Tong Cao

National University of Singapore, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (121)366.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although skin grafting is one of the most advanced cell therapy technique, wide application of skin substitutes is hampered by the difficulty in securing sufficient amount of epidermal substitute. Additionally, in understanding the progression of skin aging and disease, and in screening the cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, there is lack of a satisfactory human skin-specific in vitro model. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been proposed as an unlimited and reliable cell source to obtain almost all cell types present in the human body. This review focuses on the potential off-the-shelf use of hESC-derived keratinocytes for future clinical applications as well as a powerful in vitro skin model to study skin function and integrity, host-pathogen interactions and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the industrial applications of hESC-derived keratinized multi-layer epithelium which provides a human-like test platform for understanding disease pathogenesis, evaluation of new therapeutic modalities and assessment of the safety and efficacy of skin cosmetics and therapeutics. Overall, we conclude that the hESC-derived keratinocytes have great potential for clinical, research and industrial applications.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biotechnology Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity of endothelial cells (ECs) is a hallmark of the vascular system which may impact the development and management of vascular disorders. Despite the tremendous progress in differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards endothelial lineage, differentiation into arterial and venous endothelial phenotypes remains elusive. Additionally, current differentiation strategies are hampered by inefficiency, lack of reproducibility, and use of animal-derived products. To direct the differentiation of hESCs to endothelial subtypes, H1- and H9-hESCs were seeded on human plasma fibronectin and differentiated under chemically defined conditions by sequential modulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways for 5 days. Following the initial differentiation, the endothelial progenitor cells (CD34 + CD31 + cells) were sorted and terminally differentiated under serum-free conditions to arterial and venous ECs. The transcriptome and secretome profiles of the two distinct populations of hESC-derived arterial and venous ECs were characterized. Furthermore, the safety and functionality of these cells upon in vivo transplantation were characterized. Sequential modulation of hESCs with GSK-3 inhibitor, bFGF, BMP4 and VEGF resulted in stages reminiscent of primitive streak, early mesoderm/lateral plate mesoderm, and endothelial progenitors under feeder- and serum-free conditions. Furthermore, these endothelial progenitors demonstrated differentiation potential to almost pure populations of arterial and venous endothelial phenotypes under serum-free conditions. Specifically, the endothelial progenitors differentiated to venous ECs in the absence of VEGF, and to arterial phenotype under low concentrations of VEGF. Additionally, these hESC-derived arterial and venous ECs showed distinct molecular and functional profiles in vitro. Furthermore, these hESC-derived arterial and venous ECs were nontumorigenic and were functional in terms of forming perfused microvascular channels upon subcutaneous implantation in the mouse. We report a simple, rapid, and efficient protocol for directed differentiation of hESCs into endothelial progenitor cells capable of differentiation to arterial and venous ECs under feeder-free and serum-free conditions. This could offer a human platform to study arterial–venous specification for various applications related to drug discovery, disease modeling and regenerative medicine in the future.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Graphene can induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this process remain unexplored. Our objective was to investigate key factors, in both genomic and protein level, involved in the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in two and three-dimensional graphene substrates. PDLSC were seeded on glass slides (Gl); Gl coated with graphene (2DGp), three-dimensional graphene scaffold (3DGp) and polystyrene scaffold (PS) and cultured with and without osteogenic medium for 28 days. All the substrates allowed stem cell survival and proliferation. 2DGp and 3DGp induced the differentiation of PDLSC into mature osteoblasts at higher levels as compared to Gl and PS. Bone-related gene and proteins (COL I, RUNX2, OCN) were upregulated on graphene regardless the use of osteogenic medium. The high expression of MHY10 and MHY10-V2 on 2DGp and 3DGp suggest that their physical characteristics may play a role in the enhanced differentiation. As the results were boosted by the use of osteogenic medium, we suggest that both chemical and physical properties of graphene act synergistically while ruling osteoblastic differentiation of PDLSC.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Carbon
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the physical (setting time, hardness, flowability, microstructure) and chemical (pH change, calcium release, crystallinity) properties and the biological outcomes (cell survival and differentiation) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed using different proportions of propylene glycol (PG) and water. Material and Methods White MTA was mixed with different water/PG ratios (100/0, 80/20 and 50/50). Composition (XRD), microstructure (SEM), setting time (ASTM C266-13), flowability (ANSI/ADA 57-2000), Knoop hardness (100 g/10 s) and chemical characteristics (pH change and Ca2+ release for 7 days) were evaluated. Cell proliferation, osteo/odontoblastic gene expression and mineralization induced by MTA mixed with PG were evaluated. MTA discs (5 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick) were prepared and soaked in culture medium for 7 days. Next, the discs were removed and the medium used to culture dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) for 28 days. Cells survival was evaluated using MTS assay (24, 72 and 120 h) and differentiation with RT-PCR (ALP, OCN, Runx2, DSPP and MEPE) and alizarin red staining (7 and 14 days). Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc analysis (a=0.05). Results The addition of PG significantly increased setting time, flowability and Ca2+ release, but it compromised the hardness of the material. SEM showed that 50/50 group resulted porous material after setting due to the incomplete setting reaction, as shown by XRD analysis. The addition of PG (80/20 and 50/50) was not capable to improve cell proliferation or to enhance gene expression, and mineralized deposition of DPSC after 7 and 14 days as compared to the 100/0. Conclusion Except for flowability, the addition of PG did not promote further improvements on the chemical and physical properties evaluated, and it was not capable of enhancing the bioactivity of the MTA.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated that undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) displayed higher resistance to oxidative and genotoxic stress compared to somatic cells, but did not further probe the underlying mechanisms. Using H₂O₂-induced genotoxicity as a model, this study investigated whether higher resistance of hESC to oxidative and genotoxic stress could be due to lower innate basal intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as compared to their differentiated fibroblastic progenies (H1F) and two other somatic cell types - human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Comet assay demonstrated that undifferentiated hESC consistently sustained lower levels of DNA damage upon acute exposure to H₂O₂ for 30 min, compared to somatic cells. DCFDA and HE staining with flow cytometry showed that undifferentiated hESC had lower innate basal intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species compared to somatic cells, which could lead to their higher resistance to genotoxic stress upon acute exposure to H₂O₂.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
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    ABSTRACT: The development of materials and strategies that can influence stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation towards osteoblasts is of high interest to promote faster healing and reconstructions of large bone defects. Graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) have received increasing attention for biomedical applications as they present remarkable properties such as high surface area, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization. These biocompatible carbon-based materials can induce and sustain stem cell growth and differentiation into various lineages. Furthermore, graphene has the ability to promote and enhance osteogenic differentiation making it an interesting material for bone regeneration research. This paper will review the important advances in the ability of graphene and its related forms to induce stem cells differentiation into osteogenic lineages.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Stem cell International
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-KertACC) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-KertAFF were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-KertAFF showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during differentiation of hESCs on subsequent replicative life span and cellular senescence of the differentiated keratinocytes, with implications for use of these cells for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Tissue Engineering Part A
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    ABSTRACT: The epidermis is mainly composed of keratinocytes forming a protective barrier. It is perpetually subjected to mechanical stress and strain during development, homeostasis and disease. Perturbation of the normal strain with alteration of its biological response may lead to severe diseases such as psoriasis and epidermolysis bullosa. To date, most of the studies about skin response to mechanical stress used immor-talized cell lines (i.e. HaCaT) or primary cells from donors, which suffer issues of limited physiological relevance and inter-donor variability. It is therefore necessary to develop a new human model for the study of normal skin physiology and response to mechanical stress. In this study, we investi-gated the use of keratinocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a reliable alternative model to HaCaT for study of the effects of mechanical tension. With compar-ison to HaCaT, hESC-derived keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) were exposed to up to 3 days of cyclic mechanical stress, and gene expression changes were analyzed. Dynamic expres-sion of several key mechanical stress related-genes was stud-ied at mRNA level using qPCR. The expression of matrix-metallopeptidase9 was studied at protein level using ELISA. The two cell types displayed similar gene expression kinetics for most of the genes including E-cadherin, cateninβ1, connexin43, desmoglein1, endothelin1, integrinα6, interleukinα1, keratin1, 6, and 10, keratinocyte growth-factor-receptor and lamininα5. Unlike HaCaT, hESC-Kert displayed early gene and protein expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 following mechanical stimulation, sug-gesting that these cells have remodeling capacity that resem-bles that of normal human skin. Our study confirmed the use of hESC-Kert as a good model for study of skin response to mechanical stress.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Stem Cell Reviews and Reports
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    ABSTRACT: To engineer constructs of the periodontal ligament (PDL), human PDL cells were incorporated into a matrix of hyaluronan, gelatin and type I collagen in sample holders (13 mm x 1mm) of 6-well Biopress culture plates. The loading dynamics of the PDL were mimicked by applying a cyclic compressive strain of 33.4 kPa (340.6 gm/cm2) to the constructs for 1.0 sec every 60 sec, for 6, 12 and 24h in a Flexercell FX-4000C Strain Unit. Compression significantly increased the number of nonviable cells and increased the expression of several apoptosis-related genes, including initiator and executioner caspases. Of the 15 extracellular matrix genes screened, most were upregulated at some point after 6‒12h deformation, but all were down-regulated at 24h except for MMPs1‒3 and CTGF. In culture supernatants, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 protein levels were upregulated at 24h; RANKL, OPG and FGF-2 were unchanged; and CTGF not detected. The low modulus of elasticity of the constructs was a disadvantage ‒ future mechanobiology studies and tissue engineering applications will require constructs with much higher stiffness. Since the major structural protein of the PDL is type I collagen, a more rational approach would be to permeabilize preformed type I collagen scaffolds with PDL-populated matricies.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Tissue Engineering Part A
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    Wei Seong Toh · Tong Cao
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    ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into any cell lineage of the three germ layers, therefore holding great promise for regenerative applications in dentistry and medicine. We previously described a micromass culture system as a model system to induce and study the chondrogenic commitment of hESCs. Using this system, chondrogenic cells can be further isolated and expanded under specific growth factor conditions. When encapsulated in hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels and cultured under appropriate growth factor and medium conditions, these chondrogenic cells synthesized and deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) characteristic of neocartilage. Here, we describe the micromass culture of hESCs, the isolation and expansion of hESC-derived chondrogenic cells, and the three-dimensional (3-D) culture of the chondrogenic cells in hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. We will also describe the various tools and techniques used for characterizing the tissue-engineered cartilage.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • Qq Lu · Mm Li · Yu Zou · Tong Cao
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is still under controversy. In this study, the metabolic effects of inducing adipocyte hyperplasia in SAT depots in obese mice were investigated. Methods: High fat diet was used to induce obesity and type 2 diabetes symptoms in C57BL6/J mice. To induce SAT expansion through hyperplasia, acellular adipogenic cocktails were injected around the SAT depots in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Results: Ten weeks after injections, significant neoadipogenesis was induced, which not only obviously expanded the volume of SATs but also significantly increased the adipocyte density within the whole SAT depots. Importantly, these mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment) when compared to control group. Further studies suggested that these beneficial metabolic effects were associated with elevation of serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level and reduction of ectopic lipid accumulation in liver. Conclusions: These findings not only further supported the protective role of SAT in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes but also highlighted the importance of adipocyte hyperplasia in this protective effect.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and their differentiated fibroblastic progenies as cellular models for genotoxicity screening. The DNA damage response of hESCs and their differentiated fibroblastic progenies were compared to a fibroblastic cell line (HEPM, CRL1486) and primary cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), upon exposure to Mitomycin C, gamma irradiation and H2O2. It was demonstrated that hESC-derived fibroblastic progenies (H1F) displayed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei formation and double strand break (DSB) formation, as compared to undifferentiated hESC upon exposure to genotoxic stress. Nevertheless, H1F cell types displayed comparable sensitivities to genotoxic challenge as HEPM and PBL, both of which are representative of somatic cell types commonly used for genotoxicity screening. Subsequently, transcriptomic and pathways analysis identified differential expression of critical genes involved in cell death and DNA damage response upon exposure to gamma irradiation. The results thus demonstrate that hESC-derived fibroblastic progenies are as sensitive as commonly-used somatic cell types for genotoxicity screening. Moreover, hESCs have additional advantages, such as their genetic normality compared to immortalized cell lines, as well as their amenability to scale-up for producing large, standardized quantities of cells for genotoxicity screening on an industrial scale, something which can never be achieved with primary cell cultures.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells, including the capability of self-renewal and large-scale expansion and the ability to differentiate into all types of cells including germ cells, which defines pluripotency. Using iPSC avoids problems of immunological rejection and ethical controversy. The possible future uses of iPSC are diverse and go beyond the differentiation into somatic cells for regeneration of damaged tissues. Areas covered: A unique feature of iPSC is the potential to generate patient disease-specific tissues. Thus, cells from patients can be differentiated into relevant cells of interest for drug screening, characterization of drug effects and cytotoxic assays. This review presents key aspects related to iPSC, such as their generation, potential for disease modeling, treatment, drug development and future contributions to the craniofacial complex. Expert opinion: It is undisputable that the evolution in iPSC knowledge will improve the approaches for drug screening and development, help to understand and treat disease origins and mechanisms and provide new strategies to clinical treatment. However, it is necessary to fine-tune protocols to establish iPSCs that are cost-effective and safe for clinical use.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
  • F.K. Kidwai · T. Cao · K. Lu
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    ABSTRACT: For many years, cell therapies have been hampered by limited availability and inter-batch variability of primary cells. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) can give rise to specialized cells like keratinocytes and recently emerged as a virtually unlimited source of potential therapeutic cells. However, xenogeneic components in differentiation cocktails have been limiting the clinical potential of hESC-derived keratinocytes (hESCs-Kert). Here, we demonstrated efficient differentiation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (H9-hESCs) into keratinocytes (H9-KertACC) in an autogenic co-culture system. We used activin as the main factor to induce keratinocyte differentiation. H9-Kert ACC expressed keratinocyte markers at mRNA and protein levels. Establishment of such animal-free microenvironment for keratinocyte differentiation will accelerate potential clinical application of hESCs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Fahad K. Kidwai · Tong Cao · Kai Lu
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    ABSTRACT: For many years, cell therapies have been hampered by limited availability and inter-batch variability of primary cells. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) can give rise to specialized cells like keratinocytes and recently emerged as a virtually unlimited source of potential therapeutic cells. However, xenogeneic components in differentiation cocktails have been limiting the clinical potential of hESC-derived keratinocytes (hESCs-Kert). Here, we demonstrated efficient differentiation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (H9-hESCs) into keratinocytes (H9-KertACC) in an autogenic co-culture system. We used activin as the main factor to induce keratinocyte differentiation. H9-KertACC expressed keratinocyte markers at mRNA and protein levels. Establishment of such animal-free microenvironment for keratinocyte differentiation will accelerate potential clinical application of hESCs.
    No preview · Chapter · Nov 2013
  • Qiqi Lu · Mingming Li · Yu Zou · Tong Cao
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    ABSTRACT: Scaffolds based on decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) are gaining popularity in adipose tissue engineering due to their high biocompatibility and adipogenic inductive property. However, previous studies involving DAT-derived scaffolds have not fully revealed their potentials for in vivo adipose tissue construction. With the aim of developing a more efficient adipose tissue engineering technique based on DAT, in this study, we investigated the in vivo adipogenic potential of a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) delivery system based on heparinized DAT (Hep-DAT). To generate this system, heparins were cross-linked to mouse DATs by using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. The bFGF-binding Hep-DATs were first tested for controlled release ability in vitro and then transplanted subcutaneously. Highly vascularized adipose tissues were formed 6weeks after transplantation. Histology and gene expression analysis revealed that majority of the Hep-DAT scaffolds were infiltrated with host-derived adipose tissues that possessed similar adipogenic and inflammatory gene expression as endogenous adipose tissues. Additionally, strong de novo adipogenesis could also be induced when bFGF-binding Hep-DATs were thoroughly minced and injected subcutaneously. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that bFGF-binding Hep-DAT could be an efficient, biocompatible and injectable adipogenic system for in vivo adipose tissue engineering.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Controlled Release
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    ABSTRACT: To understand, in greater detail, the molecular mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between mechanical strain and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic treatment, passive cross-arch palatal springs were bonded to the maxillary molars of 6-wk-old rats, which were killed after 4 and 8 d. Outcome measures included serum assays for markers of bone formation and resorption and for the multifunctional hormone leptin, and histomorphometry of the inter-radicular bone. The concentration of the bone-formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly reduced at both time points in the appliance group, accompanied by a 50% reduction in inter-radicular bone volume; however, osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) levels remained unaffected. Bone collagen deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks increased 2.3-fold at 4 d only, indicating a transient increase in bone resorption; in contrast, the level of the osteoclast-specific marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), was unchanged. Leptin levels closely paralleled ALP reductions at both time points, suggesting an important role in the mechanostat negative-feedback loop required to normalize bone mass. These data suggest that an orthodontic appliance, in addition to remodeling the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface, may exert unexpected side-effects on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone, and highlights the importance of recognizing that bone strains can have negative, as well as positive, effects on bone mass.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · European Journal Of Oral Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into odontoblastic lineage in an optimized culture milieu. In Phase 1, hESCs were differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells (H9-MSCs). In Phase 2, H9-MSCs were then differentiated into odontoblast-like cells (H9-Odont) under the stimulation of FGF-8 and BMP-4. Alternatively, H9-MSCs were differentiated into osteogenic lineage (H9-Osteo). In Phase 3, H9-Odont were seeded on 17% EDTA-treated dentine substrates in the presence of FGF-8 and BMP-4 for further differentiation. All experiments were performed in triplicate (n = 3). One-way anova was used to test hESC differentiation into different cell types. Post hoc Tukey's test was used to compare between groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. H9-Odont expressed the odontoblastic marker DSPP gene 125.47 ± 0.1 (SD)-folds higher compared with H9-MSCs at mRNA level (real-time RT-PCR). Additionally, the flow cytometry results revealed 53.1 ± 3.4 (SD) % of DSP (+) cells in H9-Odont. Alternatively, H9-Osteo expressed 5.9 ± 2.2 (SD) % of DSP (+) cells. Moreover, the SEM results demonstrated that H9-Odont were found to undergo morphological changes from a fibroblast-like shape into more rounded shapes with cytoplasmic extensions into the dentinal tubules when seeded on 17% EDTA-treated dentine substrate in the presence of FGF-8 and BMP-4. However, H9-Osteo and H9-MSCs did not show similar morphological changes under similar culture milieu. This study supports the potential of hESCs as a stable, consistent, unlimited and 'off-the-shelf' cell source to obtain odontoblastic cells for future clinical and research applications.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · International Endodontic Journal
  • Qiqi Lu · Hua Liu · Tong Cao
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive bone marrow adipocytes formation is tightly associated with development of osteoporosis. Considering the high heterogeneity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), identification of bone marrow adipocyte progenitors (BMAPs) within heterogeneous BMSCs may provide better cellular models for researches concerning osteoporosis development and therapy. However, currently there is no efficient method or specific surface makers available for BMAPs isolation. In the current study, we developed a novel BMAPs isolation method based on silica microbeads incubation and subsequent centrifugation in ficoll-paque. The "Sca-1+CD73-CD90-CD105+" subpopulation selected by this method exhibited significantly stronger adipogenic potential than non-selected BMSCs in vitro and could homogeneously differentiate to mature adipocytes within 4 days. Moreover, these cells also highly expressed a series of adipogenesis related genes even before differentiation. After long-term culture, however, BMAPs would gradually lose high adipogenic ability, but sorting CD105+ cells from BMAPs in later passages was able to retrieve the highly adipogenic subpopulation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BMAPs subpopulation could be effectively isolated from heterogeneous BMSCs by a special silica microbeads incubation method and re-enriched by sorting CD105+ cells. These findings offer convenient and repeatable approaches to obtain pure BMAPs for researches concerning pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutics development of osteoporosis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Stem cells and development