[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the indication, outcome, and risk factors of single and multiple hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(s) (HSCT) in children and adolescents mostly with advanced disease. Forty-one out of 483 patients (8.5 %; median age 9 years) diagnosed at the University of Leipzig with hematological and oncological diseases required HSCT from 1999 to 2011. Patients had overall survival (OS) of 63 ± 10 and 63 ± 16 %, event-free survival (EFS) of 57 ± 10 and 42 ± 16 %, relapse incidence (RI) of 39 ± 10 and 44 ± 18 % and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 4 ± 4 and 13 ± 9 % at 10 years after one or more allogeneic and autologous HSCT, respectively. One patient in CR1 and five with advanced disease received two HSCT. Four of the six patients maintained/achieved CR for a median of 13 months. Three died of progression and one of NRM. Two patients had a third HSCT and one survived in CR +231 days after HSCT. Risk factors for OS and EFS were disease stage at HSCT and EBMT risk score. Center (pediatric or JACIE accredited pediatric/adult) was not a determinant for survival. Pediatric single and multiple HSCT are important curative approaches for high-risk malignant diseases with low NRM. Efforts to reduce high RI remain the major aim.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome associated with bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to restore normal hematopoiesis. Although low-intensity fludarabine-based preparative regimens without radiation confer excellent outcomes in FA HSCTs with HLA-matched sibling donors, outcomes for FA patients with alternative donors are less encouraging, albeit improving. We present our experience with 17 FA patients who completed mismatched related or unrelated donor HSCT using a non-radiation fludarabine-based preparative regimen at Charité University Medicine Berlin. All patients engrafted; however, one patient had unstable chimerism in the setting of multi-viral infections that necessitated a stem cell boost to revert to full donor chimerism. Forty-seven percent of patients developed grade I acute graft-verus-host disease (aGVHD). No grade II-IV aGVHD or chronic graft-versus-host disease of any severity occurred. At a median follow-up of 30 months, 88 % of patients are alive with normal hematopoiesis. Two patients died of infections 4 months post-transplantation. These results demonstrate that short-term outcomes for FA patients with mismatched and unrelated donor HSCTs can be excellent using chemotherapy only conditioning. Viral reactivation, however, was a major treatment-related complication.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Establishing Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy (HT) to gain better control over dose distribution and homogeneity and to individually spare organs at risk. Because of their limited body length the technique seems especially eligible in juvenile patients.
Patients and methods
The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 female and 4 male, aged 4 - 22 y with acute lymphoblastic- (ALL) or acute myeloic leukemia (AML). All patients presented with high risk disease features. Body length in treatment position ranged from 110–180 cm. Two Gy single dose was applied BID to a total dose of 12 Gy. Dose volume constraint for the PTV was 95% dose coverage for 95% of the volume. The lungs were spared to a mean dose of [less than or equal to] 10 Gy. Patients were positioned in a vac-loc bag in supine position with a 3-point head mask.
Average D95 to the PTV was 11.7 Gy corresponding to a mean coverage of the PTV of 97.5%. Dmean for the lungs was 9.14 Gy. Grade 3–4 side effects were not observed.
TBI using HT is feasible and well tolerated. A benefit could be demonstrated with regard to dose distribution and homogeneity and the selective dose-reduction to organs at risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A catheter lock solution containing 1.35% taurolidine and 4% citrate could potentially disrupt bacterial surface adherence and consecutive biofilm production due to the anti-adherence properties of taurolidine and the anticlotting and chelator activities of both compounds.
To compare the impact on microbial catheter colonization and infectious complications of heparin and taurolidine citrate as central venous catheter (CVC) lock solutions in paediatric patients with haematological malignancies.
Seventy-one patients aged 1.4-18 years were randomized to two treatment groups using either heparin (N = 36) or taurolidine citrate (N = 35). Infectious complications and clinical side-effects were prospectively monitored and microbial colonization of catheters was assessed at the time of removal.
There were two bloodstream infections in the taurolidine citrate group versus nine in the heparin group (0.3 vs 1.3 infections per 1000 catheter-days; P = 0.03). Fever of unknown origin and catheter occlusions were observed with a similar frequency in both groups. Microbial colonization was found in 25.4% catheters. The time of no-lock use, but not the type of lock solution or time of observation, was a significant predictor of catheter colonization (P = 0.004). Colonization was not observed in CVCs used immediately with taurolidine citrate lock. Seven patients in the taurolidine citrate group (20%) experienced side-effects (nausea, vomiting, abnormal taste sensations).
The use of taurolidine citrate lock solution was associated with a significant reduction in bloodstream infection in immunocompromised paediatric patients. Taurolidine citrate may prevent colonization of CVCs if used from the time of insertion, but not after a period of no-lock catheter use.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The Journal of hospital infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients with SCID constitute medical emergencies. In the absence of an HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor, mismatched related-donor transplantation (MMRDT) or unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are valuable treatment options. To help transplantation centers choose the best treatment option, we retrospectively compared outcomes after 175 MMRDTs and 74 UCBTs in patients with SCID or Omenn syndrome. Median follow-up time was 83 months and 58 months for UCBT and MMRDT, respectively. Most UCB recipients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; most MMRDT recipients did not. UCB recipients presented a higher frequency of complete donor chimerism (P = .04) and faster total lymphocyte count recovery (P = .04) without any statistically significance with the preparative regimen they received. The MMRDT and UCBT groups did not differ in terms of T-cell engraftment, CD4(+) and CD3(+) cell recoveries, while Ig replacement therapy was discontinued sooner after UCBT (adjusted P = .02). There was a trend toward a greater incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = .06) and more chronic GVHD (P = .03) after UCBT. The estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 62% ± 4% after MMRDT and 57% ± 6% after UCBT. For children with SCID and no HLA-identical sibling donor, both UCBT and MMRDT represent available HSC sources for transplantation with quite similar outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Klinische Pädiatrie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multicenter trial ALL-REZ BFM (ie, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 90 was designed to improve prognosis for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by time-to-relapse- and site-of-relapse-adapted stratification and by introduction of novel chemotherapy elements and to evaluate new prognostic parameters in a large, population-based cohort.
Five hundred twenty-five patients stratified into risk groups A (early bone marrow [BM] relapses), B (late BM relapses), and C (isolated extramedullary relapses) received alternating short-course intensive polychemotherapy (in blocks R1, R2, or R3) and cranial/craniospinal irradiation followed by maintenance therapy. Block R3 (high-dose cytarabine and etoposide) was introduced to improve the outcome compared with historical controls. Patients with early BM or T-ALL relapse (poor prognosis group [PPG]) were eligible for experimental regimens. One hundred seventeen patients received stem-cell transplantation (SCT).
The probabilities (and standard deviations) of event-free survival (pEFS) and overall survival (pOS) at 10 years were 0.30 +/- .02 and 0.36 +/- .02, respectively. Significant differences existed between strategic groups (pEFS(A) = .17 +/- .03; pEFS(B) = .43 +/- .04; pEFS(C) = .54 +/- .06; pEFS(PPG) = .15 +/- .03; log-rank P < .001). Patients of high-risk groups A plus PPG did better with SCT than with chemotherapy (pEFS = .33 +/- .05 v 0.20 +/- .05; P = .005). The pEFS was similar to trials ALL-REZ BFM 85/87 (.36 +/- .03. v 0.37 +/- .03; P = .419; PPG excluded). Time point, site of relapse, immunophenotype, and SCT were significant predictors of pEFS in multivariate analyses.
More than one third of patients in this large, population-based trial were cured. Neither R3 nor adaptation of chemotherapy intensity was capable of improving pEFS or of overcoming prognostic factors. In high-risk patients, remission induction regimens must be improved, and allogeneic SCT should be recommended in patients achieving second complete remission.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usually IL-7 receptor deficiency presents as (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) within the first six months of life. All published IL-7R-deficient patients so far have been diagnosed and received stem cell transplantation within the first year of life.
We present a female patient born to non-consanguineous German parents with delayed manifestation. She presented with superinfected dermatitis at 6 months of life and developed a first pneumonia at age 9 months. On admission to our department at 22 months the patient presented with severe T cell lymphopenia. PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECI pneumonia was diagnosed from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
Sequencing of IL7RA in the patient revealed compound heterozygous mutations. FACS analysis showed no expression of IL-7 receptor alpha-chain on the patient's lympho- and monocytes. The patient successfully received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a 9/10 matched unrelated donor at age 24 months. CONLUSION: Despite almost absent T cell functions clinical symptoms occurred late compared to previously published patients. Thus even in patients with moderate clinical symptoms and delayed onset a (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency ((S)CID)) due to missing IL-7 receptor signalling must be considered.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Klinische Pädiatrie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cell transplantation (SCT) can definitely cure chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a rare disease in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the results of early SCT in pediatric CML after standardized pretreatment with hydroxyurea+/-interferon.
Between 1995 and 2004, 200 children (median age: 12.4 years) were enrolled and stratified: given the availability of an HLA-matched related donor (MRD), SCT was scheduled within 6 months and otherwise from an unrelated donor (UD) within 12 months following diagnosis.
176 patients underwent SCT; from MRD within median 4 months and from UD within median 11 months after diagnosis. At SCT, 158 patients were in chronic phase (CP1 or CP2), 9 patients were in accelerated phase and 9 patients were in blast crisis (BC). The conditioning regimen - total body irradiation or busulfan - exerted no different impact on overall survival (OS). Probability of OS at 5 years was 87+/-11% if grafted from a sibling (n=41), 52+/-9% from matched UD (MUD, n=71), and 45+/-16% from mismatched donors (MMD, n=55), respectively. A trend for better OS in CP1 was observed if SCT was performed within 6 months (n=49; 74+/-9%), compared to 7-12 months (n=52; 62+/-15%), and >12 months (n=43; 62+/-17%) after diagnosis, respectively (p=0.157). Probability of relapse at 5 years was 20+/-12%. Transplant-related mortality and graft-versus-host disease mainly contributed to the inferior outcome in UD and HLA-mismatched SCT.
These data from the first prospective trial on CML restricted to children and adolescents might be considered for decision making when balancing the risks of SCT against the increasing use of imatinib as upfront treatment for CML.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Klinische Pädiatrie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of caspofungin in pediatric patients with invasive aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis, or esophageal candidiasis.
This was a multicenter, prospective, open-label study in children 3 months to 17 years of age with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis, proven invasive candidiasis, or proven esophageal candidiasis. All of the patients received caspofungin 70 mg/m(2) on day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) per day (maximum: 70 mg/day), as primary or salvage monotherapy. Favorable response was defined as complete resolution of clinical findings and microbiologic (or radiographic/endoscopic) eradication (complete response) or significant improvement in these parameters (partial response). Efficacy was assessed at the end of caspofungin therapy in patients with a confirmed diagnosis who received >/=1 dose of caspofungin. The primary safety evaluation was the proportion of patients with clinical or laboratory drug-related adverse events.
Of the 49 patients enrolled, 3 were <2 years of age, 30 were 2 to 11 years of age, and 16 were 12 to 17 years of age. Forty-eight patients had confirmed disease: invasive aspergillosis (10), invasive candidiasis (37), and esophageal candidiasis (1). Eight of 10 patients with invasive aspergillosis had pulmonary involvement; 34 of 37 patients with invasive candidiasis had candidemia. Caspofungin was given for 2 to 87 days. Success at end of therapy was achieved in 5 of 10 patients with invasive aspergillosis, 30 of 37 with invasive candidiasis, and 1 of 1 with esophageal candidiasis. One patient (invasive candidiasis) relapsed during the 28-day follow-up period. Drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse events occurred in 27% and 35% of patients, respectively. There were no serious drug-related adverse events or discontinuations of caspofungin because of toxicity.
Caspofungin was generally well tolerated in pediatric patients aged 6 months through 17 years. Efficacy outcomes in patients with invasive aspergillosis or invasive candidiasis were consistent with previous adult studies in these indications.