[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the clinicopathologic characteristics and the recurrence pattern of gastric cancer and to define survival difference according to treatment modality after diagnosis of recurrence.
Materials and methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 4184 patients who had undergone radical surgery for primary gastric cancer from 1986 through 1996. Clinicopathologic factors were analyzed for the relationship of each factor with the pattern of recurrence. And the survival after diagnosis of recurrence was compared among the treatment modalities.
Recurrence pattern was confirmed in 1141 patients. Loco-regional recurrence occurred in 291 patients (20.1%), peritoneal recurrence in 383 (26.5%), distant recurrence in 290 (20.1%), and mixed recurrence in 177 (12.3%), respectively. Early recurrence (less than 2 years) occurred in 767 (69.3%), intermediate recurrence (2~5 years) in 286 (25.8%), and late recurrence (more than 5 years) in 54 (4.9%). In multivariate analysis, T stage, N stage, size of tumor and perineural invasion were independent prognostic factors for recurrence. Median survival from diagnosis of recurrence was 24.2 months in the curative operation group, 7.7 months in the chemotherapy group, 7.1 months in the non-curative operation group and 3.3 months in the conservative treatment group, respectively (p=0.000).
The clinicopathological analysis of recurrent gastric cancer showed recurrent patterns and prognostic factors. Curative resection is suggested to have survival benefit in recurrent gastric cancer patients, although it was possible in patients with limited extent of disease.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Controversy surrounds adjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) for T3N0M0 and T1N2M0 in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition stage IIA gastric cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefit of adjuvant CTx for stage IIA cancer, including T3N0M0 and T1N2M0.
A total of 630 patients with stage IIA cancer who underwent a radical gastrectomy between January 1999 and December 2009 at Seoul National University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. We compared the outcomes of 434 patients who did not receive CTx (the non-CTx group) with those of 196 patients who received CTx comprising of 5-fluorouracil-based regimens (the CTx group).
The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of the non-CTx and CTx groups were 86.4 and 89.3 %, respectively (p = 0.047). In the subgroup analysis of T2N1M0 (6th II/7th IIA), there was a significant difference in OS between the non-CTx and CTx groups (p = 0.003), but no differences were observed in T3N0M0 and T1N2M0 (6th IB/7th IIA) (p = 0.574 and p = 0.934). The multivariate analysis showed that a tumor size greater than 5 cm in T3N0M0 [odds ratio (OR) 1.929; p = 0.030], no adjuvant CTx in T2N1M0 (OR 4.853; p = 0.025), and no factors in T1N2M0 were found to be risk factors for recurrence-free survival.
Adjuvant CTx may be associated with an improved outcome of patients with T2N1M0 (6th II/7th IIA), but not T3N0M0 or T1N2M0 (6th IB/7th IIA), gastric cancer. To confirm these results, further studies are needed.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main cause of death for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is the development of metastatic lesions at sites distant from the primary tumor. Therefore, it is important to find biomarkers that are related to the metastasis and to study the possible mechanisms. Recent data have shown that soluble attractant molecules called chemokines support the metastasis of certain cancers to certain organs. To identify molecular regulators that are differentially expressed in liver metastasis of CRC, PCR array analysis was performed and CC chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) showed remarkable overexpression in liver metastatic tumor tissues. To validate the results of the PCR array, 30 patients with primary CRC and liver metastases were selected. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis showed that CCL7 was expressed in normal colonic epithelium and the expression was higher in liver metastases compared to primary CRC (p<0.001). Real-time PCR showed that the expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR3 was also higher in liver metastases compared to primary CRC (p=0.001, p=0.033 and p<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, correlation of CCL7 overexpression and its receptor expression with colon cancer liver metastasis suggests that CCL7 as a novel target in liver metastasis of CRC may be of potential clinical value for the prevention of hepatic recurrences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of esophageal classification for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEJ) of the seventh American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM classification.
The seventh AJCC TNM classification proposed the new classification for AEJ as a part of esophageal cancer depending on the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) involvement. However, there are still many controversies over the classification system for AEJ.
A review of pathologic reports and photographic findings at Seoul National University Hospital from 2003 to 2009 identified 4524 patients with single, primary adenocarcinoma of the EGJ (n = 497) and other regions of the stomach (GC, n = 4027) who underwent an operation with curative intent. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and postoperative prognosis of AEJ using the Siewert classification and the seventh AJCC TNM classification.
There was no Siewert type I (AEJ I) in this study. The prognosis of AEJ was similar to that of GC. There was no difference in clinicopathologic features between AEJ II and AEJ III. Even though AEJ extending into the EGJ (AEJe) showed more advanced pathologic features than AEJ not extending into the EGJ (AEJg), the prognosis of AEJe and AEJg was not significantly different when stratified by T stage. Compared with the classification of gastric cancer applied for AEJ, esophageal classification for AEJ from the seventh AJCC TNM classification showed a loss of distinctiveness at each TNM stage.
To evaluate the postoperative prognosis of AEJ within the stomach, AEJ II and AEJ III should be considered a part of gastric cancer irrespective of EGJ involvement.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgrounds/Aims
Biliary cystadenoma (BCA) and cystadenocarcinoma (BCCA) are rare cystic hepatic neoplasms. Prior reports concerning the proper surgical treatment and long-term survival are scarce. We report our experience and survival outcome of 30 patients over the last 25 years.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic data of the pathologically confirmed 18 BCA and 12 BCCA patients, who underwent operations from 1983 to 2006, at the Seoul National University Hospital.
The patients consisted of 8 men and 22 women with a mean age of 51 years. With abdominal computed tomography scans, 73.3% (n=22) were preoperatively diagnosed as BCA or BCCA, and differentiating BCCA from BCA was accurate in 58.3% patients. R0 resection was achieved in 90% (n=27). The differentiating factors included the presence of mural nodule (4/18 vs. 8/12; p=0.009) and mucinous content (2/9 vs. 8/1; p=0.005), and tumor size tending to be larger in BCCA (11.7 cm vs. 7.9 cm; p=0.067). Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates of BCCA were 72.9% and 60.9%, respectively. Of patients with BCCA, 4 experienced recurrence. In case of recurrence, patients tended to be younger than 50 years (p=0.061) and the lesions tended to be larger than those without recurrence (p=0.088).
Preoperative differentiations of BCA from simple cyst, and BCCA from BCA are still difficult. Complete removal of the tumor, via major hepatectomy, should be considered, especially in the younger age group with large tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN) has been increasing with a large number of newly diagnosed IPMN. This study was designed to explore the characteristics of resected IPMN and to determine the predictive factors for malignant and invasive IPMN.
Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed on 187 consecutive patients following IPMN surgery between 1994 and 2008 at a tertiary institute. The main duct type IPMN was radiologically defined as main pancreatic duct dilation >5 mm rather than previously defined ≥10 mm.
The morphologic types of IPMN included 28 main duct (IPMN-M, 15.0%), 118 branch duct (IPMN-Br, 63.1%), and 41 mixed (IPMN-Mixed, 21.9%) IPMNs. There were 23 patients with adenoma, 106 borderline atypia, 15 carcinoma in situ, and 43 invasive carcinoma. Sixty-nine extrapancreatic malignancies were diagnosed in 61 (32.6%) patients. Based on multivariate analysis, IPMN-M was statistically significant predictor of malignancy/invasiveness (p = 0.013/p = 0.028). In patients with IPMN-Br, the presence of mural nodule was a predictive factor for malignancy/invasiveness (p = 0.005/p = 0.002). In patients with IPMN-Mixed, mural nodule (p = 0.038/p = 0.047) and wall thickening (>2 mm, p = 0.015/p = 0.046) were risk factor for malignancy/invasiveness and elevated CA19-9 (p = 0.046) for invasiveness.
The main pancreatic duct diameter (>5 mm) is a significant predictor for malignancy and invasiveness. Therefore, IPMN patients with main pancreatic duct dilatation (>5 mm) should be considered surgical resection. Mural nodule is the indicator of surgery in IPMN-Br and IPMN-Mixed. In case of IPMN-Mixed with wall thickening or elevated serum CA19-9, surgical resection is recommended.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with either an invasion of the inferior vena cava or thrombosis is rare, and its prognosis is extremely poor. There is no established treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical resection and its prognosis in 5 recent cases.
From January 2005 to December 2008, 5 patients diagnosed with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with inferior vena cava invasion and/or thrombosis underwent surgical resection. These patients were retrospectively reviewed.
The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. There were 4 men and 1 woman. According to the Child-Pugh classification, all patients were class A. One case had 2 hepatic masses, and the others had a solitary hepatic mass. The mean tumor size was 5.53cm. All 5 patients underwent partial hepatectomy and inferior vena cava resection or thrombosis removal. Among these, 4 cases needed a cardiopulmonary bypass. Four patients survived and 1 patient expired at the point of analyzing. Four cases experienced recurrences. The mean disease-free survival time was 19.6 months. One patient has been followed-up for 43 months without any recurrences up to now.
Concurrent en-bloc resection of the liver and inferior vena cava for progressive HCC accompanying IVC invasion or thrombosis can be considered as a curative treatment.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the number of examined lymph nodes (NexLN) and survival in gastric cancer and to determine whether the metastatic/examined lymph node ratio (LN ratio) system can compensate for the shortcomings of the UICC/AJCC staging.
Prospective data of 8949 primary T1-T4a gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery were reviewed. The patients were stratified by T-stage and grouped according to NexLN; 1 to 14 exLN denoted the first group and every subsequent 10 LNs thereafter. Numbers of LN and 5-year survival rates were analyzed according to NexLN. "The NR-staging system" was generated using 0.2 and 0.5 as the cut-off values of LN ratio and then compared with UICC/AJCC stages.
The proportion of advanced N-stage increased with NexLN. Survival and the LN ratio were constant regardless of NexLN when combining all N0-N3b patients, however, T2/3 and T4a patients showed an increasing tendency toward survival in N1/2 and N3a as NexLN increased, mainly due to a stage migration effect. The LN ratio system showed better patterns of distribution of the LN stage and survival graph. The power of the differential staging of the LN ratio system was fortified with higher NexLN.
The relationship between NexLN and survival is probably affected by stage migration in a high-volume gastric cancer center. The LN ratio system could be a better option to compensate for this effect, and the value of the prognosis prediction in this system increases with a higher NexLN.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the AJCC/UICC TNM classification, T mesocolon invasion in AGC is classified as T2b or T3 according to the presence or the absence of serosa invasion. However, many authors have considered T mesocolon invasion in AGC as T4. This study was performed to evaluate the appropriate T stage for T mesocolon invasion in AGC.
From 1996 to 2008, 90 patients underwent curative gastrectomy with T mesocolon excision at the authors' institute under the suspicion of T mesocolon invasion based on surgical findings and without pathologic invasion to any other organ. Histopathologic findings were reviewed to determine whether tumors had invaded the T mesocolon. Survival data of AGC patients registered in the SNUH database (N = 9998, from 1986 to 2007) was used as reference data for comparative purposes.
A total of 27 patients (30%) had proven histopathological invasion of the T mesocolon, and a significant difference in survival rates was found between these 27 and the remaining 63 (P = .012). As compared with the SNUH database population, the survival rate of T mesocolon invasion patients differed from those of T2b (P < .001) and T3 (P = .043) patients, but was similar to that of T4 patients (P = .218). Furthermore, for N1 stage patients, the survival rate differed from those of T2b (P = .001) and T3 (P = .046) patients, but was similar to that of T4 patients (P = .744).
The T stage of T mesocolon invasion in AGC should be revised to AJCC/UICC stage T4, because the survival rate of T mesocolon invasion AGC is lower than that of stage T2b or T3.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of laparoscopic partial full-thickness gastrectomy with extensive sentinel node basin (SB) dissection in a porcine model before its application to gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis.
A series of 10 pigs (30-37 kg) were used for a survival study approved by an animal use committee. The imaginary lesions were located in the greater curvature (n = 2), lesser curvature (n = 2), anterior wall (n = 2), posterior wall (n = 2), cardia (n = 1), and angle of the stomach (n = 1). The SBs were assumed to be located around each lesion in question. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy and SB dissection were performed. Upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) studies were performed with gastrograffin 5 days after the operation to detect possible stricture, leakage, and passage problems. The pigs were kept alive for 3 weeks, then killed.
The procedure was completed for all the pigs. Nine gastric wedge resections and one segmental resection of the stomach with several SB dissections were performed. The mean operation time was 102 min (70-150 min). The postoperative mean weight gain was 3.19 kg. There was no perioperative morbidity or mortality. The UGIS studies failed to detect leakage and stricture, but all the pigs exhibited delayed gastric emptying. Necropsies did not detect procedure-related complications.
As shown by a pig model, laparoscopic limited gastrectomy with SB dissection appears to be safe and technically feasible.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for gastric cancer patients with systemic comorbidity.
Two hundred and seventy-six patients who had undergone LADG by a single surgeon were given a physical status classification as defined by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class) and then divided into 2 criteria groups: criteria I group (ASA 1 vs ASA 2,3,4) and criteria II group (ASA 1,2 vs ASA 3,4). The clinicopathologic data of each patient were reviewed retrospectively and grouped by criteria.
The percentage of patients with a comorbid disease was 8.1% (11 cases) in ASA class 1, 71.7% (86 cases) in class 2, 95.0% (19 cases) in class 3, and 100% (1 case) in class 4. No statistical difference was found between criteria I and II in terms of operative and postoperative results, operative time, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, tumor size, total and positive number of dissected lymph nodes, proximal resection margin from lesion, the rate of open conversion, the duration of hospital stay, the time required before resuming a liquid diet, and the rate of complications, except the distal resection margin in criteria II (all P >0.05). There were no cases of mortality in any criteria group.
LADG would be a safe and feasible operation for patients with gastric cancer with systemic comorbidity, without reducing radicality, losing the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, or increasing operative risk.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of proper selection criteria for both donors and recipients, improvement in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, balanced immunosuppression, and early identification and treatment of postoperative complications. Most of all, refinements of the technique has directly related to good outcome. Therefore rapid establishment of surgical knowhow is mandatory. In pediatric liver transplantation, the utilization of split-liver grafts and grafts for living donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients and has had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. This has been one of the brilliant outcomes of surgical evolution. In addition, new surgical technique of minimal invasive live donor surgery has been recently widening the living donor liver transplantation for children. Although the recent outcome has been rapidly improved and the volume of living donor liver transplantation has been larger and larger in Korea, pediatric liver transplantation has been performed in a very limited large volume centers. Therefore, this review focuses on surgical technique in order to share the experiences and to improve the outcome of pediatric liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The seventh TNM staging system for gastric cancer of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) had a more detailed classification than the sixth TNM staging system for both the tumor (T) and lymph nodes (N). The authors compared survival rates assessed by the seventh staging system with those by the sixth system.
The authors analyzed the prospectively collected database on patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between 1986 and 2006, and calculated the survival rates of 9998 cases with primary cancer, R0 resection, and >14 retrieved lymph nodes.
The 5-year cumulative survival rates (5YSR) according to the seventh edition T or N classifications were significantly different. The 5YSR according to seventh edition of the TNM staging system were 95.1% (stage IA), 88.4% (stage IB), 84.0% (stage IIA), 71.7% (stage IIB), 58.4% (stage IIIA), 41.3% (stage IIIB), and 26.1% (stage IIIC), which were significantly different from each other. The 5YSR of the seventh edition T2 and T3 classifications had significant differences in patients with every N classification, and the 5YSR of seventh edition N1 and N2 classifications had significant differences in T2 patients, T3 patients, and T4 patients. Each stage in the sixth edition was divided into the seventh edition stage with different survival rates. In addition, the number of homogenous groupings in seventh edition TNM stages was increased from 1 to 2.
The seventh system provided a more detailed classification of prognosis than the sixth system, especially between T2 and T3 tumors and N1 and N2 tumors, although further studies were found to be needed for the N3a and N3b classification. Cancer 2010.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine proportions of upper third gastric cancer (UTG) among all gastric cancers and analyze clinicopathological features of the disease.
The medical records of 12,300 patients who underwent gastric surgery between 1986 and 2006 at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological features of 1,260 patients with UTG and 9,929 patients with middle or lower third gastric cancer (MLG) were compared, and annual proportions of UTG were evaluated.
The proportion of patients with UTG rapidly increased from 2.6% in 1986 to 12.5% in 1992. However, linear regression analysis showed that the rate of increase was reduced (0.21%/year) after 1992 (12.5% to 14.2% from 1992 to 2006). Compared with the MLG group, the UTG group had a lower proportion of (22.3% vs. 39.7%, P<0.001) and a greater proportion of stage III/IV disease (39.4% vs. 31.7%, P<0.001). The UTG group also had larger tumors than the MLG group in stages I/II and III (3.5 cm/5.3 cm/6.5 cm vs. 3.2 cm/5.0 cm/5.8 cm, P=0.020/0.028 /<0.001), a higher proportion of undifferentiated cancer (63.1% vs. 53.7%, P<0.001), and less intestinal Lauren's type (38.8% vs. 47.4%, P<0.001). The 5-year survival rate of the UTG group was significantly lower than that of the MLG group in stages I/II and III (85.6%/63.1%/34.2% vs. 91.6%/ 69.2%/44.7%, P<0.001/0.028/0.006).
The proportion of UTGs has increased over the last two decades at SNUH, but the rate of increase has been greatly reduced since 1992. The UTG group showed a poorer prognosis compared with the MLG group in stages I/II and III.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Gastric Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Mutated p53 is a tumor suppressor gene, hMLH1 is a mismatch repair gene, and hypermethylation of hMLH1 follows microsatellite instability (MSI). This research's aim is to investigate mutated p53, inactivated hMLH1 and MSI in gastric cancer and their clinicopathologic implications. Methods: Between 2003 and 2007, 618 patients underwent curative radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in Korea. We reviewed their medical charts and the pathologic reports with immunohistochemistry for p53, hMLH1 and polymerase chain reaction for MSI in 509, 499, and 561 cases, respectively. These genetic markers were statistically compared with clinicopathologic features and postoperative survival. Results: The expression ratios of mutated p53, inactivated hMLH1, and MSI were 32.8%, 8.4%, and 8.7%, respectively. Mutation of p53 occurred more frequently in aged group (over 40), differentiated group (against the non-differentiated group), intestinal type, infiltrative type and positive lymph node metastasis group. Inactivated hMLH1 occurred more frequently in aged group, differentiated group, intestinal type and expanding growth type group. MSI was found more frequently in aged group, intestinal type and expanding growth type group. All three genetic markers had no significant associations with the 5-year survival. Conclusion: We identified significant relationships between mutated p53, inactivated hMLH1, and MSI with some clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer. However, there were no apparent relationships between p53, hMLH1, and MSI and prognosis. (J Korean Surg Soc 2010;79:94-102)
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of the Korean Surgical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximal gastrectomy is a surgical option for proximally located early gastric cancer. We present a new double-stapling method for proximal gastrectomy and esophagogastrostomy.
We examined the safety of proximal gastrectomy by analyzing the lymph node metastasis rate in 53 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to proximally located early gastric cancer from January 2004 to December 2008. We applied the double-stapling method used in distal gastrectomy reversely to proximal gastrectomy and esophagogastrostomy in 15 patients.
Retrospective analysis showed that proximal early gastric cancer metastasizes to only lymph node station 2, 3 and 7 which were completely removed during proximal gastrectomy. Fifteen patients underwent proximal gastrectomy using a new method which left no gastrostomy wound for the insertion of a circular stapler in the remaining stomach. The median operation time was 156.5 min and median postoperative hospital stay was 8.0 days. There were only 2 cases of wound complications during hospital stay. Two cases of anastomosis site strictures which developed after discharge were successfully treated with balloon dilatation.
We presented a new 'reverse double-stapling method' for proximal gastrectomy, which seems to be a fast and feasible method that leaves no gastrostomy wound in the remaining stomach.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Digestive surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The embryologic and anatomic peculiarity of the uncinate process may result in distinct clinical features, but few studies have addressed the uncinate process cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and identify the prognostic factors that affect the survival and recurrence of pancreatic head cancer by tumor location.
Between January 2002 and December 2008, 453 patients (161 with uncinate and 292 with non-uncinate process cancer) were treated for pancreatic head cancer. Clinicopathologic variables were analyzed by tumor location.
Invasion into the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occurred more frequently (p < 0.001), and overall resectability (p = 0.003), curative resection (p < 0.001), and R0 resection rates (22.3% vs 35.6%; p = 0.003) were lower for uncinate process cancer. Furthermore, overall survival after R0 resection was lower for uncinate process cancer (median 21 vs 26 months; p = 0.018), and this was accompanied by more frequent (p = 0.038) and earlier (median 13 vs 52 months; p < 0.001) locoregional recurrence. Concurrent chemoradiation increased overall (median, 26 vs 13 months; p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (median, 15 vs 6 months; p < 0.001) of uncinate and non-uncinate process cancer, respectively, after curative-intended resection.
In uncinate process cancer, frequent invasion into the SMA led to lower resectability. Furthermore, lower survival after R0 resection was accompanied with frequent and early locoregional recurrence. Strategies to improve surgical and perioperative locoregional control are required for uncinate process cancer.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hematolymphoid malignancies of the extrahepatic biliary tract are rare tumors. We report five cases of primary hematolymphoid malignancies involving the extrahepatic biliary tract. One is a granulocytic sarcoma of the extrahepatic bile duct, another is an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the gallbladder, and the others are two non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the extrahepatic bile duct and one of the gallbladder. The clinical presentations, radiographic studies, and gross findings at surgery have not been a significant help in differential diagnosis. Although a preoperative diagnosis of primary hematolymphoid malignancy is very difficult to reach because of the rarity of this disease, it should be considered, because, if an accurate diagnosis is made before surgical intervention, chemotherapy is the most appropriate treatment. In limited cases mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, surgical resection followed by chemotherapy has a valid role as reasonable treatment for patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although liver transplantation (LT) is the only effective treatment option for hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), the post-LT morbidity and mortality have been high for patients with severe HPS. We performed post-LT embolotherapy in a 10-year-old boy who had severe type I HPS preoperatively, but he failed to recover early from his hypoxemic symptoms after an LT. Multiple embolizations were then successfully performed on the major branches that formed the abnormal vascular structures. After the embolotherapy, the patient had symptomatic improvement and he was discharged without complications.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society