Publications (32)47.81 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop an improved substrate for indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF) to detect anti-U1-70kD autoantibodies. The RNA binding domain of U1-70kD (U1BD) complementary DNA was obtained from human larynx carcinoma cell line HEp-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the mammalian expression vector pEGFP-C1. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-U1BD was transfected into HEp-2 cells. Immunoblotting (IBT), confocal fluorescence microscopy, and IIF were used to confirm the expression, localization, and antigenicity of fusion proteins of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transfected HEp-2 cells, which were then analyzed by IIF using human reference sera and compared with untransfected HEp-2 cells simultaneously. (1) The HEp-U1BD cells thus obtained retained their ability to express U1BD-GFP, which showed the antigenicity of U1BD with a characteristic phenotype in IIF. (2) Fifteen IBT-positive anti-U1-70kD sera presented with characteristic cytoplasmic staining on HEp-U1BD by IIF, but five sera without the 70kD reactive band in IBT were not found in the presence of HEp-U1BD pattern. Ten sera of healthy donors couldn't react with HEp-2 and HEp-U1BD at 1:80 attenuant degrees. (3) No differences in expression, localization, or morphology were observed when HEp-U1BD or HEp-2 interacted with the reference sera that could react with Ro/SSA, La/SSB, centromere, histone, and Scl-70 antigens in routine IIF test. HEp-U1BD cells kept the immunofluorescent properties of HEp-2 cells in an immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (IFANA) test and could be potentially used as a substrate for routine IFANA detection. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common and important manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Evidence suggests higher rates of lupus renal involvement in Asian populations, and maybe more severe nephritis, compared with other racial or ethnic groups. The management of LN has evolved considerably over the past three decades, based on observations from clinical studies that investigated different immunosuppressive agents including corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolic acid, calcineurin inhibitors and novel biologic therapies. This is accompanied by improvements in both the short-term treatment response rate and long-term renal function preservation. Treatment guidelines for LN have recently been issued by rheumatology and nephrology communities in U.S.A. and Europe. In view of the racial difference in disease manifestation and response to therapy, and the substantial disease burden in Asia, a panel of 15 nephrologists and rheumatologists from different Asian regions with extensive experience in lupus nephritis - the Steering Group for the Asian Lupus Nephritis Network (ALNN) - met and discussed the management of lupus nephritis in Asian patients. The group has also reviewed and deliberated on the recently published recommendations from other parts of the world. This manuscript summarizes the discussions by the group and presents consensus views on the clinical management and treatment of adult Asian patients with LN, taking into account both the available evidence and expert opinion in areas where evidence remains to be sought.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish an improved substrate for an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) to detect anti-Sm antibody. Full-length Smith protein D1(Sm-D1) complementary DNA was obtained from human larynx carcinoma cell line HEp-2 by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the mammalian expression vector pEGFP-C1. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Sm-D1 was transfected into HEp-2 cells. The expression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transfected cells were confirmed by means of immunoblotting (IBT), confocal fluorescence microscopy and IIF analysis. Transfected HEp-2 cells were analyzed with reference serum and compared with untransfected HEp-2 cells by IIF. Stable expression of the Sm-D1-GFP was maintained for more than ten generations. This Sm-D1-GFP showed the antigenicity of Sm-D1 with a characteristic phenotype in IIF.Six of 12 serum specimens from systemic lupus erythematosus contained both 29/28 and 13.5 kDa proteins and showed characteristic immunofluorescent patterns. The same phenomenon appeared in 3/6 serum samples which contained 29/28 kDa proteins only. Sera from 10 healthy donors did not react with HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 at 1:80 attenuant degrees. No alteration in expression, localization and morphology was observed when HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 interacted with the reference sera which could react with Ro/SSA, La/SSB, β2GP1, centromere, histone, and Scl-70 antibodies in routine IIF tests. As a new kind of substrate of IIF, HEp-Sm-D1 can be used to detect anti-Sm antibodies. Transfected HEp-2 cells keep the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (IFANA) test and could potentially be used as substrate for routine IFANA detection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Adult-onset still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder in which abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines production appear to play a pathophysiological role. Our previous work has reported increased expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and revealed its correlation with disease severity and activity in AOSD. A -173 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs755622) and a -794 CATT5-8 repeat (rs5844572) in the MIF promoter have been reported. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between functional MIF promoter polymorphisms and MIF expression in AOSD. Methods 100 patients and 200 controls were recruited in the study. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was utilized to analyze the -173 G/C SNP (rs755622) and PCR-based size discrimination assay was applied to detect the -794 CATT5-8 repeat (rs5844572) in the MIF promoter. Plasma MIF levels were measured by ELISA. MIF mRNA levels were quantified by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Bisulfate genomic sequencing was employed to evaluate DNA methylation status within the MIF promoter. Results We identified that the frequencies of MIF -794 CATT5 (P = 0.001) allele and the expression of MIF (P <0.001) were increased in patients compared to healthy controls. Plasma levels of MIF in patients with CC genotype were higher than those of patients with GC or GG genotypes (P = 0.05). In patients with established AOSD, a higher frequency of -794 CATT7 containing MIF genotypes was observed in those with liver dysfunction (P = 0.009). Haplotype analysis revealed a higher representation of the MIF haplotype defined by -173*C/-794 CATT5 (C5) in AOSD patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion Functional promoter polymorphisms in the MIF gene influence plasma MIF levels in AOSD and may contribute to disease susceptibility or clinical presentation of AOSD.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Acute gout is an intensely painful, inflammatory arthritis. Although the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for this condition, the efficacy is based on only a few studies, particularly in China. We tried to assess the safety and efficacy of etoricoxib in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis in China. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, active comparator study was conducted at 10 sites in China. Patients (n = 178; ≥ 18 years of age) with acute gouty attack (< 48 hours) were treated for 5 days with etoricoxib (120 mg/d; n = 89) or indometacin (75 mg twice daily; n = 89). The primary efficacy end point was self-assessed pain in the affected joint (0-4 point Likert scale) from days 2 - 5. Secondary end points included investigator assessments of tenderness and swelling, patient/ investigator global assessments of response to therapy, and patients discontinuing treatment. Safety was assessed by adverse events (AEs). Results: Etoricoxib and indometacin had comparable primary and secondary end points. Mean change difference from baseline from days 2 - 5 was 0.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.19 to 0.25; P = 0.6364), which fell within the prespecified comparative bounds of -0.5 to 0.5. No severe AEs were associated with etoricoxib use. Non-severe AEs were mainly digestive and general, and most (73.7%) were mild, although they caused withdrawal of two subjects in the etoricoxib group, due to bilateral renal calculi and uronephrosis of the left kidney (unrelated to etoricoxib) and fever and chills (potentially etoricoxib-related). Overall, AEs were similar, although the absolute number of AEs in the etoricoxib group (n = 31) was less than the indometacin group (n = 34). Conclusions: Etoricoxib (120 mg once daily) is effective in treating acute gout, is generally safe and well-tolerated, and is comparable in efficacy to indometacin (75 mg twice daily).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy remains important in improving the prognosis of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, some patients do not achieve an effective response with GC treatment, creating an obstacle to the remission of SLE. Identification of the underlying mechanisms responsible for steroid resistance can be significant. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) arouses our interest because of its reciprocal relationship with GCs. In the present study, we investigated for the first time whether MIF correlated with steroid resistance in SLE and explored potential mechanisms of action. Sixty-two patients with SLE (40 steroid sensitive and 22 steroid resistant) and 21 normal controls were recruited. Serum levels of MIF were measured by ELISA. Cytosolic MIF and IκB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by western blotting. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay was assessed by NF-κB in nuclear aliquots. Gene silencing was applied to reduce expression of MIF in PBMCs in steroid-resistant patients. PBMCs obtained from steroid-sensitive patients were treated with recombinant human MIF of different concentrations. MIF levels in serum and PBMCs were higher in steroid-resistant patients compared with steroid-sensitive patients and controls. In contrast to the steroid-sensitive group, NF-κB levels were significantly higher and IκB levels lower in steroid-resistant patients. After MIF gene silencing, IκB levels in cells from steroid-resistant patients were increased. In steroid-sensitive patients, a decrease in IκB levels and an increase in NF-κB expression from baseline were detected in PBMCs treated with a higher concentration of recombinant human MIF. Treatment with recombinant human MIF did not regulate expression of IκB and NF-κB in PBMCs from patients treated with an anti-MIF monoclonal antibody. Our results indicated that MIF may play a role in the formation of steroid resistance in SLE by affecting the NF-κB/IκB signaling cascade. As a regulator of glucocorticoid sensitivity, MIF may be a potential target for steroid sparing.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is an important member of the CYP superfamily, which is involved in the metabolism and activation of many low molecular weight toxic compounds. We tried to investigate the possible association of CYP2E1 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Chinese Han population. The coding and flanking regions of the CYP2E1 gene were scanned for polymorphisms and tag SNPs were selected. A two-stage case-control study was performed to genotype a total of 876 SLE patients and 680 geographically matched healthy controls (265 cases and 288 controls in stage I and 611 cases and 392 controls in stage II). SLE associations of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were tested by age and sex adjusted logistic regression. The gene transcription quantitation was carried out for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 120 healthy controls. Tag SNP rs2480256 was found significantly associated with SLE in both stages of the study. The "A" allele was associated with slightly higher risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.165, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.073 to 1.265, P = 2.75E-4) and "A/A" genotype carriers were with even higher SLE risk (OR = 1.464 95% CI 1.259 to 1.702, P = 7.48E-7). When combined with another tag SNP rs8192772, we identified haplotype "rs8192772-rs2480256/TA" over presented in SLE patients (OR 1.407, 95% CI 1.182 to 1.675, P = 0.0001) and haplotype "TG" over presented in the controls (OR 0.771, 95% CI 0.667 to 0.890, P = 0.0004). The gene transcription quantitation analysis further proved the dominant effect of rs2480256 as the "A/A" genotype showed highest transcription. Our results suggest the involvement of CYP2E1 as a susceptibility gene for SLE in the Chinese population.
Dataset: Additional File 1[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Tables S1-S3. Supplementary Table S1: Clinical and immunological features of cases. Supplementary Table S2: Primers for CYP2E1 genotyping. Supplementary Table S3: Sequence variations identified in 96 healthy people in CYP2E1.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of etanercept treatment in Chinese patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This was a 12-week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase III clinical study. The first part was a 6-week placebo-controlled period followed by a 6-week open-label period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of subjects achieving a 20% improvement in assessment in ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) (ASAS 20). The secondary efficacy endpoints were the percentage of patients achieving a 40% improvement in ASAS (ASAS 40), achieving a 50% improvement in ASAS (ASAS 50), achieving a 70% improvement in ASAS (ASAS 70), and ASAS 5/6 responses at all visits, and the improvement in subject global assessment, physician global assessment, nocturnal and total back pain, bath AS functional index (BASFI), bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), spinal mobility, joint assessment and quality of life assessment. All subjects in the study were evaluated for safety. The primary endpoint, ASAS 20 at week 6, was achieved by 86.5% (64/74) patients in the etanercept group compared to 29.5% (23/78) patients in the placebo group (P < 0.001). As early as week 2, the percentages of patients achieving the ASAS 20 between the two groups were significantly different. Furthermore, the majority of secondary efficacy end points were also significantly improved. Most of adverse events (AE) were mild in nature, the commonest adverse events were elevated liver function levels, injection site reactions and nasopharyngitis. No death or serious AE were observed. Etanercept can improve symptoms fastly, significantly and safely in Chinese patients with active AS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of atherosclerosis in Chinese premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and study possible associations between traditional and nontraditional risk factors with premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated 111 premenopausal women with SLE and 40 healthy controls without clinical cardiovascular disease. B-mode ultrasound was used to measure carotid plaque and intima-media wall thickness (IMT). The frequency of risk factors for atherosclerosis in patients and controls was compared, and the relationship between the patients' clinical characteristics and carotid plaque was examined. At the same time, we used B-mode ultrasound to measure flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) in the brachial artery to assess for difference in endothelial function between SLE patients and controls. Carotid plaque was more frequent in patients with lupus (16 of 111 patients) than in control subjects (0 of 40 subjects) (P = 0.007). The mean IMT was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Compared with controls, SLE patients were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.001), hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.022), and hypertriglyceridemia (P < 0.001). As compared with patients without plaque, patients with plaque were significantly older, had longer disease duration, higher body mass index, raised blood pressure, shorter prothrombin time, raised C-reactive protein, higher Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index score, higher cumulative prednisone dose, used less hydroxychloroquine, had higher mean IMT, lower FMD, and NMD. In logistic regression analysis, older age, higher body mass index, and higher Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index score were independently related to the presence of plaque. Using multiple regression analysis, we found SLE (P = 0.003) to be significantly associated with impaired FMD. In our Chinese SLE group, patients presented a higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis plaque than healthy controls. SLE patients have significant endothelial dysfunction. We found that risk factors identified in other SLE populations were associated with atherosclerosis in our Chinese group.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-614 is a novel oral antirheumatic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Whether it has immunomodulatory or disease-modifying properties and its mechanism of action are largely undetermined. Rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were treated with T-614 (5 and 20 mg/kg) daily. Animals receiving methotrexate (1 mg/kg every 3 days) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent nimesulide (10 mg/kg per day) were used as controls. A combination therapy group was treated with both T-614(10 mg/kg per day) and methotrexate (1 mg/kg every 3 days). Hind paw swelling was evaluated and radiographic scores calculated. Serum cytokine levels were assessed by Bio-plex analysis. Quantitative PCR was used to evaluate expression of mRNA for interferon-gamma, IL-4 and IL-17. Serum IL-17 and anti-type II collagen antibodies (total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM) were measured using ELISA. Oral T-614 inhibited paw swelling and offered significant protection against arthritis-induced cartilage and bone erosion, comparable to the effects of methotrexate. CIA rats treated with T-614 exhibited decreases in both mRNA expression of IL-17 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells, and circulating IL-17 in a dose-dependent manner. T-614 also reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. A synergistic effect was observed for the combination of methotrexate and T-614. In addition, T-614 (20 mg/kg per day) depressed production of anti-type II collagen antibodies and differentially affected levels of IgG2a subclasses in vivo, whereas IgM level was decreased without any change in the IgG1 level. Together, the findings presented here indicate that the novel agent T-614 has disease-modifying effects against experimental arthritis, as opposed to nimesulide. Our data suggested that T-614 is an effective disease-modifying agent that can prevent bone/cartilage destruction and inflammation in in CIA rats. Combination with methotrexate markedly enhances the therapeutic effect of T-614.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and explored the role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the systemic inflammation of AOSD. Serum MIF levels were measured by ELISA in patients with AOSD and controls. Intracellular MIF production by peripheral blood leukocytes was detected by three-color flow cytometry. Serum MIF levels were significantly increased in patients with AOSD. Serum MIF levels were significantly higher in AOSD patients with sore throat, myalgias, splenomegaly, or pleuritis, and were closely correlated with clinical disease severity and activity. Examined by flow cytometry, the intracellular MIF levels in monocytes and T-lymphocytes from AOSD patients were significantly higher than those from healthy subjects. These data represent the first demonstration of increased MIF expression in AOSD, and suggest that MIF may be an important marker for disease evaluation and monitoring.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of adult clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapid progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD). Hospitalized patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) between 1998 and 2005 in the Shanghai Renji Hospital were retrospectively studied. One hundred and forty-five patients were classified into CADM, classic DM or PM according to the modified Sontheimer's definition or Bohan-Peter's classification criteria. They were further stratified based on the presence or absence of clinical ILD. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and COX regression were performed. The predictive factors for ILD and other clinical properties of CADM-ILD were explored. The presence of clinical ILD was a significant risk factor for the poor outcome of DM/PM (OR = 4.237, CI 95%: 1.239-14.49, p = 0.021). Other risk factors are the presence of rashes and elevated urea nitrogen. Patients with DM/PM complicated by ILD had different clinical courses. Patients with CADM-ILD showed a rapidly progressive pattern with 6-month survival rate of 40.8%. The DM-ILD manifested a progressive pattern with a 5-year survival rate of 54%, while PM-ILD was chronic with 5- and 10-year survival rate of 72.4% and 60.3%, respectively. Better preserved muscle strength, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hypoalbuminemia may herald ILD in DM/PM. Patients with CADM-ILD who later died had lower PO(2), higher lactate dehydrogenase, and prominent arthritis/arthralgia compared with those who survived. The presence of antinuclear antibody seems to be protective. Rapid progressive CADM-ILD is refractory to conventional treatment. ILD is a common complication in over 40% of our hospitalized DM/PM cohort and is also a prominent prognostic indicator. CADM is a special phenotype of DM/PM. CADM-ILD, which is usually rapidly progressive and fatal, requires further investigation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To examine the effects of a novel immunosuppressant, FTY720, on BXSB lupus-prone mice, and to investigate its immune regulatory pathway by using a cDNA microarray. Methods: Male BXSB mice received oral administration of 10 mg/kg FTY720 twice a week from age 9 weeks. Levels of antinuclear antibodies in serum and histopathology of the kidney were evaluated. The gene expression profile of splenic lymphocyte was analysed by cDNA microarray. Results: FTY720 suppressed the production of antinuclear antibodies (P < 0.05) and reduced the deposition of IgG in glomeruli, compared to control animals. The microarray determined 247 differential expressed genes, which contained a cluster of genes related to lymphocyte trafficking and cytoskeletal remodeling. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggests FTY720 has some immune suppressive effect on BXSB mice. The mechanism may be due to accelerate lymphocyte homing and redistribution which differs from traditional cytotoxic agents. Its clinical implication deserves further study.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to describe the etiology, characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while also identifying prognostic and risk factors. Thirty-eight SLE patients with CNS infections were identified from review of all charts of patients with SLE hospitalized from January 1995 to June 2005. These patients were divided into 3 groups, i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), non-TB bacterial and fungal infection groups. Of the 38 SLE cases with CNS infections, TB was identified in 19 patients, Listeria monocytogenes in 3 patients, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 1 patient, Staphylococcus aureus in 1 patient, Gram's stain positive bacteria in 1 patient, Cryptococcus neoformans in 12 patients, and Aspergillus fumigatus in 1 patient. The rate of unfavorable outcome in patients with fungal infection was lower than in patients with TB (P=0.028) and non-TB bacterial CNS infections (P=0.046). SLE patients with TB or fungal CNS infections had a more insidious or atypical clinical presentation. Compared to SLE patients without CNS infections, those with CNS infections were more likely to have low serum albumin levels (P=0.048) and have been receiving higher doses of prednisolone at the onset of CNS infection (P=0.015) or higher mean doses of prednisolone within the previous year (P=0.039). In conclusion, low levels of serum albumin and higher doses of received prednisolone are important risk factors for the development of CNS infections in SLE patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammation and obliteration of intermediate to large-size arteries. We report a case of Takayasu's arteritis with a presentation of bilateral pulmonary nodular infiltrates in a 21-year-old man. An open-lung biopsy showed characteristic changes of extra-vascular granulomatosis. To our knowledge, this has not been described previously in the literature.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combined presence of anti-phospholipid Ab (aPL), thrombosis, and/or fetal loss is recognized as the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPL include anti-cardiolipin Ab (aCL) and/or lupus anticoagulants (LAC, detected as Ig that prolong certain in vitro phospholipid (PL)-restricted blood clotting tests); both aCL and LAC are the diagnostic Ab for APS. Studies show that aPL represent a heterogeneous group of Ab, which recognize various PL, PL-binding plasma proteins, and/or PL-protein complexes. Recently, we found that five of seven patient-derived IgG monoclonal aCL react with thrombin, activated protein C, and plasmin. All three proteins are trypsin-like serine proteases (SP), and are highly homologous in their catalytic domains. Importantly, among these SP autoantigens, the reactive aCL bind to plasmin with the highest affinity, suggesting that plasmin may serve as a major driving autoantigen for some aCL in approximately 30% of APS patients who are positive for IgG anti-plasmin Ab. To test this hypothesis, we immunized BALB/c mice with human plasmin and analyzed immune sera for aCL activity and reactivity with relevant SP. We found that some immune sera displayed aCL activity and/or bound to test SP. Subsequently, eight mAb were obtained and studied. The results revealed that one mAb displayed the aCL and the LAC activities and induced fetal loss when injected into pregnant mice. Immunohistological analyses of placentas revealed extensive deposits of activated C3 components. Combined, these data demonstrate that plasmin may serve as a driving Ag for some pathogenic aPL.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2'5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) was shown to be related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 20 years ago, and was rediscovered to be involved in type I interferon pathway in SLE by several microarray gene expression studies recently. The goal of this study was to investigate OAS isoform expressions in lupus patients, to evaluate whether they could become biomarkers to differentiate between disease flare and infection. Fifty-four SLE patients presented with fever or systemic inflammatory syndrome, or both, were enrolled. Gene expressions of OAS1, OAS2, and OASL were studied by using real time PCR in active SLE (SLEDAI >or=9, n=29) and in those complicated with infections (n=25). The latter group was composed of 19 patients with invasive bacterial infections, and six patients with viral infections. C reactive protein (CRP) and other clinical parameters were also measured. Twenty-nine healthy individuals made up a normal control group. The mRNA expressions of OAS1, OAS2, and OASL were higher in patients with lupus flares than those with infections (p<0.03), or normal controls (p<0.001). SLE complicated with infections have higher OAS1 expression level (P=0.002), lower OASL (P=0.004), and equivalent OAS2 (P=0.135), when compared with those of normal controls. OASL expression level was negatively correlated with infection in lupus by logistic regression analysis (p=0.008). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of infection was 0.92 (p<0.0001) for OASL, and 0.77 (p=0.007) for CRP. Therefore, our preliminary data suggest that the pattern of OAS isoform expressions, OASL in particular, may provide useful information in differentiating disease flares from certain infections in SLE.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: This is a retrospective study on the efficacy and adverse effects of treating mild or moderate systemic lupus erythematosus without major organ involvement using small dosage prednisone combined with MTX and chloroquine (PMC). Methods: As a retrospective 1-year follow-up study, clinic outpatients (Rheumatology Department, Renji Hospital, Shanghai, China) were divided by predinisone dose (Group A, prednisone ≤ 0.2 mg/kg/d; Group B prednisone 0.5–0.6 mg/kg/d). All patients (N = 30 per group) were also administered methotrexate (7.5–10 mg/week) and chloroquine (250 mg/d). Efficacy and adverse effects of the two protocol drug regimens were compared. Results: The OUT Score of Group A was reduced from 2.10 ± 1.45 to 0.94 ± 0.73, and Group B from 2.93 ± 2.26 to 1.3 ± 1.29. The treatment was successful and there was no significant difference of efficacy between these two groups. However, the infection rate was much higher in Group B than in Group A (P < 0.001). Most infections occurred in the lung, while infections of the skin were recorded. There were also three patients who presented with Cushing syndrome in Group B. Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head was noted in Group B, but none in Group A. Conclusions: Systemic lupus erythematosus patients with mild or moderate activity, and without major organ involvement, can be controlled well with PMC. Otherwise, it was noted that higher doses of prednisone leads to more infections.
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
- Department of Rheumatology
Renji HospitalShanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
Second Military Medical University, ShanghaiShanghai, Shanghai Shi, China