David D Ho

The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (250)3354.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive bacillus and is the leading cause of toxin-mediated nosocomial diarrhea following antibiotic use. C. difficile flagella play a role in colonization, adherence, biofilm formation, and toxin production, which might contribute to the overall virulence of certain strains. Human and animal studies indicate that anti-flagella immune responses may play a role in protection against colonization by C. difficile and subsequent disease outcome. Here we report that recombinant C. difficile flagellin (FliC) is immunogenic and protective in a murine model of C. difficile infection (CDI) against a clinical C. difficile strain, UK1. Passive protection experiments using anti-FliC polyclonal serum in mice suggest this protection to be antibody-mediated. FliC immunization also was able to afford partial protection against CDI and death in hamsters following challenge with C. difficile 630Δerm. Additionally, immunization against FliC does not have an adverse effect on the normal gut flora of vaccinated hamsters as evidenced by comparing the fecal microbiome of vaccinated and control hamsters. Therefore, the use of FliC as a vaccine candidate against CDI warrants further testing.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Emerging Microbes and Infections
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive organism that is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea, commonly known as C. difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile spores play an important role in the pathogenesis of CDI. Spore proteins, especially those that are surface-bound may play an essential role in the germination, colonization and persistence of C. difficile in the human gut. In our current study, we report the identification of two surface-bound spore proteins, CdeC and CdeM that may be utilized as immunization candidates against C. difficile. These spore proteins are immunogenic in mice and are able to protect mice against challenge with C. difficile UK1, a clinically-relevant 027/B1/NAP1 strain. These spore proteins are also able to afford high levels of protection against challenge with C. difficile 630Δerm in golden Syrian hamsters. This unprecedented study shows the vaccination potential of C. difficile spore exosporium proteins.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Anaerobe
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Highly potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNabs) have been obtained from individuals infected by HIV-1 group M variants. We analyzed the cross-group neutralization potency of these bNabs towards non-M primary isolates (PI). Material & methods: The sensitivity to neutralization was analyzed in a neutralization assay using TZM-bl cells. Twenty three bNabs were used, including reagents targeting the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), the N160 glycan-V1V2 site, the N332 glycan-V3 site, the membrane proximal external region of gp41, and complex epitopes spanning both Env subunits. Two bispecific antibodies that combine the inhibitory activity of an anti-CD4 with that of PG9 or PG16 (BibNabs) were included in the study (PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab). Results: Cross-group neutralization was observed only with the bNabs targeting the N160 glycan-V1V2 site. Four group O PIs, one group N PI and the group P PI were neutralized by PG9 and/or PG16 or PGT145 at low concentrations (0.04-9.39 µg/mL). None of the non-M PIs was neutralized by the bNabs targeting other regions at the highest concentration tested, except 10E8 that neutralized weakly two group N PIs and 35O22 that neutralized one group O PI. The BibNabs neutralized very efficiently all the non-M PIs with IC50 below 1 µg/mL, except two group O strains. Conclusion: The N160 glycan-V1V2 site is the most conserved neutralizing site within the four groups of HIV-1. This makes it an interesting target for the development of HIV vaccine immunogens. The corresponding bNabs may be useful for immunotherapeutic strategies in patients infected by non-M variants.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant NK T cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the current study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered i.m. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. Although both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected i.v., after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. coadministration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8(+) T cell response induced by IrPySpz and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the colocalization of a CD1d-binding invariant NK T cell-stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like radiation-attenuated sporozoites, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoint administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n=11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n=1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n_10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n=5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n=5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n=3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n=6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized>90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4_ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Long-acting GSK1265744 (GSK744 LA) is a strand transfer inhibitor of the HIV/SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) integrase and was shown to be an effective preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent in a low-dose intrarectal SHIV (simian-human immunodeficiency virus) rhesus macaque challenge model. We examined the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GSK744 LA as PrEP against repeat high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge in female rhesus macaques treated with Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), which promotes viral transmission vaginally. When Depo-Provera-treated female rhesus macaques were dosed with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) monthly, systemic and tissue drug concentrations were lower than previously observed in male rhesus macaques. GSK744 concentrations were fivefold lower on average in cervical tissues than in rectal tissues. Eight female rhesus macaques were treated with GSK744 LA at week 0, and four female rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals received a high-dose challenge of SHIV162P3 at week 1. No infection was detected in GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques, whereas viremia was detected 1 to 2 weeks after SHIV challenge in all control animals. The GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were given a second administration of drug at week 4 and further challenged at weeks 5 and 7. GSK744 LA treatment protected six of eight female rhesus macaques against three high-dose SHIV challenges, whereas all control animals became infected after the first challenge (P = 0.0003, log-rank test). These results support further clinical development of GSK744 LA for PrEP. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Science translational medicine
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (rBCG) has been explored as a vector for vaccines against HIV because of its ability to induce long lasting humoral and cell mediated immune responses. To maximize the potential for rBCG vaccines to induce effective immunity against HIV, various strategies are being employed to improve its ability to prime CD8 + T cells, which play an important role in the control of HIV infections. In this study we adopted a previously described approach of incorporating glycolipids that activate CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells to enhance priming of CD8 + T cells by rBCG strains expressing an SIV Gag antigen (rBCG-SIV gag). We found that the incorporation of the synthetic NKT activating glycolipid a-galactosylceramide (a-GC) into rBCG-SIV gag significantly enhanced CD8 + T cell responses against an immunodominant Gag epitope, compared to responses primed by unmodified rBCG-SIV gag. The abilities of structural analogues of a-GC to enhance CD8 + T cell responses to rBCG were compared in both wild type and partially humanized mice that express human CD1d molecules in place of mouse CD1d. These studies identified an a-GC analogue known as 7DW8-5, which has previously been used successfully as an adjuvant in non-human primates, as a promising compound for enhancing immunogenicity of antigens delivered by rBCG.vectors. Our findings support the incorporation of synthetic glycolipid activators of NKT cells as a novel approach to enhance the immunogenicity of rBCG-vectored antigens for induction of CD8 + T cell responses. The glycolipid adjuvant 7DW8-5 may be a promising candidate for advancing to non-human primate and human clinical studies for the development of HIV vaccines based on rBCG vectors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes. In contrast, the sensitivity to bNAbs targeting the gp41 membrane-proximal external region remained stable, suggesting a selective pressure on gp120 preferentially. Despite this evolution, selected combinations of bNAbs remain capable of neutralizing efficiently most of the circulating variants.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) have always been considered to be a potential therapeutic option for the prophylaxis and treatment of HIV infection, their lack of breadth against all HIV variants has been one of the limiting factors. To provide sufficient neutralization breadth and potency against diverse viruses, including neutralization escape mutants, strategies to combine different bNAbs have been explored recently. Methods: We rationally designed and engineered a novel bispecific HIV-1-neutralizing antibody (bibNAb), iMabm36. The potency and breadth of iMabm36 against HIV were extensively characterized in vitro. Results: iMabm36 comprises the anti-CD4 Ab ibalizumab (iMab) linked to 2 copies of the single-domain Ab m36, which targets a highly conserved CD4-induced epitope. iMabm36 neutralizes a majority of a large, multiclade panel of pseudoviruses (96%, n = 118) at an IC50 concentration of less than 10 µg/mL, with 83% neutralized at an IC50 concentration of less than 0.1 µg/mL. In addition, iMabm36 neutralizes a small panel of replication-competent transmitted-founder viruses to 100% inhibition at a concentration of less than 0.1 µg/mL in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based neutralizing assay. Mechanistically, the improved antiviral activity of iMabm36 is dependent on both the CD4-binding activity of the iMab component and the CD4i-binding activity of the m36 component. After characterizing that viral resistance to iMabm36 neutralization was due to mutations residing in the bridging sheet of gp120, an optimized m36 variant was engineered that, when fused to iMab, improved antiviral activity significantly. Conclusions: The interdependency of this dual mechanism of action enables iMabm36 to potently inhibit HIV-1 entry. These results demonstrate that mechanistic-based design of bibNAbs can generate potential preventive and therapeutic candidates for HIV/AIDS.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: GSK1265744 (GSK744) is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that has been formulated as a long-acting (LA) injectable suitable for monthly to quarterly clinical administration. GSK744 LA was administered at two time points 4 weeks apart beginning 1 week before virus administration, and macaques were challenged weekly for 8 weeks. GSK744 LA, at plasma concentrations achievable with quarterly injections in humans, protected all animals against repeated low-dose challenges. In a second experiment, macaques were given GSK744 LA 1 week before virus administration and challenged repeatedly until infection occurred. Protection decreased over time and correlated with the plasma drug levels. With a quarterly dosing schedule in humans, our results suggest that GSK744 LA could potentially decrease adherence problems associated with daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: To combat the possibility of a zoonotic H5N1 pandemic in a timely fashion, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that would confer protection against homologous and heterologous human H5N1 influenza viruses. Using a replicating modified vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (MVTT) as a vaccine vector, we constructed MVTTHA-QH and MVTTHA-AH, which expresses the H5 gene of a goose-derived Qinghai strain A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 or human-derived Anhui Strain A/Anhui/1/2005. The immunogenicity profiles of both vaccine candidates were evaluated. Vaccination with MVTTHA-QH induced a significant level of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) against a homologous strain and a wide range of H5N1 pseudoviruses (clades 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3.2, and 2.3.4). Neutralization tests (NT) and Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies inhibit the live autologous virus as well as a homologous A/Xingjiang/1/2006 and a heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/2004, representing two human isolates from clade 2.2 and clade 1, respectively. Importantly, mice vaccinated with intranasal MVTTHA-QH were completely protected from challenge with lethal dosages of A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 and the A/Viet Nam/1194/2004, respectively, but not control mice that received a mock MVTTS vaccine. However, MVTTHA-AH induced much lower levels of NT against its autologous strain. Our results suggest that it is feasible to use the H5 gene from A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1/2005 to construct an effective vaccine, when using MVTT as a vector, to prevent infections against homologous and genetically divergent human H5N1 influenza viruses.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: A key strategy to a successful vaccine against malaria is to identify and develop new adjuvants that can enhance T-cell responses and improve protective immunity. Upon co-administration with a rodent malaria vaccine in mice, 7DW8-5, a recently identified novel analog of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), enhances the level of malaria-specific protective immune responses more strongly than the parent compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether 7DW8-5 could provide a similar potent adjuvant effect on a candidate human malaria vaccine in the more relevant non-human primate (NHP) model, prior to committing to clinical development. The candidate human malaria vaccine, AdPfCA (NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA), consists of two non-replicating recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vectors, one expressing the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and another expressing the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) of Plasmodium falciparum. In several phase 1 clinical trials, AdPfCA was well tolerated and demonstrated immunogenicity for both humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the study described herein, 25 rhesus macaques received prime and boost intramuscular (IM) immunizations of AdPfCA alone or with an ascending dose of 7DW8-5. Our results indicate that 7DW8-5 is safe and well-tolerated and provides a significant enhancement (up to 9-fold) in malaria-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after both priming and boosting phases, supporting further clinical development.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4-a key receptor for HIV-and blocks HIV-1 infection. However, HIV-1 strains with mutations resulting in loss of an N-linked glycan from the V5 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 are resistant to ibalizumab. Previous structural analysis suggests that this glycan fills a void between the gp120 V5 loop and the ibalizumab light chain, perhaps causing steric hindrance that disrupts viral entry. If this void contributes to HIV-1 resistance to ibalizumab, we reasoned that 'refilling' it by engineering an N-linked glycan into the ibalizumab light chain at a position spatially proximal to gp120 V5 may restore susceptibility to ibalizumab. Indeed, one such ibalizumab variant neutralized 100% of 118 diverse HIV-1 strains tested in vitro, including 10 strains resistant to parental ibalizumab. These findings demonstrate that the strategic placement of a glycan in the variable region of a monoclonal antibody can substantially enhance its activity.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Nature Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab's potent anti-HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacillus that produces toxin-mediated enteric disease. C. difficile expresses two major virulence factors, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Human and animal studies demonstrate a clear association between humoral immunity to these toxins and protection against C. difficile infection (CDI). The receptor binding-domains (RBDs) of TcdA and TcdB are known to be immunogenic. Here, we tested the immunoadjuvant properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC) subunit D1 as an innate immune agonist expressed as a recombinant fusion vaccine targeting the RBDs of TcdA and TcdB in mice. Intraperitoneally immunized mice developed prominent anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB immunoglobulin G in serum. The protective efficacy of the recombinant vaccines, with or without an adjuvant, was tested in a mouse model of CDI that closely represents the human disease. Following intraperitoneal immunization equivalent to two doses of toxoid A and toxoid B vaccine adjuvanted with alum and oral challenge with C. difficile VPI 10463, C57BL/6 mice were able to mount a protective immune response that prevented diarrhea and death compared to mice immunzed with alum alone. These results are significantly different from those for control mice (P < 0.001). These results provide evidence that a recombinant protein-based vaccine targeting the RBDs of the C. difficile toxins adjuvanted with S. Typhimurium flagellin can induce rapid, high-level protection in a mouse model of CDI when challenged with the homologous strain from which the vaccine antigens were derived and warrant further preclinical testing against clinically relevant C. difficile strains in the mouse and hamster models of CDI.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Passive immunization for the prevention of HIV-1 infection is currently being reenergized. The anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody ibalizumab has demonstrated safety and efficacy in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials for treatment of HIV-1 infection and is undergoing a phase 1 clinical trial in HIV-1 uninfected individuals for prevention. Here, we sought to assess ibalizumab antiviral breadth and potency and to identify determinants of natural preexisting resistance. Methods: Ibalizumab breadth and potency was assessed against a large clinically relevant panel of HIV-1 pseudoviruses (n = 116) commonly used to assess vaccine candidates. Determinants of resistance were assessed by sequence analysis. Results: Ibalizumab neutralized 92% and 66% of viruses as defined by 50% and 80% inhibition, respectively. Median in vitro neutralization potency by IC50 was 0.03 μg/mL, substantially lower than the broadly neutralizing mAbs, PG9, or VRC01. The dominant determinant of resistance was the absence of a potential N-linked glycosylation site (PNGS) at the V5 N-terminus (P < 0.001), with the V2 loop length possibly influencing the degree of resistance afforded by the absence of the V5 N-terminal PNGS (P = 0.001). Other significant independent correlates of resistance included PNGS at position 386 and the side chain length of residue 375. Ibalizumab exhibited complementary resistance to VRC01 (P = 0.006) and sCD4 (P < 0.001), in part mediated by the V5 PNGS. Conclusions: Ibalizumab breadth and potency compared favorably with broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies, supporting the clinical development of ibalizumab, alone or in combination, for HIV-1 prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, more clinical trials are being conducted in Africa and Asia, therefore, background morbidity in the respective populations is of interest. Between 2000 and 2007, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative sponsored 19 Phase 1 or 2A preventive HIV vaccine trials in the US, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and India, enrolling 900 healthy HIV-1 uninfected volunteers. To assess background morbidity as reflected by unsolicited adverse events (AEs), unrelated to study vaccine, reported in clinical trials from four continents. All but three clinical trials were double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Study procedures and data collection methods were standardized. The frequency and severity of AEs reported during the first year of the trials were analyzed. To avoid confounding by vaccine-related events, solicited reactogenicity and other AEs occurring within 28 d after any vaccination were excluded. In total, 2134 AEs were reported by 76% of all participants; 73% of all events were mild. The rate of AEs did not differ between placebo and vaccine recipients. Overall, the percentage of participants with any AE was higher in Africa (83%) compared with Europe (71%), US (74%) and India (65%), while the percentage of participants with AEs of moderate or greater severity was similar in all regions except India. In all regions, the most frequently reported AEs were infectious diseases, followed by gastrointestinal disorders. Despite some regional differences, in these healthy participants selected for low risk of HIV infection, background morbidity posed no obstacle to clinical trial conduct and interpretation. Data from controlled clinical trials of preventive interventions can offer valuable insights into the health of the eligible population.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Using murine IgG subclass molecules (IgG1 or IgG2a) synthetically fused to HIV-1 or influenza test antigens, we explored the potential for IgG Fc scaffolds to augment immunogenicity. Each antigen (Ag) was grafted onto a hinge-Fc scaffold containing all critical residues necessary for interaction with effector cells, thus retaining effector functions of the native IgG subclass. We hypothesized that the differential affinity of FcγRs for specific IgG subclasses would influence the magnitude of immune responses elicited by immunization with an Ag-IgG Fc fusion vaccine. We demonstrate here that the antigen-specific humoral response elicited by Ag-IgG2a fusion vaccines is at least tenfold greater than that elicited by native antigen, that this response is superior to that elicited by Ag-IgG1, and that the augmented antigen-specific humoral response elicited is Fcγ receptor-dependent.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies can prevent infection, which suggests that vaccines that elicit such antibodies would be protective. Thus far, however, few broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies that occur naturally have been characterized. To determine whether these antibodies are part of a larger group of related molecules, we cloned 576 new HIV antibodies from four unrelated individuals. All four individuals produced expanded clones of potent broadly neutralizing CD4-binding-site antibodies that mimic binding to CD4. Despite extensive hypermutation, the new antibodies shared a consensus sequence of 68 immunoglobulin H (IgH) chain amino acids and arise independently from two related IgH genes. Comparison of the crystal structure of one of the antibodies to the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 revealed conservation of the contacts to the HIV spike.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Science

Publication Stats

31k Citations
3,354.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2015
    • The Rockefeller University
      • Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC)
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ашбърн, Virginia, United States
  • 1991-2011
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • Wuhan Institute Of Virology
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2003
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Abbott Laboratories
      • Abbott Laboratories
      North Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1998
    • New York State
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1986-1990
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Cell Biology
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1985-1988
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • Southwest Foundation For Biomedical Research
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1984-1987
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States