Jesús Egido

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (740)2993.1 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily. sTWEAK concentrations have been associated with the presence of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that sTWEAK levels may relate to a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques, vascular calcification, and cardiovascular outcomes observed in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A 4-year prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study was conducted in 1058 patients with CKD stages 3-5D (mean age =58±13 years old; 665 men) but without any history of CVD from the NEFRONA Study (a study design on the prevalence of surrogate markers of CVD). Ankle-brachial index and B-mode ultrasound were performed to detect the presence of carotid and/or femoral atherosclerotic plaques together with biochemical measurements and sTWEAK assessment. Patients were followed for cardiovascular outcomes (follow-up of 3.13±1.15 years). Results: Patients with more advanced CKD had lower sTWEAK levels. sTWEAK concentrations were independently and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. sTWEAK levels were lower in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaques but not in those with femoral plaques. After adjustment by confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for presenting carotid atherosclerotic plaques in patients in the lowest versus highest tertile of sTWEAK was 4.18 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.89 to 6.08; P<0.001). Furthermore, sTWEAK levels were lower in patients with calcified carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The OR for presenting calcified carotid plaques was 1.77 (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.93; P=0.02) after multivariable adjustment. After the follow-up, 41 fatal and 68 nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. In a Cox model, after controlling for potential confounding factors, patients in the lowest tertile of sTWEAK concentrations had a higher risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR], 2.40; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.33; P=0.004) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.05 to 6.76; P=0.04). Conclusions: Low sTWEAK levels were associated with the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in patients with CKD. Additionally, lower sTWEAK levels were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as ventricular dysfunction initiated by alterations in cardiac energy substrates in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. In addition to the demonstrated burden of cardiovascular events associated with diabetes, diabetic cardiomyopathy partly explains why diabetic patients are subject to a greater risk of heart failure and a worse outcome after myocardial ischemia. The raising prevalence and accumulating costs of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients underscore the deficiencies of tertiary prevention and call for a shift in medical treatment. It is becoming increasingly clearer that the effective prevention and treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy require measures to regulate the metabolic derangement occurring in the heart rather than merely restoring suitable systemic parameters. Recent research has provided deeper insight into the metabolic etiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy and numerous heart-specific targets that may substitute or reinforce current strategies. From both experimental and translational perspectives, in this review we first discuss the progress made with conventional therapies, and then focus on the need for prospective metabolic targets that may avert myocardial vulnerability and functional decline in next-generation diabetic care.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    ABSTRACT: CD163 is a membrane receptor expressed by macrophage lineage. Studies performed in atherosclerosis have shown that CD163 expression is increased at inflammatory sites, pointing at the presence of intraplaque hemorrhagic sites or asymptomatic plaques. Hence, imaging of CD163 expressing macrophages is an interesting strategy in order to detect atherosclerotic plaques. We have prepared a targeted probe based on gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles vectorized with an anti-CD163 antibody for the specific detection of CD163 by MRI. Firstly, the specificity of the targeted probe was validated in vitro by incubation of the probe with CD163(+) or (−) macrophages. The probe was able to selectively detect CD163(+) macrophages both in human and murine cells. Subsequently, the targeted probe was injected in 16 weeks old apoE deficient mice developing atherosclerotic lesions and the pararenal abdominal aorta was imaged by MRI. The accumulation of probe in the site of interest increased over time and the signal intensity decreased significantly 48 hours after the injection. Hence, we have developed a highly sensitive targeted probe capable of detecting CD163-expressing macrophages that could provide useful information about the state of the atheromatous lesions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tonsillectomy has been considered a treatment for IgA nephropathy (IgAN). It is aimed at removing a source of pathogens, reducing mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and decreasing polymeric IgA synthesis. However, its beneficial effect is still controversial. In Asia, favorable outcomes have been claimed mostly in association with corticosteroids. In Europe, small, single-center uncontrolled studies have failed to show benefits. Methods: The European validation study of the Oxford classification of IgAN (VALIGA) collected data from 1,147 patients with IgAN over a follow-up of 4.7 years. We investigated the outcome of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and/or 50% loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the annual loss of eGFR in 61 patients who had had tonsillectomy. Results: Using the propensity score, which is a logistic regression model, we paired 41 patients with tonsillectomy and 41 without tonsillectomy with similar risk of progression (gender, age, race, mean blood pressure, proteinuria, eGFR at renal biopsy, previous treatments and Oxford MEST scores). No significant difference was found in the outcome. Moreover, we performed an additional propensity score pairing 17 patients who underwent tonsillectomy after the diagnosis of IgAN and 51 without tonsillectomy with similar risk of progression at renal biopsy and subsequent treatments. No significant difference was found in changes in proteinuria, or in the renal end point of 50% reduction in GFR and/or ESRD, or in the annual loss of eGFR. Conclusion: In the large VALIGA cohort of European subjects with IgAN, no significant correlation was found between tonsillectomy and renal function decline. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Nephron - Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of mitochondria-targeted nephroprotective agents suggest a key role of mitochondrial injury in AKI. Here we tested whether an improved perception of factors responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis may provide clues to novel therapeutic approaches to AKI. TWEAK is an inflammatory cytokine which is upregulated in AKI. Transcriptomic analysis of TWEAK-stimulated cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and folic acid-induced AKI in mice identified downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivador-1α (PGC-1α) and its target genes (mitochondrial proteins Ndufs1, Sdha, and Tfam) as a shared feature. Neutralizing anti-TWEAK antibodies prevented the decrease in kidney PGC-1α and its targets during AKI. TWEAK stimulation decreased kidney PGC-1α expression in healthy mice and decreased expression of PGC-1α and its targets as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured tubular cells. Adenoviral-mediated PGC-1α overexpression prevented TWEAK-induced downregulation of PGC-1α-dependent genes and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. TWEAK promoted histone H3 deacetylation at the murine PGC-1α promoter. TWEAK-induced downregulation of PGC-1α was prevented by histone deacetylase or NF-κB inhibitors. Thus, TWEAK decreases PGC-1α and target gene expression in tubular cells in vivo and in vitro. Approaches that preserve mitochondrial function during kidney injury may be therapeutic for AKI.Kidney International advance online publication, 4 November 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.332.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome caused by injury to skeletal muscle that usually leads to acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis has been linked to different conditions, including severe trauma and intense physical exercise. Myoglobin-induced renal toxicity plays a key role in rhabdomyolysis-associated kidney damage by increasing oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and apoptosis. New drugs that target the harmful effects of myoglobin have been recently developed, and some have been proven to be successful in animal models of acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and updated overview of the pathological mechanisms of renal damage and describes new therapeutic approaches to this condition based on novel compounds that target key pathways involved in myoglobin-mediated kidney damage.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of some dialysis membranes, accumulates in CKD. Observational studies have linked BPA exposure to kidney and cardiovascular injury in humans, and animal studies have described a causative link. Normal kidneys rapidly excrete BPA, but insufficient excretion may sensitize patients with CKD to adverse the effects of BPA. Using a crossover design, we studied the effect of dialysis with BPA-containing polysulfone or BPA-free polynephron dialyzers on BPA levels in 69 prevalent patients on hemodialysis: 28 patients started on polysulfone dialyzers and were switched to polynephron dialyzers; 41 patients started on polynephron dialyzers and were switched to polysulfone dialyzers. Results were grouped for analysis. Mean BPA levels increased after one hemodialysis session with polysulfone dialyzers but not with polynephron dialyzers. Chronic (3-month) use of polysulfone dialyzers did not significantly increase predialysis serum BPA levels, although a trend toward increase was detected (from 48.8±6.8 to 69.1±10.1 ng/ml). Chronic use of polynephron dialyzers reduced predialysis serum BPA (from 70.6±8.4 to 47.1±7.5 ng/ml, P<0.05). Intracellular BPA in PBMCs increased after chronic hemodialysis with polysulfone dialyzers (from 0.039±0.002 to 0.043±0.001 ng/10(6) cells, P<0.01), but decreased with polynephron dialyzers (from 0.045±0.001 to 0.036±0.001 ng/10(6) cells, P<0.01). Furthermore, chronic hemodialysis with polysulfone dialyzers increased oxidative stress in PBMCs and inflammatory marker concentrations in circulation. In vitro, polysulfone membranes released significantly more BPA into the culture medium and induced more cytokine production in cultured PBMCs than did polynephron membranes. In conclusion, dialyzer BPA content may contribute to BPA burden in patients on hemodialysis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) and persistent nephrotic syndrome have a high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. The Ponticelli protocol (steroids with alkylating agents) is the most effective immunosuppressive therapy for this condition, but it has severe adverse effects. Tacrolimus and rituximab have demonstrated efficacy for remission of nephrotic syndrome in MN with a safer profile. However, the published evidence is largely based on small or short-term observational studies, historical cohorts, comparisons with conservative therapy or clinical trials without appropriate control groups, and there is no head-to-head comparison with the Ponticelli protocol. Methods: The STARMEN randomized clinical trial will compare the efficacy of sequential tacrolimus-rituximab therapy with a modified Ponticelli protocol (steroids plus cyclophosphamide). The trial will also evaluate the role of antibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) and other antibodies as markers of response to treatment and long-term prognosis. Results: The trial has already started with 23 patients having been enrolled as of 1 April 2015, an estimated 21.7% of the estimated sample.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is characterized by increased circulating levels of parathormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), bone disease, and vascular calcification, and is associated with adverse outcomes. We studied the prevalence of mineral metabolism disorders, and the potential relationship between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD-MBD in coronary artery disease patients in a cross-sectional study of 704 outpatients 7.5 ± 3.0 months after an acute coronary syndrome. The mean eGFR (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration formula) was 75.8 ± 19.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Our patients showed lower calcidiol plasma levels than a healthy cohort from the same geographical area. In the case of men, this finding was present despite similar creatinine levels in both groups and older age of the healthy subjects. Most patients (75.6 %) had an eGFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (eGFR categories G2-G5), with 55.3 % of patients exhibiting values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (G2). PTH (r = -0.3329, p < 0.0001) and FGF23 (r = -0.3641, p < 0.0001) levels inversely correlated with eGFR, whereas calcidiol levels and serum phosphate levels did not. Overall, PTH levels were above normal in 34.9 % of patients. This proportion increased from 19.4 % in G1 category patients, to 33.7 % in G2 category patients and 56.6 % in G3-G5 category patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, eGFR and calcidiol levels were the main independent determinants of serum PTH. The mean FGF23 levels were 69.9 (54.6-96.2) relative units (RU)/ml, and 33.2 % of patients had FGF23 levels above 85.5 RU/ml (18.4 % in G1 category patients, 30.0 % in G2 category patients, and 59.2 % in G3-G5 category patients; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, eGFR was the main predictor of FGF23 levels. Increased phosphate levels were present in 0.7 % of the whole sample: 0 % in G1 category patients, 0.3 % in G2 category patients, and 2.8 % in G3-G5 category patients (p = 0.011). Almost 90 % of patients had calcidiol insufficiency without significant differences among the different degrees of eGFR. In conclusion, in patients with coronary artery disease there is a large prevalence of increased FGF23 and PTH levels. These findings have an independent relationship with decreased eGFR, and are evident at an eGFR of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Then, mild decreases in eGFR must be taken in consideration by the clinician because they are associated with progressive abnormalities of mineral metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Increased hemoglobin (Hb) accumulation was reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). CD163 is a macrophage receptor involved in tissue Hb clearance, however its role in AAA has not been reported. We investigated the role of Hb on monocyte recruitment and differentiation towards CD163 expressing macrophages ex vivo, in vitro and in human AAA. CD163 mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in human AAA (n=7) vs. healthy wall (n=6). CD163 was predominantly found in adventitia of AAA, coinciding with areas rich in hemosiderin and adjacent to neoangiogenic microvessels. Dual CD14/CD163 expression was observed in recently infiltrated monocytes surrounding microvessels. A higher release of soluble CD163 was observed in the conditioned medium from AAA (AAA-CM, n=10), mainly in the adventitial layer. Similar to Hb, AAA-CM induced CD163-dependent monocyte chemotaxis, especially on circulating monocytes from AAA patients. Hb or AAA-CM promoted differentiation towards CD163(high)/HLA-DR(low)-expressing macrophages, with enhanced Hb uptake, increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 secretion and decreased pro-inflammatory IL-12p40 release. All these effects were partially suppressed when Hb was removed from AAA-CM. Separate analysis on circulating monocytes reported increased percentage of pre-infiltrating CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes in patients with AAA (n=21), as compared to controls (n=14). A significant increase in CD163 expression in CD14(++)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation was observed in AAA patients. The presence of Hb in the adventitial AAA-wall promotes the migration and differentiation of activated circulating monocytes in AAA patients, explaining the existence of a protective CD163-macrophage phenotype that could take up the Hb present in the AAA-wall, avoiding its injurious effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic kidney disease failed to meet the primary endpoint or terminated on safety concerns, respectively. However, various novel strategies are undergoing phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials targeting inflammation, fibrosis and signaling pathways. Among agents currently undergoing trials that may modify the clinical practice on top of RAS blockade in a 5-year horizon, anti-inflammatory agents currently hold the most promise while anti-fibrotic agents have so far disappointed. Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent already in clinical use, was recently reported to delay estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3-4 diabetic kidney disease when associated with RAS blockade and promising phase 2 data are available for the pentoxifylline derivative CTP-499. Among agents targeting chemokines or chemokine receptors, the oral small molecule C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) inhibitor CCX140 decreased albuminuria and eGFR loss in phase 2 trials. A dose-finding trial of the anti-IL-1β antibody gevokizumab in diabetic kidney disease will start in 2015. However, clinical development is most advanced for the endothelin receptor A blocker atrasentan, which is undergoing a phase 3 trial with a primary outcome of preserving eGFR. The potential for success of these approaches and other pipeline agents is discussed in detail.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Clinical Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, Tnfsf12) and the receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), regulates vascular damage through different mechanisms, including inflammation. Oxidative stress plays a major role in inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis, but the relationship between TWEAK and oxidative stress is, however, poorly understood. In this study we found that TWEAK and Fn14 are colocalized with the NADPH subunits, p22phox and Nox2, in advanced atherosclerotic plaques from humans. Using primary human macrophages and a murine macrophage cell line, we demonstrate that TWEAK promotes ROS production and enhances NADPH oxidase activity. Thus, we show that the TWEAK-Fn14 axis is involved directly, as genetic silencing of Fn14 abrogates the TWEAK-induced ROS production. Furthermore, our results point at Rac1 as an upstream mediator of TWEAK during oxidative stress. This is supported by the fact that genetic silencing Tnfsf12 in an ApoE (-/-) background reduces the number of DHE and 8-OHdG positive macrophages significantly. Our results suggest that TWEAK regulates vascular damage by stimulating ROS production in Nox2 dependent manner. These new insights into the TWEAK/Fn14 axis underline their potential use as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Cardiovascular Research
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. Gremlin was identified as a gene differentially expressed in mesangial cells exposed to high glucose and in experimental diabetic kidneys. We have described that Gremlin is highly expressed in biopsies from patients with diabetic nephropathy, predominantly in areas of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetes, Gremlin deletion using Grem1 heterozygous knockout mice or by gene silencing, ameliorates renal damage. To study the in vivo role of Gremlin in renal damage, we developed a diabetic model induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in transgenic mice expressing human Gremlin in proximal tubular epithelial cells. The albuminuria/creatinuria ratio (ACR), determined at week 20 after treatment, was significantly increased in the diabetic mice but with no significant differences between transgenic (TG/STZ) and wild type mice (WT/STZ). To assess the level of renal damage, kidney tissue was analyzed by light microscopy (PAS and Masson staining), electron microscopy and qPCR. TG/STZ mice had significant greater thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, increased mesangial matrix and podocytopenia versus WT/STZ. At the tubulointerstitial level, TG/STZ showed increased cell infiltration and mild interstitial fibrosis. In addition, we observed a decreased expression of Podocin and overexpression of MCP1 and fibrotic-related markers, including TGF-β1, Col1a1, and αSMA. Together, these results show that transgenic mice overexpressing Gremlin in renal tubules develop greater glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in response to diabetic-mediated damage, and support the involvement of Gremlin in diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · AJP Renal Physiology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Atherosclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSP) are induced by cellular stress and function as molecular chaperones that regulate protein folding. Diabetes impairs the function/expression of many HSP, including HSP70 and HSP90, key regulators of pathological mechanisms involved in diabetic complications. Therefore, we investigated whether pharmacological HSP90 inhibition ameliorates diabetes-associated renal damage and atheroprogression in a mouse model of combined hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse). Treatment of diabetic mice with 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG, 2 and 4 mg/kg, 10 weeks) improved renal function, as evidenced by dose-dependent decreases in albuminuria, renal lesions (mesangial expansion, leukocyte infiltration and fibrosis), and expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes. Furthermore, DMAG significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions and induced a more stable plaque phenotype characterized by lower content of lipids, leukocytes, and inflammatory markers, and increased collagen and smooth muscle cells content. Mechanistically, the renoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects of DMAG are mediated by the induction of protective HSP70 along with inactivation of NF-κB and STAT and target gene expression, both in diabetic mice and in cultured cells under hyperglycemic and pro-inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, HSP90 inhibition by DMAG restrains the progression of renal and vascular damage in experimental diabetes, having potential interest in the protection of diabetes complications. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the potential association between TRX-1/PRX-1 and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in vivo and vitro. TRX-1/PRX-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 84 asymptomatic subjects with known phagocytic NADPH oxidase activity and carotid intima media thickness (IMT). We found a positive correlation between TRX-1/PRX-1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production (r=0.48 and 0.47, p<0.001 for both) and IMT (r=0.31 and 0.36; p<0.01 for both) adjusted by age and sex. Moreover, asymptomatic subjects with plaques have higher PRX-1 and TRX plasma levels (p<0.01 for both). This data was confirmed in a second study where patients with carotid atherosclerosis showed higher PRX-1 and TRX plasma levels than healthy subjects (p<0.001 for both). In human atherosclerotic plaques, the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox colocalized with TRX-1/PRX-1 in macrophages (immunohistochemistry). In monocytes and macrophages, PMA induced NADPH activation and TRX-1/PRX-1 release to the extracellular medium, with a concomitant decrease in their intracellular levels, which was reversed by the NADPH inhibitor apocynin (western-blot). In loss-of-function experiments, genetic silencing of the NAPDH oxidase subunit Nox2 blocked PMA-induced intracellular TRX-1/PRX-1 downregulation in macrophages. Furthermore, the PMA-induced release of TRX-1/PRX-1 involves the modulation of their redox status and exosomes-like vesicles. TRX-1/PRX-1 levels are associated with NADPH oxidase-activity in vivo and in vitro. These data could suggest a coordinated antioxidant response to oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by Vitamin D deficiency and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Increasing data show that vitamin D receptor agonists (VDRAs) exert beneficial effects in renal disease and possess anti-inflammatory properties, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that “a disintegrin and metalloproteinase” (ADAM)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling axis contributes to renal damage. Aldosterone induces EGFR transactivation regulating several processes including cell proliferation and fibrosis. However, data on tubular epithelial cells is scarce. We have found that, in cultured tubular epithelial cells, aldosterone induced EGFR transactivation via TGF-α/ADAM17. Blockade of the TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR pathway inhibited aldosterone-induced proinflammatory gene upregulation. Moreover, among the potential downstream mechanisms, we found that TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR inhibition blocked ERK and STAT-1 activation in response to aldosterone. Next, we investigated the involvement of TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR axis in VDRA anti-inflammatory effects. Preincubation with the VDRA paricalcitol inhibited aldosterone-induced EGFR transactivation, TGF-α/ADAM-17 gene upregulation, and downstream mechanisms, including proinflammatory factors overexpression. In conclusion, our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory actions of paricalcitol in tubular cells could depend on the inhibition of TGF-α/ADAM17/EGFR pathway in response to aldosterone, showing an important mechanism of VDRAs action.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of subjects at increased risk for cardiovascular events plays a central role in the worldwide efforts to improve prevention, prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of cardiovascular disease and to decrease the related costs. Despite their high predictive value on population level, traditional risk factors fail to fully predict individual risk. This position paper provides a summary of current vascular biomarkers other than the traditional risk factors with a special focus on the emerging -omics technologies. The definition of biomarkers and the identification and use of classical biomarkers are introduced, and we discuss the limitations of current biomarkers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). This is complemented by circulating plasma biomarkers, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and the conceptual shift from HDL cholesterol levels to HDL composition/function for cardiovascular risk assessment. Novel sources for plasma-derived markers include microparticles, microvesicles, and exosomes and their use for current omics-based analytics. Measurement of circulating micro-RNAs, short RNA sequences regulating gene expression, has attracted major interest in the search for novel biomarkers. Also, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have become key complementary technologies in the search for new biomarkers, such as proteomic searches or identification and quantification of small metabolites including lipids (metabolomics and lipidomics). In particular, pro-inflammatory lipid metabolites have gained much interest in the cardiovascular field. Our consensus statement concludes on leads and needs in biomarker research for the near future to improve individual cardiovascular risk prediction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · European Heart Journal

Publication Stats

21k Citations
2,993.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2014-2015
    • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2004-2015
    • Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón
      • Department of Nephrology
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1982-2015
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Enfermería de la Fundación Jiménez Díaz
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1977-2015
    • Fundación Jiménez Díaz
      • Servicio de Nefrología e Hipertensión
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2004-2008
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2002-2007
    • Hospital Clínico San Carlos
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2005
    • Klinički centar Niš
      Nisch, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2001
    • Universidad Austral de Chile
      • Instituto de Medicina
      Ciudad de Valdivía, Los Ríos, Chile
  • 2000
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Medicine
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 1999
    • Hospital Universitario Fundacion Alcorcon
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1992
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1987-1990
    • Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain