density is often more limited. Identification and grading of FPHL at an earlier stage is desirable to institute appropriate therapy before significant hair loss has occurred and to enable monitoring over time. Aim: To generate consensus guidance for the recognition and quantification of FPHL that can be used in the clinic. Methods: Nine clinicians from Europe, North America and Australia experienced in the management of FPHL developed this scale by consensus. Results: We propose a three-point severity scale (termed the FPHL Severity Index (FPHL-SI)) that combines validated measures of hair shedding, midline hair density and scalp trichoscopy criteria to produce a total FPHL-SI score (maximum score = 20). The score is designed to grade FPHL severity over time, while being sufficiently sensitive to identify early disease. A score of 0-4 makes FPHL unlikely; a score of 5-9 would indicate early-stage FPHL, with higher scores indicating greater disease severity. Conclusions: As a starting point for further public debate, we employ criteria already used in clinical practice to generate a pragmatic FPHL grading system (FPHL-SI) of sufficient sensitivity to identify and monitor early FPHL changes. This may have to be further optimized after systematic validation in clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
  • A.G. Messenger

    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · British Journal of Dermatology
  • M J Harries · A Messenger

    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
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    ABSTRACT: The aetiopathogenesis of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is poorly understood. Although research has strongly implicated genetic factors in familial occurrence, no association finding for FPHL has yet been replicated. Consequently, no causal biological pathways can be suggested on the basis of currently available genetic findings. A recent gene-wide association study of ESR2 (oestrogen receptor 2) investigated 32 tag SNPs in an Australian FPHL sample, and found nominal significance for three variants (rs10137185, rs17101774, rs202274). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · British Journal of Dermatology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2013
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    AG Messenger · J McKillop · P Farrant · A.J. McDonagh · M Sladden

    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. Although understanding of its etiopathogenesis is incomplete, an interaction between genetic and hormonal factors is assumed to be important. The involvement of an androgen-dependent pathway and sex steroid hormones is the most likely hypothesis. We therefore selected a total of 21 variants from the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 (oestrogen receptor) and PGR (progesterone receptor) and genotyped these in a case-control sample of 198 patients (145 UK; 53 German patients) and 329 controls (179 UK; 150 German). None of these variants showed any significant association, either in the overall UK and German samples or in the subgroup analyses. In summary, the present results, while based on a limited selection of gene variants, do not point to the involvement of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, ESR1, ESR2 or PGR in FPHL.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Experimental Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: It has long been known that women lose satisfaction with their hair with ageing. Our data show that caucasian women perceive a decrease in hair amount in their mid 40s with a further decrease in the mid to late 50s, which leads to this dissatisfaction. Neither loss of density (hairs per cm(2) ) nor shaft diameter alone can fully account for this perception. A new metric, 'hair amount', is proposed as a quantitative metric combining the impact of both density and diameter on the perception of hair loss. Creation of a single parameter combining the contribution of diameter and density to perception of female age-related hair loss. In total, 1099 caucasian women (ages 18-66 years) with self-perceived hair loss and 315 caucasian women (ages 17-86 years) with no complaint of hair loss were evaluated. Scalp hair diameter was measured using optical fibre diameter and image analysis. Scalp hair density was measured by phototrichogram with manual or automated counting. Parietal scalp hair diameter increased from ages 20 to 40-45 years, then decreased. Hair density was highest in the youngest group, age 20-30 years, and decreased thereafter with increasing rate. In women self-perceiving hair loss, the rate of decrease in density was significantly faster than for women with no self-perception of hair loss. The combined metric 'hair amount' was relatively constant at younger ages, increasing very slightly to age 35 years, then decreasing significantly. Increasing hair shaft diameter offsets decreasing hair density through the mid 30s. After that, a lower rate of diameter increase combined with the decrease in density begins to significantly impact the perception of hair amount so that thinning becomes increasingly more noticeable in the mid 40s to the mid to late 50s. Quantitative determination of hair amount is a useful tool to combine the contributions of hair density and diameter to women's perception of age-related hair loss.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: The aetiology of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is largely unknown. However, it is hypothesized that FPHL and male pattern baldness (AGA) share common susceptibility alleles. The two major susceptibility loci for AGA are the androgen receptor (AR)/ectodysplasin A2 receptor (EDA2R) locus on the X-chromosome, and a locus on chromosome 20p11, for which no candidate gene has yet been identified. To examine the role of the AR/EDA2R and 20p11 loci in the development of FPHL using 145 U.K. and 85 German patients with FPHL, 179 U.K. supercontrols and 150 German blood donors. Patients and controls were genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the AR/EDA2R locus and five SNPs at the 20p11 locus. Analysis of the AR/EDA2R locus revealed no significant association in the German sample. However, a nominally significant association for a single SNP (rs1397631) was found in the U.K. sample. Subgroup analysis of the U.K. patients revealed significant association for seven markers in patients with an early onset (P = 0·047 after adjustment for the testing of multiple SNPs by Monte Carlo simulation). No significant association was obtained for the five 20p11 variants, either in the overall samples or in the analysis of subgroups. The observed association suggests that the AR/EDA2R locus confers susceptibility to early-onset FHPL. Our results do not implicate the 20p11 locus in the aetiology of FPHL.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    C Dimitrakakis · A G Messenger · Rebecca L Glaser
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    ABSTRACT: Background Androgens are thought to have an adverse effect on female scalp hair growth. However, our clinical experience of androgen replacement therapy in women with androgen deficiency, in which hair loss was seldom reported, led us to question this concept. Objectives To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous testosterone therapy on scalp hair growth in female patients. Methods A total of 285 women, treated for a minimum of 1 year with subcutane-ous testosterone implants for symptoms of androgen deficiency, were asked to complete a survey that included questions on scalp and facial hair. Age, body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone levels were examined. Results Out of the 285 patients, 76 (27%) reported hair thinning prior to treat-ment; 48 of these patients (63%) reported hair regrowth on testosterone therapy (responders). Nonresponders (i.e. no reported hair regrowth on therapy) had significantly higher BMIs than responders (P = 0AE05). Baseline serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in women reporting hair loss prior to therapy than in those who did not (P = 0AE0001). There was no significant difference in serum testosterone levels, measured 4 weeks after testosterone implantation, between responders and nonresponders. No patient in this cohort reported scalp hair loss on testosterone therapy. A total of 262 women (92%) reported some increase in facial hair growth. Conclusions Subcutaneous testosterone therapy was found to have a beneficial effect on scalp hair growth in female patients treated for symptoms of androgen defi-ciency. We propose this is due to an anabolic effect of testosterone on hair growth. The fact that no subject complained of hair loss as a result of treatment casts doubt on the presumed role of testosterone in driving female scalp hair loss. These results need to be confirmed by formal measurements of hair growth.
    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2012
  • A.G. Messenger
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    ABSTRACT: At a population level female scalp hair growth shows features of regression with chronological ageing, although there is wide interindividual variation in timing and degree. The subjective assessment of hair loss is classically determined by hair density but it is apparent that other factors contribute to the clinical picture. Changes can occur in hair cycling, hair density, hair diameter and pigmentation, and possibly in structural qualities of the hair fibre. These changes are most pronounced in female pattern hair loss. Although conventionally considered as the female counterpart of male androgenetic alopecia the evidence that female pattern hair loss is androgen dependent is less clear cut than in men and it probably has a multifactorial basis. The emerging evidence implicating environmental factors is of particular interest as, unlike genes, such factors may be amenable to intervention. The clinical signs in women complaining of hair loss may be variable. In evaluating the patient complaining of hair loss, while true pathology must always be considered, the clinician needs to be aware of how age affects hair growth. These changes form the focus of this article.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    R.L. Glaser · C Dimitrakakis · A.G. Messenger
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgens are thought to have an adverse effect on female scalp hair growth. However, our clinical experience of androgen replacement therapy in women with androgen deficiency, in which hair loss was seldom reported, led us to question this concept. To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous testosterone therapy on scalp hair growth in female patients. A total of 285 women, treated for a minimum of 1year with subcutaneous testosterone implants for symptoms of androgen deficiency, were asked to complete a survey that included questions on scalp and facial hair. Age, body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone levels were examined. Out of the 285 patients, 76 (27%) reported hair thinning prior to treatment; 48 of these patients (63%) reported hair regrowth on testosterone therapy (responders). Nonresponders (i.e. no reported hair regrowth on therapy) had significantly higher BMIs than responders (P=0·05). Baseline serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in women reporting hair loss prior to therapy than in those who did not (P=0·0001). There was no significant difference in serum testosterone levels, measured 4weeks after testosterone implantation, between responders and nonresponders. No patient in this cohort reported scalp hair loss on testosterone therapy. A total of 262 women (92%) reported some increase in facial hair growth. Subcutaneous testosterone therapy was found to have a beneficial effect on scalp hair growth in female patients treated for symptoms of androgen deficiency. We propose this is due to an anabolic effect of testosterone on hair growth. The fact that no subject complained of hair loss as a result of treatment casts doubt on the presumed role of testosterone in driving female scalp hair loss. These results need to be confirmed by formal measurements of hair growth.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · British Journal of Dermatology
  • A.G. Messenger

    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Androgenetic alopecia is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting both men and women. Initial signs of androgenetic alopecia usually develop during teenage years leading to progressive hair loss with a pattern distribution. Moreover, its frequency increases with age and affects up to 80 % Caucasian men and 42 % of women. Patients diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. Despite the high prevalence and the variety of therapeutic options available, there have been no national or international evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men and women so far. Therefore, the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) initiated a project to develop an evidence-based S3 guideline for the treatment of andro-genetic alopecia. Based on a systematic literature research the efficacy of the currently available therapeutic options was assessed and therapeutic recommendations were passed in a consensus conference. The purpose of the guideline is to provide dermatologists as well as general practitioners with an evidence-based tool for choosing an efficacious and safe therapy for patients with androgenetic alopecia.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting both men and women. Due to the frequency and the often significant impairment of life perceived by the affected patients, competent advice, diagnosis and treatment is particularly important. As evidence-based guidelines on hair disorders are rare, a European consensus group was constituted to develop guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of AGA. This S1 guideline for diagnostic evaluation of AGA in men, women and adolescents reviews the definition of AGA and presents expert opinion-based recommendations for sex-dependent steps in the diagnostic procedure.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · British Journal of Dermatology
  • C A Scott · E A O'Toole · M J Mohungoo · A Messenger · D P Kelsell
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    ABSTRACT: Erythrokeratoderma variabilis (EKV) is characterized by fixed hyperkeratotic plaques and transient erythema. Mutations in the genes GJB3 and GJB4, which encode connexin (Cx)31 and Cx30.3, are associated with EKV. We report one novel mutation in Cx31 and one recurrent mutation in Cx30.3 in two different families. One novel rare sequence variant of unknown clinical significance was also identified. This finding extends the spectrum of known EKV-associated mutations.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
  • P Cousen · A Messenger

    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · British Journal of Dermatology
  • P Cousen · A Messenger
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    ABSTRACT: Female pattern hair loss, also known as female androgenetic alopecia, is generally regarded as an androgen-dependent disorder representing the female counterpart of male balding. We describe female pattern hair loss occurring in a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome suggesting that mechanisms other than direct androgen action contribute to this common form of hair loss in women.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · British Journal of Dermatology
  • M.J. Mohungoo · A.G. Messenger
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    ABSTRACT: Female pattern hair loss typically presents with a history of gradual thinning of scalp hair and widening of the central parting. The prevalence and severity increase with age. Hair loss is due to a gradual decline in the production of hair by scalp hair follicles culminating in follicular miniaturization. Medical treatment can help to prevent progression of hair loss and may promote modest regrowth of hair but is probably unable to reverse follicular miniaturization.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010

Publication Stats

3k Citations
449.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984-2014
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Biomedical Science
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • National Skin Centre
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2006
    • St. Vincent Hospital
      Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1990-2004
    • Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust
      Reading, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992-2001
    • University of Bradford
      • Bradford School of Medical Sciences
      Bradford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom