Harald Höger

Graz University of Technology, Gratz, Styria, Austria

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Publications (179)658.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: γ-Amminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, mediating its actions chiefly via a pentameric chloride ion channel, the GABAA receptor. Nineteen different subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, π, θ, ρ1-3) can give rise to multiple receptor subtypes that are the site of action of many clinically important drugs. In the developing brain, however, GABAA receptors mediate excitatory actions due to an increased chloride concentration within neurons and seem to control cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, synapse maturation and cell death. Little is known about the distribution of single subunits in the human brain. Here we describe developmental changes in the immunohistochemical distribution of four subunits (α1, α2, α3, and γ2) in the human rhombencephalon. The γ2 was the most abundant subunit in all rhombencephalic stuctures during development and in adults, whereas α subunits showed a structure- and age-characteristic distribution. The α1 was expressed already prenatally in the molecular and Purkinje cell layer, but only postnatally in the granule cell layer and the dentate nucleus. Expression was completely absent in the inferior olivary nucleus. The α2 gradually increased during development, showing some layer specificity in the cerebellar cortex. The α3-immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex was relatively weak, but it was abundantly observed in different cell populations in the subcortical cerebellar structures. Structure- and age-characteristic co-localization between subunits during development suggests differences in GABAA receptor composition. Interestingly, subunit expression in several instances differed between human and rodent brain, underlining the importance of immunohistochemical studies in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of Comparative Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: GABABreceptorsareheterodimericG-proteincoupledreceptorsknowntobeinvolvedinlearningandmemory.AlthougharoleforGABABreceptorsincognitiveprocessesisevident,thereisnoinformationonhippocampalGABABreceptorcomplexesinamultipleTmaze(MTM)task,arobustparadigmforevaluationofspatiallearning.Trainedoruntrained(yokedcontrol)C57BL/6Jmalemice(n=10/group)weresubjectedtotheMTMtaskandsacrificed6hfollowingtheirperformance.Hippocampiweretaken,membraneproteinsextractedandrunonbluenativePAGEfollowedbyimmunoblottingwithspecificantibodiesagainstGABAB1,GABAB1a,andGABAB2.Immunoprecipitationwithsubsequentmassspectrometricidentificationofco-precipitateswascarriedouttoshowifGABAB1andGABAB2aswellasotherinteractingproteinsco-precipitate.Anantibodyshiftassay(ASA)andaproximityligationassay(PLA)werealsousedtoseeifthetwoGABABsubunitsarepresentinthereceptorcomplex.SinglebandswereobservedonWesternblots,eachrepresentingGABAB1,GABAB1a,orGABAB2atanapparentmolecularweightofapproximately100kDa.Subsequently,densitometricanalysisrevealedthatlevelsofGABAB1andGABAB1abutnotGABAB2-containingreceptorcomplexesweresignificantlyhigherintrainedthanuntrainedgroups.ImmunoprecipitationfollowedbymassspectrometricstudiesconfirmedthepresenceofGABAB1,GABAB2,calciumcalmodulinkinasesIandII,GluA1andGluA2asconstituentsofthecomplex.ASAandPLAalsoshowedthepresenceofthetwosubunitsofGABABreceptorwithinthecomplex.ItisshownthatincreasedlevelsofGABAB1subunit-containingcomplexesareparallelingperformanceinalandmaze. Keywords:spatiallearning,mice,multipleT-maze,GABABreceptor,receptorcomplex
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: GABAB receptors are heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors known to be involved in learning and memory. Although a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive processes is evident, there is no information on hippocampal GABAB receptor complexes in a multiple T maze (MTM) task, a robust paradigm for evaluation of spatial learning. Trained or untrained (yoked control) C57BL/6J male mice (n = 10/group) were subjected to the MTM task and sacrificed 6 h following their performance. Hippocampi were taken, membrane proteins extracted and run on blue native PAGE followed by immunoblotting with specific antibodies against GABAB1, GABAB1a, and GABAB2. Immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometric identification of co-precipitates was carried out to show if GABAB1 and GABAB2 as well as other interacting proteins co-precipitate. An antibody shift assay (ASA) and a proximity ligation assay (PLA) were also used to see if the two GABAB subunits are present in the receptor complex. Single bands were observed on Western blots, each representing GABAB1, GABAB1a, or GABAB2 at an apparent molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa. Subsequently, densitometric analysis revealed that levels of GABAB1 and GABAB1a but not GABAB2-containing receptor complexes were significantly higher in trained than untrained groups. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric studies confirmed the presence of GABAB1, GABAB2, calcium calmodulin kinases I and II, GluA1 and GluA2 as constituents of the complex. ASA and PLA also showed the presence of the two subunits of GABAB receptor within the complex. It is shown that increased levels of GABAB1 subunit-containing complexes are paralleling performance in a land maze.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM), a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent. Methods: 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program. Results: Working memory errors (WME) and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites. Conclusion: The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: A series of compounds have been reported to enhance memory via the DA system and herein a heterocyclic compound was tested for working memory (WM) enhancement. 2-(diphenylmethanesulfinylmethyl)-1,3-thiazole (CE-103) was synthesized in a six-step synthesis. Binding of CE-103 to the dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters and dopamine reuptake inhibition was tested as well as blood brain permeation and a screen for GPCR targets. 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: CE-103 treated 1-10 mg/kg body weight, trained (TDI) and yoked (YDI) and vehicle treated, trained (TVI) and yoked (YVI) rats. Daily single intraperitoneal injections for a period of 10 days were administered and rats were tested in a radial arm maze (RAM). Hippocampi were taken six hours following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits were determined. CE-103 was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 =14.73 μM). From day eight the compound was decreasing WM errors in the RAM significantly at both doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. In the trained CE-103-treated group levels of the complex containing the phosphorylated dopamine transporter (pDAT) as well as D1R were decreased while levels of complexes containing D2R and D3R were significantly increased. CE-103 was shown to enhance spatial WM and DA reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3 receptors is proposed as a possible mechanism of action.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: A series of drugs have been reported to increase memory performance modulating the dopaminergic system and herein modafinil was tested for its working memory (WM) enhancing properties. Reuptake inhibition of dopamine, serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) by modafinil was tested. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (modafinil-treated 1-5-10 mg/kg body weight, trained and untrained and vehicle treated trained and untrained rats; daily injected intraperitoneally for a period of 10 days) and tested in a radial arm maze (RAM), a paradigm for testing spatial WM. Hippocampi were taken 6 h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT-CC and pDAT-CC) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits (D1-D3-CC) were determined. Modafinil was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 = 11.11 μM; SERT 1547 μM; NET 182 μM). From day 8 (day 9 for 1 mg/kg body weight) modafinil was decreasing WM errors (WMEs) in the RAM significantly and remarkably at all doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. WMEs were linked to the D2R-CC and the pDAT-CC. pDAT and D1-D3-CC levels were modulated significantly and modafinil was shown to enhance spatial WM in the rat in a well-documented paradigm at all the three doses and dopamine reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3-CC is proposed as a possible mechanism of action.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the C‑cells of the thyroid and is not sensitive to radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, surgical removal of the tumor tissue in its entirety is the only curative treatment for MTC. The present study aimed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of extracts of Trailliaedoxa gracilis (TG; WW Smith & Forrest), a plant from the province of Sichuan, China, and of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpen present in TG, on the MTC‑SK MTC cell line. A total of 13 TG fractions and UA were examined in vitro for their effects on cell morphology, cell number, proliferation and rates of apoptosis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nuclear factor‑κB essential modifier (NEMO) was performed to delineate the role of the apoptotic pathway following treatment with UA. TG and UA were examined in vivo in xenotransplanted MTC‑bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice. The TG fractions exhibited antiproliferative effects, with inhibition of mitochondrial activity in the tumor cells at concentrations, which caused no impairment of the normal control cells. The apoptotic rates of the MTC‑SK cells treated with the TG fractions and UA were determined, in which no marked tumor inhibition was observed in the treated MTC‑mice, and no change in the expression of NEMO was detected in the treated MTC‑SK cells. The observation of early‑onset activation of caspase 8 suggested that the responsible factor was linked to NEMO, an anti‑apoptotic protein. However, no differences in the mRNA transcription levels of NEMO were detected in MTC‑SK cells treated with UA, suggesting that this protein was not associated with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Several neurotransmitter receptors have been proposed to be involved in memory formation. However, information on receptor complexes (RCs) in the radial arm maze (RAM) is missing. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine major neurotransmitter RCs levels that are modulated by RAM training because receptors are known to work in homo-or heteromeric assemblies. Immediate early gene Arc expression was determined by immunohistochemistry to show if prefrontal cortices (PFC) and hippocampi were activated following RAM training as these regions are known to be mainly implicated in spatial memory. Twelve rats per group, trained and untrained in the twelve arm RAM were used, frontal cortices and hippocampi were taken, RCs in membrane protein were quantified by blue-native PAGE immunoblotting. RCs components were characterised by co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical analysis and by the use of the proximity ligation assay. Arc expression was significantly higher in PFC of trained as compared to untrained rats whereas it was comparable in hippocampi. Frontal cortical levels of RCs containing AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2, NMDA receptors GluN1 and GluN2A, dopamine receptor D1, acetylcholine nicotinic receptor alpha 7 (nAChR-α7) and hippocampal levels of RCs containing D1, GluN1, GluN2B and nAChR-α7 were increased in the trained group; phosphorylated dopamine transporter levels were decreased in the trained group. D1 and GluN1 receptors were shown to be in the same complex. Taken together, distinct RCs were paralleling performance in the RAM which is relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future work on RCs in memory studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Drebrin (DBN), an actin-bundling key regulator of dendritic spine genesis and morphology, has been recently proposed as a regulator of hippocampal glutamatergic activity which is critical for memory formation and maintenance. Here, we examined the effects of genetic deletion of DBN on dendritic spine and on the level of complexes containing major brain receptors. To this end, homozygous and heterozygous DBN knockout mice generated in our laboratory and related wild type control animals were studied. Level of protein complexes containing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R)/dopamine receptor D2 (D2R), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A R) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 (5-HT7R) were significantly reduced in hippocampus of DBN knockout mice whereas no significant changes were detected for GluR1, 2 and 3 and NR1 as examined by native gel-based immunoblotting. DBN depletion also altered dendritic spine formation, morphology and reduced levels of D1R in dendritic spines as evaluated using immunohistochemistry/confocal microscopy. Electrophysiological studies further showed significant reduction in memory-related hippocampal synaptic plasticity upon DBN depletion. These findings provide unprecedented experimental support for a role of DBN in the regulation of memory-related synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter receptor signalling, offer relevant information regarding the interpretation of previous studies and help in the design of future studies on dendritic spines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: AMPA receptors (AMPARs; alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) are glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmissions in the mammalian brain. A series of phosphorylation sites have been predicted or identified and knowledge on phosphorylations is mandatory for understanding receptor biology and functions. Immunoprecipitation from extracted hippocampal rat proteins was carried out using an antibody against the AMPAR GluA1 subunit, followed by identification of GluA1 and binding partners by mass spectrometry. Bands from SDS-PAGE were picked, peptides were generated by trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap Velos). Using Mascot as a search engine, phosphorylation sites S506, S645, S720, S849, S863, S895, T858, Y228, Y419 and T734 were found on GluA1; S357, S513, S656, S727, T243, T420, T741, Y 143, Y301,Y426 on GluA2; S301, S516, S657, S732, T222 and T746 were observed on GluA3 and S514, S653 was phosphorylated on GluA4. A series of additional protein modifications were observed and in particular, tyrosine and tryptophan nitrations on GluA1 were detected that may raise questions on additional regulation mechanisms for AMPARRs in addition to phosphorylations. The findings are relevant for interpretation of previous work and design of future studies using AMPAR serving as a resource for neuroscience research and indeed, phosphorylations and PTMs per se would have to be respected when neuropathological and neurological disorders are being studied. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Proteomics. Clinical applications
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    ABSTRACT: Proteoglycans (PGs) are major constituents of the extracellular matrix and have recently been proposed to contribute to synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal PGs have not yet been studied or linked to memory. The aim of the study therefore was to isolate and characterize rat hippocampal PGs and determine their possible role in spatial memory. PGs were extracted from rat hippocampi by anion exchange chromatography and analysed by nano LC-MS/MS. 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). PGs agrin, amyloid beta A4 protein, brevican, glypican-1, neurocan, phosphacan, syndecan-4, and versican were identified in the hippocampi. Brevican and versican levels in the membrane fraction were higher in the trained group, correlating with the time spent in the target quadrant. AMPA receptor GluR1 was co-precipitated with brevican and versican. Levels for a receptor complex containing GluR1 was higher in trained while GluR2 and GluR3-containing complex levels were higher in yoked rats. The findings provide information about the PGs present in the rat hippocampus, demonstrating that versican and brevican are linked to memory retrieval in the MWM and that PGs interact with AMPA receptor GluR1, which is linked to memory retrieval. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The link between the cholinergic and serotonergic system in cognitive function is well-documented. There is, however, limited information on spatial memory and this formed the rationale to carry out a study with the aim to show a specific link between nicotinic and serotonergic receptor complexes rather than the corresponding subunits, to spatial memory retrieval in a land maze. A total of 46 mice were used and divided into two groups, trained and untrained (yoked) in the Multiple-T-Maze (MTM) and following training during the first four days, probe trials for memory retrieval were performed on days 8, 16 and 30. Six hours following scarification, hippocampi were taken for the analysis of native receptor complex levels using blue-native gels followed by immunoblotting with specific antibodies.5-HT1A-, 5-HT7-, nAChα4- and nACh-α7-containing receptor complexes were observed and were paralleling memory retrievals and receptor complex levels were shown to be significantly different between trained and yoked animals. Only levels of a nicotinic acetylcholine α7 receptor-containing complex at an apparent molecular weight of approximately 480kDa were shown to be linked to memory retrieval on day 8 but not to retrievals on days 16 and 30 when memory extinction has taken place. Correlation between nAChα4-, 5-HT1A- and 5-HT7-containing receptors and latencies on day 16 may point to a probable link in extinction mechanisms. A series of the abovementioned receptor complexes were correlating among each other probably indicating a serotonergic/cholinergic network paralleling spatial memory formation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Behavioural Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: Although a large series of reports on monoamine receptor (MAR) biochemistry and pharmacology in aging are available, work on MAR complexes rather than subunits is limited. It was the aim of the study to determine MAR complexes in hippocampi of three different age groups (3-12 and 18 months) in the mouse and to link MAR changes to spatial memory retrieval in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). MAR complexes were separated by blue native electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed in order to show the pattern of dopamine receptors and its colocalisations. D1R, D2R and 5-HT7R containing receptor complex levels were decreasing with age while 5-HT1AR-containing complex levels were increasing with age. D1R, 5-HT7R and 5-HT1AR were significantly correlating with the time spent in the target quadrant, representing retrieval in the MWM. D1R and D2R immunoreactivity was decreasing in an area-dependent pattern and D1R and D2R were colocalised. Individual monoamine receptors are linked to spatial memory retrieval and are modulated by age. The findings are relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future work on brain receptors, spatial memory and aging.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Although a few individual members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family were studied in spatial memory no systematic approach was carried out to concomitantly determine all described PKC family members in spatial memory of the mouse. It was therefore the aim of the current study to link hippocampal PKCs to memory retrieval in the Morris water maze (MWM). CD1 mice were trained (n=9) or untrained (n=9) in the MWM, hippocampi were taken 6h following the test for memory retrieval and PKCs were determined in mouse hippocampi by immunoblotting. The trained animals learned the spatial memory task and kept memory at the probe trial. PKCs alpha and epsilon were comparable between groups while PKCs beta, delta, gamma (two forms, i.e. two bands on Western blotting), zeta (2 forms) were higher in trained mice and theta (2 forms) were lower in trained mice. PKC gamma (1 form) was significantly correlating with the time spent in the target quadrant (r=0.7933; P=0.0188). Changes of hippocampal levels of PKCs beta, delta, gamma, zeta and theta were paralleling memory retrieval of the MWM task but correlations revealed that spatial memory retrieval was only linked to one form of PKC gamma. Results are also in agreement with a recent publication showing that PKM zeta is not required for memory formation. These findings may be relevant for the interpretation of previous work and the design of future work on the protein kinase C family in spatial memory of the mouse.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal circuitries in the hippocampus are involved in navigation and memory and are controlled by major networks of GABAergic interneurons. Parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) are identified as fast-spiking cells, playing a crucial role in network oscillation and synchrony. The inhibitory modulation of these interneurons is thought to be mediated mainly through GABAA receptors, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Here we show that all PV-positive interneurons in the granular/subgranular layer (GL/SGL) of the mouse DG express high levels of the GABAA receptor δ subunit. PV-containing interneurons in the hilus and the molecular layer, however, express the δ subunit to a lower extent. Only 8% of the somatostatin-containing interneurons express the δ subunit, whereas calbindin- or calretinin-containing interneurons in the DG seem not to express the GABAA receptor δ subunit at all. Hence, these cells receive a GABAergic control different from that of PV-containing interneurons in the GL/SGL. Experiments investigating a possible co-expression of GABAA receptor α1, α2, α3, α4, α5, β1, β2, β3, or γ2 subunits with PV and δ subunits indicated that α1 and β2 subunits are co-expressed with δ subunits along the extrasynaptic membranes of PV-interneurons. These results suggest a robust tonic GABAergic control of PV-containing interneurons in the GL/SGL of the DG via δ subunit-containing receptors. Our data are important for better understanding the neuronal circuitries in the DG and the role of specific cell types under pathological conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play a key role in memory formation and various protein kinases and phosphatases have been firmly associated with memory performance. Here, we determined expression changes of protein kinases and phosphatases following retrieval of spatial memory in CD1 mice in a Morris Water Maze task, using antibody microarrays and confirmatory Western blot. Comparing changes following single and consecutive retrieval, we identified stably and differentially expressed kinases, some of which have never been implicated before in memory functions. Based on these findings we define a small signalling network associated with spatial memory retrieval. Moreover, we describe differential regulation and correlation of expression levels with behavioural performance of polo-like kinase 1. Together with its recently observed genetic association to autism-spectrum disorders our data suggest a role of this kinase in balancing preservation and flexibility of learned behaviour. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Hippocampus
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    ABSTRACT: Although a series of amino acid analogues have been shown to modulate brain function, information on the pharmacology of alpha-alkylated amino acids (AAAA) is limited. In particular there is no information on the effect of these amino acid analogues (AAA) on the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension test and the forced swim test. It was therefore the aim of the study to test a series of AAAA in these paradigms in order to explore behavioral activities of this compound class. 10 male mice per group aged between 10-14 weeks were used. Vehicle-treated controls were used in addition to intraperitoneal injections of 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight of each, alpha-amino-isobutyic acid (AIB), isovaline (IVA), alpha-propyl-alanine (APA), alpha-butyl-alanine (ABA), alpha-pentyl-alanine (APnA), alpha-ethylphenylglycine (AEPG) and alpha-methyl-valine (AMV). The elevated plus maze (EPM), the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) were used for behavioral testing. There were dose-dependent results: all compounds increased time and pathlength in the open arm of the EPM at least at one dose administered. In the TST and in the FST only the 100mg dose was showing an effect. The results show pharmacological activity modifying the EPM in low doses suggesting the use in treatment of behavioral traits and symptoms represented by or linked to the EPM including anxiety-related behaviour including depression. Compounds acting at higher doses may be used to induce behavioral changes and thus serve as neurobiological-neuropharmacological tools.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Although a series of amino acids (AA) have been associated with spatial memory formation, there is limited information on concentrations of beta-alanine and citrulline in rodent brains. Given the importance of AA metabolism in cognitive functions it was the aim of the study to determine hippocampal levels of beta-alanine and citrulline in rats during two different phases of memory retrieval in a spatial memory paradigm. Ten rats were used per group and the first group was trained and sacrificed five min, the second six hours following retrieval in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) and the third and fourth group were untrained, yoked controls. Hippocampi were taken and free AA were determined using a well-established HPLC protocol. Beta-alanine and citrulline levels were higher in trained rat hippocampi, during both, early and late phase of memory retrieval. Taurine, methionine, cysteine, lysine and ornithine levels were higher in yoked rats at the late phase while tyrosine was higher in yoked rats during the early phase. There were no significant correlations between time spent in the target quadrant and any of the AA levels. Herein, an AA pattern, different between yoked and trained animals at early and late phase of memory retrieval is shown, indicating probable involvement of different AA pathways in animals trained and untrained in the MWM. The results may be useful for the interpretation of previous studies and the design of future experiments to identify amino acids as possible targets for modulating spatial memory.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Behavioural brain research

Publication Stats

3k Citations
658.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Graz University of Technology
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 2004-2015
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • • Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1985-2009
    • University of Vienna
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2004-2005
    • IST Austria
      Klosterneuberg, Lower Austria, Austria
  • 2001
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 1994
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Chemical Pathology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom