[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported on a novel compound (Compound 1; RUC-1) identified by high-throughput screening that inhibits human alphaIIbbeta3. RUC-1 did not inhibit alphaVbeta3, suggesting that it interacts with alphaIIb, and flexible ligand/rigid protein molecular docking studies supported this speculation. We have now studied RUC-1's effects on murine and rat platelets, which are less sensitive than human to inhibition by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides due to differences in the alphaIIb sequences contributing to the binding pocket. We found that RUC-1 was much less potent in inhibiting aggregation of murine and rat platelets. Moreover, RUC-1 potently inhibited fibrinogen binding to murine platelets expressing a hybrid alphaIIbbeta3 receptor composed of human alphaIIb and murine beta3, but not a hybrid receptor composed of murine alphaIIb and human beta3. Molecular docking studies of RUC-1 were consistent with the functional data. In vivo studies of RUC-1 administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 26.5 mg/kg demonstrated antithrombotic effects in both ferric chloride carotid artery and laser-induced microvascular injury models in mice with hybrid halphaIIb/mbeta3 receptors. Collectively, these data support RUC-1's specificity for alphaIIb, provide new insights into the alphaIIb binding pocket, and establish RUC-1's antithrombotic effects in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combination of experimental and computational approaches was used to provide a structural context for the role of the beta3 integrin subunit ligand-associated metal binding site (LIMBS) in the binding of physiological ligands to beta3 integrins. Specifically, we have carried out (1) adhesion assays on cells expressing normal alphaIIbeta3, normal alphaVbeta3, or the corresponding beta3 D217A LIMBS mutants; and (2) equilibrium and nonequilibrium (steered) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of eptifibatide in complex with either a fully hydrated normal alphaIIbeta3 integrin fragment (alphaIIb beta-propeller and the beta3 betaA (I-like), hybrid, and PSI domains) or the equivalent beta3 D217A mutant. Normal alphaIIbeta3 expressing cells adhered to immobilized fibrinogen and echistatin, whereas cells expressing the alphaIIbeta3 D217A LIMBS mutant failed to adhere to either ligand. Similarly, the equivalent alphaVbeta3 mutant was unable to support adhesion to vitronectin or fibrinogen. The alphaIIbeta3 D217A mutation increased the binding of mAb AP5, which recognizes a ligand-induced binding site (LIBS) in the beta3 PSI domain, indicating that this mutation induced allosteric changes in the protein. Steered MD simulating the unbinding of eptifibatide from either normal alphaIIbeta3 or the equivalent beta3 D217A mutant suggested that the reduction in ligand binding caused by the LIMBS mutant required the loss of both the LIMBS and the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) metal ions. Our computational results indicate that the LIMBS plays a crucial role in ligand binding to alphaIIbeta3 by virtue of its effects on the coordination of the MIDAS.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small-molecule alphaIIbbeta3 antagonists competitively block ligand binding by spanning between the D224 in alphaIIb and the MIDAS metal ion in beta3. They variably induce conformational changes in the receptor, which may have undesirable consequences. To identify alphaIIbbeta3 antagonists with novel structures, we tested 33 264 small molecules for their ability to inhibit the adhesion of washed platelets to immobilized fibrinogen at 16 muM. A total of 102 compounds demonstrated 50% or more inhibition, and one of these (compound 1, 265 g/mol) inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation (IC(50): 13+/- 5 muM), the binding of soluble fibrinogen to platelets induced by mAb AP5, and the binding of soluble fibrinogen and a cyclic RGD peptide to purified alphaIIbbeta3. Compound 1 did not affect the function of GPIb, alpha2beta1, or the other beta3 family receptor alphaVbeta3. Molecular docking simulations suggest that compound 1 interacts with alphaIIb but not beta3. Compound 1 induced partial exposure of an alphaIIb ligand-induced binding site (LIBS), but did not induce exposure of 2 beta3 LIBS. Transient exposure of purified alphaIIbbeta3 to eptifibatide, but not compound 1, enhanced fibrinogen binding ("priming"). Compound 1 provides a prototype for small molecule selective inhibition of alphaIIbbeta3, without receptor priming, via targeting alphaIIb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of ligand density on integrin-mediated cell adhesion and outside-in signaling is not well understood. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy, conformation-specific antibodies, and Ca(2+) flux measurements, we found that the surface density of fibrinogen affects alpha II b beta 3-mediated platelet signaling, adhesion, and spreading. Adhesion to fibrinogen immobilized at low density leads to rapid increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and sequential formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. In contrast, adhesion to high-density fibrinogen results in transient or no increases in Ca(2+) and simultaneous formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. alpha II b beta 3 receptors at the basal surface of platelets engage fibrinogen in a ringlike pattern at the cell edges under both conditions. This engagement is, however, more dynamic and easily reversed on high-density fibrinogen. Src and Rac activity and actin polymerization are important for adhesion to low-density fibrinogen, whereas PKC/PI3 kinases contribute to platelet spreading on high-density fibrinogen. We conclude that 2 fundamentally different signaling mechanisms can be initiated by a single integrin receptor interacting with the same ligand when it is immobilized at different densities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine blood coagulation factors and function are quite similar to those of humans. Because of this similarity and the adaptability of mice to genetic manipulation, murine coagulation factors and inhibitors have been extensively studied. These studies have provided significant insights into human hemostasis. They have also provided useful experimental models for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of thrombosis. This review contains recommendations for obtaining, processing and assaying mouse blood hemostatic components, and it summarizes the extensive literature on murine coagulation factor structure and function, assays and genetic alteration. It is intended to be a convenient reference source for investigators of hemostasis and thrombosis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis and several other biological processes. The adaptability of mice to genetic manipulation and their genetic similarity to humans has resulted in a plethora of murine models to study platelet function. Although murine platelets differ from human platelets with regard to size, number and structure, functionally they are very similar. Thus, studies which employed these model systems have greatly improved our current understanding of the contribution of platelets to hemostasis and thrombosis. This review presents general recommendations with respect to collection, isolation and processing of murine platelets. It also describes the assays currently available to study platelet function and critically assesses their utility. The extensive literature on the effects of genetic alterations on murine platelet function is considered in detail. This review is intended to provide a convenient source of reference for platelet investigators.
Preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that platelet activation contributes to tumor dissemination, we studied metastasis in mice lacking Galphaq, a G protein critical for platelet activation. Loss of platelet activation resulted in a profound diminution in both experimental and spontaneous metastases. Analyses of the distribution of radiolabeled tumor cells demonstrated that platelet function, like fibrinogen, significantly improved the survival of circulating tumor cells in the pulmonary vasculature. More detailed studies showed that the increase in metastatic success conferred by either platelets or fibrinogen was linked to natural killer cell function. Specifically, the pronounced reduction in tumor cell survival observed in fibrinogen- and Galphaq-deficient mice relative to control animals was eliminated by the immunologic or genetic depletion of natural killer cells. These studies establish an important link between hemostatic factors and innate immunity and indicate that one mechanism by which the platelet-fibrin(ogen) axis contributes to metastatic potential is by impeding natural killer cell elimination of tumor cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leukocyte integrin alpha(M)beta(2)/Mac-1 appears to support the inflammatory response through multiple ligands, but local engagement of fibrin(ogen) may be particularly important for leukocyte function. To define the biological significance of fibrin(ogen)-alpha(M)beta(2) interaction in vivo, gene-targeted mice were generated in which the alpha(M)beta(2)-binding motif within the fibrinogen gamma chain (N(390)RLSIGE(396)) was converted to a series of alanine residues. Mice carrying the Fibgamma(390-396A) allele maintained normal levels of fibrinogen, retained normal clotting function, supported platelet aggregation, and never developed spontaneous hemorrhagic events. However, the mutant fibrinogen failed to support alpha(M)beta(2)-mediated adhesion of primary neutrophils, macrophages, and alpha(M)beta(2)-expressing cell lines. The elimination of the alpha(M)beta(2)-binding motif on fibrin(ogen) severely compromised the inflammatory response in vivo as evidenced by a dramatic impediment in leukocyte clearance of Staphylococcus aureus inoculated into the peritoneal cavity. This defect in bacterial clearance was due not to diminished leukocyte trafficking but rather to a failure to fully implement antimicrobial functions. These studies definitively demonstrate that fibrin(ogen) is a physiologically relevant ligand for alpha(M)beta(2), integrin engagement of fibrin(ogen) is critical to leukocyte function and innate immunity in vivo, and the biological importance of fibrinogen in regulating the inflammatory response can be appreciated outside of any alteration in clotting function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An elevated plasma fibrinogen level is a risk factor for thrombotic cardiovascular disease, but which of fibrinogen's functions is responsible for the increased risk is unknown. To define better the contribution of fibrinogen to large vessel thrombus formation, we studied carotid artery thrombosis in wild-type mice, mice lacking fibrinogen (fbg-/-), mice treated with 7E9 (a blocking antibody to the fibrinogen gamma-chain C-terminus), and mice expressing a mutant fibrinogen (gamma delta 5) that lacks the gamma-chain platelet-binding motif QADGV. In control mice, thrombus formation resulted in occlusion in 8 +/- 2 minutes (mean +/- SD). In fbg-/- mice, thrombi grew to large sizes, but then they abruptly embolized, confirming previous observations by others in an arteriolar thrombus model. In contrast, mice treated with 7E9 and gamma delta 5 mice developed only small, nonoclusive mural thrombi and embolization was limited. These findings reveal that a fibrinogen antibody, 7E9, or a fibrinogen mutant retaining clotting function, can limit thrombus formation more effectively than the complete absence of fibrinogen. We hypothesize that the smaller thrombi in these animals result from the ability of fibrin to bind and sequester thrombin and/or the ability of the altered fibrinogen molecules, which cannot recruit platelets, to bind to and passivate the surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that hamster monoclonal antibody 7E9, which reacts with the C-terminus of the gamma-chain of mouse fibrinogen, inhibits factor (F)XIIIa-mediated cross-linking, platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, and platelet-mediated clot retraction; in addition, it facilitates thrombolysis.
To understand the mechanism(s) by which 7E9 acts, we have now studied the effect of 7E9 IgG, 7E9 F(ab')2, and 7E9 Fab on fibrin clot structure using electron microscopy and measurements of clot physical properties.
By transmission electron microscopy, 7E9 IgG was found to bind primarily to the ends of the fibrinogen molecule. 7E9 IgG and 7E9 F(ab')2, both of which are bivalent, were capable of binding to two fibrinogen molecules simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy of clots formed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of fibrinogen and 7E9 IgG demonstrated the presence of very short and thin fibers (63% reduction in fiber diameter) arranged in unusual bundles, surrounding large pores. Clots formed in the presence of 7E9 demonstrated a marked increase in permeation (approximately 25-fold increase in perfusion rate at constant pressure), an approximately 50% reduction in dynamic storage modulus (G'; a reflection of decreased clot stiffness), and an approximately 38% increase in loss tangent (tan delta; a reflection of the clot's ability to undergo irreversible deformation). These clots also showed decreased absorbance at 350 nm, reflecting the clot structure produced by 7E9 IgG. The effects of 7E9 IgG were not observed with control hamster IgG, 7E9 F(ab')2, or 7E9 Fab fragments, indicating requirements for both the binding properties and mass of 7E9 IgG.
These data indicate that 7E9 antibody affects fibrin clot structure in a way that is consistent with the enhanced fibrinolysis we reported previously. Together with our previous observations, we conclude that 7E9 is directed at a strategically important region of fibrinogen with regard to platelet function, FXIIIa-mediated cross-linking, clot retraction, fibrin structure, and fibrinolysis. Thus targeting this region of fibrinogen may have antithrombotic therapeutic potential.
Preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conventional description of platelet interactions with collagen-coated surfaces in vitro, based on serial static measurements, is that platelets first adhere and spread to form a monolayer and then recruit additional layers of platelets. To obtain dynamic information, we studied gravity-driven platelet deposition in vitro on purified type 1 collagen by video phase-contrast microscopy at 22 degrees C. With untreated human and wild-type mouse platelets, soon after the initial adhesion of a small number of "vanguard" platelets, "follower" platelets attached to the spread-out vanguard platelets. Follower platelets then adhered to and spread onto nearby collagen or over the vanguard platelets. Thus, thrombi formed as a concerted process rather than as sequential processes. Treatment of human platelets with monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7E3 (anti-GPIIb/IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) + alphaVbeta3) or tirofiban (anti-GPIIb/IIIa) did not prevent platelet adhesion but nearly eliminated the deposition of follower platelets onto vanguard platelets and platelet thrombi. Similar results were obtained with Glanzmann thrombasthenia platelets. Wild-type mouse platelets in the presence of mAb 1B5 (anti-GPIIb/IIIa) and platelets from beta3-null mice behaved like human platelets in the presence of 7E3 or tirofiban. Deposition patterns of untreated human and wild-type mouse platelets were consistent with random distributions under a Poisson model, but those obtained with 7E3- and tirofiban-treated human platelets, 1B5-treated mouse platelets, or beta3-null platelets demonstrated a more uniform deposition than predicted. Thus, in this model system, absence or blockade of GPIIb/IIIa receptors interferes with thrombus formation and alters the pattern of platelet deposition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine models employing genetically altered mice have the potential to provide important new information about the hemostatic system, but before such data can be extrapolated to humans it is necessary to define the similarities and differences between murine and human hemostasis. After establishing the similarities of murine fibrinogen to human fibrinogen in its pattern of proteolysis in response to plasmin and its cross-linking by factor XIIIa, we studied a new hamster monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7E9 that reacts with the gamma chain of mouse fibrinogen. This antibody inhibits platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, platelet-mediated clot retraction, platelet aggregation, and FXIIIa-mediated cross-linking of fibrin; it also facilitates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated lysis of fibrin formed either in the absence or presence of platelets. These data provide evidence that the C-terminus of mouse fibrinogen gamma chain, like that of human fibrinogen, is involved in fibrinogen binding to platelets and FXIIIa-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. Our data raise the possibility that a therapeutic agent that targets the C-terminus of the gamma chain in human fibrinogen might have broad antithrombotic and profibrinolytic effects.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To obtain mouse-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against platelet proteins, an Armenian hamster was immunized with washed mouse platelets. Immune splenocytes were then fused with a nonsecreting murine myeloma cell line, and the resulting heterohybridomas were screened for antibody production utilizing an ELISA in which the target antigen was mouse platelets adsorbed onto microtiter plates in the presence of thrombin. Secondary screening assays included ELISA tests using murine fibrinogen or platelets from beta3-integrin knockout mice, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and a functional assay to identify antibodies that inhibit platelet-fibrinogen interactions. Hybridoma cells producing hamster mAbs against murine glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, fibrinogen, CD9, and other platelet integrins were identified. Two hybridomas (1B5 and 9C2) producing antibodies that react with the GPIIb/IIIa complex in immunoprecipitation analysis were subcloned twice. Functional analyses by means of aggregation and adhesion assays revealed that 1B5 completely inhibits platelet-fibrinogen interactions, whereas 9C2 does not affect platelet aggregation or platelet adhesion.
No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications