[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains
a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors,
BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and
methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results
themselves can be found in Part C.
Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the
Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for
the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation
phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · European Physical Journal C
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a typical skarn-type deposit, the Kekesala-Aimusidaiyi Fe-Cu deposit is located in the Boluokenu polymetallic belt in the northern West Tianshan, Xinjiang Province. It occurred at the contact zone between the Husite intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks of Hercynian age and Upper Ordovician carbonate rocks. The timing of host rock intrusion and mineralization is unclear yet up to this study. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of this study on zircon in monzogranite from the Husite intrusive body gave a concordia age of 368.0±3.6 Ma and a weighted average age of 365.6±3.2 Ma, indicating its intrusion in the latest Devonian during the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean under the Yili plate. Re-Os dating on molybdenite from the skarn ore gave an isochron age of 295±11 Ma and a weighted average age of 288.3±1.5 Ma, indicating the earliest Permian mineralization during the post-collisional extension. Possibilities for the wide range of the timing between host rock intrusion and mineralization include that (1) the Husite intrusive body is a complex with multiple-stage intrusions, and the Mo mineralization as well as the skarn-type Fe-Cu mineralization were associated with the contact metasomatism of magmatic rocks intruded in the early Permian, and that (2) the skarn-type Fe-Cu mineralization was associated with the intrusion and metasomatism of the intermediate-acidic rocks in the late Devonian and, later in the early Permian, was superimposed by the Mo mineralization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-loaded nanoparticles have shown great potential in the study of carriers for disease-targeting drug delivery. Drug-loaded nanoparticles are excellent in keeping the drug in the systemic circulation for a prolonged period of time, introducing targeting molecules to improve targeting efficiency and to reduce side effects. A general review on active drug targeting of cancerous diseases by nanoparticles functionalized with ligands to folate receptors is presented including the (1) materials and methods for nanoparticle preparation, (2) methods for drug encapsulation, (3) surface functionalization of the nanoparticle with ligand to folate receptors, and (4) in vitro and in vivo experiments.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin potently activates platelets through the protease-activated receptor PAR-1. Vorapaxar is a novel antiplatelet agent that selectively inhibits the cellular actions of thrombin through antagonism of PAR-1.
We randomly assigned 26,449 patients who had a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease to receive vorapaxar (2.5 mg daily) or matching placebo and followed them for a median of 30 months. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After 2 years, the data and safety monitoring board recommended discontinuation of the study treatment in patients with a history of stroke owing to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage.
At 3 years, the primary end point had occurred in 1028 patients (9.3%) in the vorapaxar group and in 1176 patients (10.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for the vorapaxar group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001). Cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or recurrent ischemia leading to revascularization occurred in 1259 patients (11.2%) in the vorapaxar group and 1417 patients (12.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P=0.001). Moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 4.2% of patients who received vorapaxar and 2.5% of those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.43 to 1.93; P<0.001). There was an increase in the rate of intracranial hemorrhage in the vorapaxar group (1.0%, vs. 0.5% in the placebo group; P<0.001).
Inhibition of PAR-1 with vorapaxar reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or ischemic events in patients with stable atherosclerosis who were receiving standard therapy. However, it increased the risk of moderate or severe bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRA 2P-TIMI 50 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00526474.).
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the result of a search for the rare decay B0→γγ in 426 fb-1 of data, corresponding to 226×106 B0B̅ 0 pairs, collected on the Υ(4S) resonance at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider using the BABAR detector. We use a maximum likelihood fit to extract the signal yield and observe 21-12+13 signal events with a statistical significance of 1.8σ. This corresponds to a branching fraction B(B0→γγ)=(1.7±1.1(stat.)±0.2(syst.))×10-7. Based on this result, we set a 90% confidence level upper limit of B(B0→γγ)<3.2×10-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a Dalitz-plot analysis of the charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K±π∓π±. Using a sample of 226.0±2.5 million BB̅ pairs collected by the BABAR detector, we measure the magnitudes and phases of the intermediate resonant and nonresonant amplitudes for both charge-conjugate decays. We present measurements of the corresponding branching fractions and their charge asymmetries that supersede those of previous BABAR analyses. We find the charge asymmetries to be consistent with zero.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Physical Review D
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the partial branching fractions and mass spectra of the exclusive radiative penguin processes B-->Kpipigamma in the range m(Kpipi)<1.8 GeV/c(2). We reconstruct four final states: K(+)pi(-)pi(+)gamma, K(+)pi(-)pi(0)gamma, K(S)(0)pi(-)pi(+)gamma, and K(S)(0)pi(+)pi(0)gamma, where K(S)(0)-->pi(+)pi(-). Using 232 x 10(6) e(+)e(-)-->BB events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring, we measure the branching fractions B(B(+)-->K(+)pi(-)pi(+)gamma)=[2.95+/-0.13(stat)+/-0.20(syst)] x 10(-5), B(B(0)-->K(+)pi(-)pi(0)gamma)=[4.07+/-0.22(stat)+/-0.31(syst)] x 10(-5), B(B(0)-->K(0)pi(+)pi(-)gamma)=[1.85+/-0.21(stat)+/-0.12(syst)] x 10(-5), and B(B(+)-->K(0)pi(+)pi(0)gamma)=[4.56+/-0.42(stat)+/-0.31(syst)] x 10(-5).
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Physical Review Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a study of inclusive B- and B̅ 0 meson decays to D0X, D̅ 0X, D+X, D-X, Ds+X, Ds-X, Λc+X, Λ̅ c-X, based on a sample of 231×106 BB̅ events recorded with the BABAR detector at the Υ(4S) resonance. Events are selected by completely reconstructing one B and searching for a reconstructed charm particle in the rest of the event. From the measured branching fractions of these decays, we infer the number of charm and anticharm particles per B̅ decay, separately for charged and neutral parents. We derive the total charm yield per B- decay, nc-=1.208±0.023±0.040-0.029+0.035, and per B̅ 0 decay, nc0=1.203±0.030±0.034-0.035+0.044 where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third reflects the charm branching-fraction uncertainties. We also present the charm momentum distributions measured in the B̅ rest frame.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Physical Review D
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using 230.2 fb-1 of e+e- annihilation data collected with the BABAR detector at and near the peak of the Upsilon(4S) resonance, 489+/-55 events containing the pure leptonic decay Ds+-->micro;+numicro have been isolated in charm-tagged events. The ratio of partial widths Gamma(D+-->micro+numicro)/Gamma(Ds+-->phipi+) is measured to be 0.143+/-0.018+/-0.006 allowing a determination of the pseudoscalar decay constant fDs=(283+/-17+/-7+/-14) MeV. The errors are statistical, systematic, and from the Ds+-->phipi+ branching ratio, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that raised plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) may be a common, causal and treatable risk factor for atherothromboembolic ischaemic stroke, dementia and depression. Although tHcy can be lowered effectively with small doses of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and vitamin B(6), it is not known whether lowering tHcy, by means of B vitamin therapy, can prevent stroke and other major atherothromboembolic vascular events. AIM: To determine whether the addition of B-vitamin supplements (folic acid 2 mg, B(6) 25 mg, B(12) 500 microg) to best medical and surgical management will reduce the combined incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and vascular death in patients with recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) of the brain or eye.
DESIGN: A prospective, international, multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
SETTING: One hundred and four medical centres in 20 countries on five continents.
SUBJECTS: Eight thousand (6600 recruited as of 5 January, 2006) patients with recent (<7 months) stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) or TIA (brain or eye).
RANDOMISATION: Randomisation and data collection are performed by means of a central telephone service or secure internet site.
INTERVENTION: One tablet daily of either placebo or B vitamins (folic acid 2 mg, B(6) 25 mg, B(12) 500 mug).
PRIMARY OUTCOME: The composite of stroke, MI or death from any vascular cause, whichever occurs first. Outcome and serious adverse events are adjudicated blinded to treatment allocation. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: TIA, unstable angina, revascularisation procedures, dementia, depression.
STATISTICAL POWER: With 8000 patients followed up for a median of 2 years and an annual incidence of the primary outcome of 8% among patients assigned placebo, the study will have at least 80% power to detect a relative reduction of 15% in the incidence of the primary outcome among patients assigned B vitamins (to 6.8%/year), applying a two-tailed level of significance of 5%.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Stroke