[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard.
Methods and findings:
The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France). GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis) then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants' ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR). Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio) and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR). In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p < 0.001, t-test). At GFR values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2, the mean ratios with the Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p < 0.001, t-test). In young adults (18-40 y), the Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0]) and also at GFR values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients aged ≥65 y, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Schwartz equation (IQR: 0.33 [95% CI 0.31; 0.34] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.38; 0.41]; P30: 77.6 [95% CI 75.7; 79.5] versus 67.5 [95% CI 65.4; 69.7], respectively). In children and adolescents (2-17 y), the Schwartz equation was superior to the CKD-EPI equation (IQR: 0.23 [95% CI 0.21; 0.24] versus 0.33 [95% CI 0.31; 0.34]; P30: 88.6 [95% CI 86.7; 90.4] versus 29.4 [95% CI 26.8; 32.0]). This study is limited by its retrospective design, single-center setting with few non-white patients, and small number of patients with severe chronic kidney disease.
The results from this study suggest that the Schwartz equation may be more reliable than the CKD-EPI equation for estimating GFR in children and adolescents and in adults with mild to moderate kidney impairment up to age 40 y.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is accepted as the best indicator of kidney function and is commonly estimated from serum creatinine (SCr)–based equations. Separate equations have been developed for children (Schwartz equation), younger and middle-age adults [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation] and older adults [Berlin Initiative Study 1 (BIS1) equation], and these equations lack continuity with ageing. We developed and validated an equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate that can be used across the full age spectrum (FAS).
The new FAS equation is based on normalized serum creatinine (SCr/Q), where Q is the median SCr from healthy populations to account for age and sex. Coefficients for the equation are mathematically obtained by requiring continuity during the paediatric–adult and adult–elderly transition. Research studies containing a total of 6870 healthy and kidney-diseased white individuals, including 735 children
Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase.
We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography.
We studied 400 patients prospectively.
The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36], p < 0.01, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.14-6.03%], p < 0.05, respectively).
We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Determination of plasma creatinine (Pcr) should be associated to an estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Pottel et al. established a height-independent equation, eGFR = 107.3/(Pcr/Q) where Q is the median of Pcr (Pottel–Belgium). The aims were to 1) determine a local height-independent equation (Pottel–Lyon), 2) evaluate the performance of these equations compared to the Schwartz 2009 and Schwartz–Lyon equations, and 3) evaluate the height-independent equations in laboratory routine. Therefore, 1) all first pediatric Pcr determination (December 2009–June 2011) were collected, and median of Pcr was determined for each 1-year age interval (Q-Lyon), 2) GFR was measured (mGFR) in 359 children (438 measures) and compared to eGFR, and 3) all first Pcr determination (January 2012–June 2013) were used to calculate eGFR with the Pottel–Lyon and the Pottel–Belgium equations. Pcr was determined by an IDMS-standardized enzymatic assay. In the population with a mGFR, the Pottel–Lyon and the Schwartz–Lyon showed the best performance (bias, P10 and P30). However, the performance in identifying patients with a mGFR < 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 was similar for all the studied equations. Conclusion: The performance of the height-independent and dependent equations to identify mild renal dysfunction is similar. The height-independent Pottel equation could be proposed as an excellent screening tool for kidney disease when height information is not available.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · European Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives
Klotho is an “aging-suppressor” gene and encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in renal tubules. Whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects serum Klotho is poorly documented. We aimed to measure the relationship of serum α-Klotho with renal function, acid–base status, bone biomarkers, and proteinuria in CKD patients.
Design Setting, Participants, and Measurements
We measured serum α-Klotho, serum FGF23, and glomerular filtration rate by inulin clearance in 60 CKD patients between January and July 2011. We also measured serum creatinine, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein, and 25-OH vitamin D. Proteinuria was obtained from a 24-h urine collection.
The median serum α-Klotho was 478 (348-658) pg/mL. We found an inverse relationship between serum α-Klotho and serum creatinine (r = −0.36, P = .007), proteinuria (r = −0.36, P = .013), and a positive relationship with serum bicarbonate (r = 0.33, P = .011). There was no further significant relation between serum α-Klotho and inulin clearance or serum FGF23. Multiple regression analysis including serum bicarbonate, serum creatinine, and proteinuria indicated that only serum bicarbonate was associated with serum α-Klotho (P = .003).
This study shows that in CKD, serum α-Klotho is related to serum bicarbonate and proteinuria and not to renal function. Further research is required to determine whether correcting these 2 amenable conditions would improve serum α-Klotho.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Renal Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Patients with Gitelman syndrome (GS), an inherited salt-losing tubulopathy, are usually treated with potassium-sparing diuretics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral potassium and magnesium supplementations. However, evidence supporting these treatment options is limited to case series studies. We designed an open-label, randomized, crossover study with blind end point evaluation to compare the efficacy and safety of 6-week treatments with one time daily 75 mg slow-release indomethacin, 150 mg eplerenone, or 20 mg amiloride added to constant potassium and magnesium supplementation in 30 patients with GS (individual participation: 48 weeks). Baseline plasma potassium concentration was 2.8±0.4 mmol/L and increased by 0.38 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.23 to 0.53; P<0.001) with indomethacin, 0.15 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.29; P=0.03) with eplerenone, and 0.19 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.33; P<0.01) with amiloride. Fifteen patients became normokalemic: six with indomethacin, three with eplerenone, and six with amiloride. Indomethacin significantly reduced eGFR and plasma renin concentration. Eplerenone and amiloride each increased plasma aldosterone by 3-fold and renin concentration slightly but did not significantly change eGFR. BP did not significantly change. Eight patients discontinued treatment early because of gastrointestinal intolerance to indomethacin (six patients) and hypotension with eplerenone (two patients). In conclusion, each drug increases plasma potassium concentration in patients with GS. Indomethacin was the most effective but can cause gastrointestinal intolerance and decreased eGFR. Amiloride and eplerenone have similar but lower efficacies and increase sodium depletion. The benefit/risk ratio of each drug should be carefully evaluated for each patient.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology