Yinju Li

Henan University of Science and Technology, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (7)7.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Histamine is an endogenous nitrogenous compound with extensive effects on immunologic cells and involved in many physiological functions. The current aim was to determine histamine levels in embryonic liver and its association with the pathogenicity of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolate serially passaged in chicken embryos. A vvIBDV isolate and the passaged viruses were inoculated into SPF embryonated chicken eggs (0.2ml per egg) via the chorioallantoic membrane. Embryonic livers were collected at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120h post-inoculation and histamine contents were quantified by fluorescence spectrophotometry analyses. Results showed that the histamine content in embryonic livers infected with the original vvIBDV isolate and the early passaged viruses significantly increased 48h post-inoculation, as compared with the adapted IBDV isolate (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.01), with the concentration peaking from 72h to 96h. Most of the infected chicken embryos died from 48h to 96h post-inoculation. Moreover, the histamine content in dead embryos was markedly increased compared with live embryos (p<0.05), peaking at 72h post-inoculation (p<0.01). There was an association between histamine content in embryonic livers and an elevation in histidine decarboxylase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that an excess of histamine correlates with inflammatory responses during vvIBDV infection. This study provides an incremental step in the understanding of the pathogenesis of vvIBDV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine involved in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) gene from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo spleen cells and provided evidence that the ChIL-18 gene in a recombinant plasmid was successfully expressed in chicken DT40 cells. ChIL-18 significantly enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in chicken splenocytes, which increased IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by macrophages. The potential genetic adjuvant activity of the ChIL-18 plasmid was examined in chickens by coinjecting ChIL-18 plasmid and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. ChIL-18 markedly elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and anti-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (anti-HN)-specific antibody levels, induced the secretion of both Th1- (IFN-γ) and Th2- (interleukin-4) type cytokines, promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and increased the populations of CD3+ T cells and their subsets, CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, a virus challenge revealed that ChIL-18 contributed to protection against Newcastle disease virus challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that the coadministration of ChIL-18 plasmid and NDV vaccine induces a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular levels and that ChIL-18 is a novel immunoadjuvant suitable for NDV vaccination.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: Three very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains were isolated from a single farm and shown to be phylogenetically related to the vvIBDV isolate UK661. In this study, a comparative analysis of the synonymous codon usage in the hypervariable region of theVP2 (vVP2) gene of the vvIBDV strains was done on viruses serially passaged in chicken embryos. Sequencing demonstrated that codons change during the serial passage in the vVP2 gene of the viruses. Nine codon mutations resulted in amino acids changes. The amino acid changes were I256V, I296L 6in isolate XA1989, A222P, I242V, Q253H, I256V in isolate XA1998, and Q253H, I256V, I296L in isolate XA2004. Three of the nine amino acid changes occurred at residue 256. The codons of the amino acids A232, N233, I234, T269, T283 and H338 changed to the synonymous codons in XA1989 after the 16th passage, in XA1998 after the 24th passage and in XA2004 22nd passage viruses. These mutations change the key amino acid residues Q253H and I256V in the domains which are essential for its virulence, and the synonymous codons were observed compared to classical virulent IBDV. The results indicated that the codon changes during the serial passage comprised of synonymous codon usage in the vVP2 gene of IBDV, and this synonymous codon bias was correlated with pathotypes. The extent of synonymous codon usage bias in the IBDV-vVP2 gene maybe influence the gene expression level and secondary structure of protein as well as hydrophobicity, therefore the results provide useful perspectives for evolution and understanding of the pathogenesis of IBDV.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Bio Systems
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we showed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of five pertactin recombinants against Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) challenge. The complete coding sequence (2040 bp) of the prn gene (PRN) and its fragments,5'-terminal 1173 bp fragment (PN),3'-terminal 867 bp fragment (PC), two copies of region I (654 bp; PR I) in PN, and 2 copies of region II (678 bp; PR II) in PC, were separately cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-KG, and expressed in the Eschierichia coli BL21 (DE3) using induction by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant proteins were named GST-PRN, GST-PN, GST-PC, GST-2PR I and GST-2PR II. All five recombinant proteins showed immunological reactivity in the Western-blot analysis. Mice, immunized subcutaneously with two doses of the purified proteins mixed with an equal volume of Freund's adjuvant,produced robust PRN-specific IgG antibody levels. When challenged, 6 of 9 mice in GST-2PR I group and all 9 mice in the other groups survived intranasal challenge with three times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of virulent Bb HH0809. After challenge with 10 LD50 7/9,3/9,6/9,1/10 and 6/10 of the mice survived. Furthermore, complete protection against intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge with 10 LD50 of HH0809 was observed in mice that were injected i.p. with 0.5 ml rabbit anti-GST-PRN, GST-PN,GST-PC or GST-2PR II serum. Only 1 of 10 mice survived in the group of mice that received anti-GST-2PR I, and no survivors were noted in the group of mice that received PRN-absorbed rabbit antiserum (0/5). In this study,we showed that all of five pertactin recombinants had differential immunogenicity and protective efficacy against Bb challenge. Mice immunized with GST-PC had better survival against fatal Bb challenge than did those immunized with GST-PN. In addition, GST-2PR II and GST-2PR I provided the similar results These data may have implications for the development of safe and efficacious subunit vaccines for the prevention of bordetellosis on the basis of these five pertactin recombinants.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · ACTA MICROBIOLOGICA SINICA
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    ABSTRACT: In order to research immunogenicity of the recombinant rVP2-IL-2 fusion protein, we obtained the rVP2-IL-2 fusion protein using Pichia pastoris expression system, and then evaluated its potential to induce immune responses in chicken. The effect was determined in the form of protective anti-IBDV VP2 titers, antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a), lymphocyte proliferation, the levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 cytokines, and challenge experiment. Antibody titers and proliferation lymphocyte level suggested that the fusion protein could elicit specific humoral immune and cellular immune responses, antibody sub-type results indicated that the rVP2-IL-2 fusion protein induced secretion both of IgG1 and IgG2a. The seem result elicited from cytokines ELISA test, secretion of both of Th1 (gamma-IFN) and Th2 (IL-4) were induced by the rVP2-IL-2 fusion protein. Challenge experiment result shown that chicken immunized the rVP2-IL-2 fusion protein obtained 85% protection. These results confirm that the fusion protein enhances the protection against IBDV through both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and thus could serve as a candidate for the development of IBDV subunit vaccine.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus in the Birnaviridae family. Four pathotypes, attenuated, virulent, antigenic variant, and very virulent, have been identified. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic relationship of 25 field isolates that were collected from a single farm during 1989-2008. A sequence analysis of PCR amplified 714 bp VP2 region showed that all the samples were derived from very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and were more closely related to the vvIBDV isolate UK661. From 1999, the isolate XA1999 had amino acids I228 and T394. XA2000, XA2001, XA2002, and XA2003-09 had amino acids E279 and T394. From 2004 to 2008, the isolates had amino acids H320, I349, S375, and R381 while the UK661 virus had T228, D279, Q320, V349, P375, K381, and A394. Such mutations do not change key amino acid residues in the domains which are essential for its virulence. It suggests that a virulent IBDV strain could maintain its virulence for a long period in the same chicken farm and the strain is highly stable under normal environments.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Virus Genes
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis strain C500 is a live, attenuated vaccine that has been used in China for over 40 years to prevent piglet paratyphoid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis C500 strain with a delta asd mutant as an effective live vaccine vector by the Asd+ balanced-lethal host-vector system. Here, we compared the characteristics of S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis delta asdC500 strain with the parent C500 strain, including phenotype, growth rate, virulence, safety, and expression for heterologous antigen. The mean generation times of delta asdC500 mutant, the vector control delta asdC500 (pYA3493), and the parent avirulent C500 vaccine strain in Luria broth were 30.7, 28.1, and 27.9 min, respectively. The fermentation patterns of theses three strains on different carbohydrates, and the levels of production of H2S, were similar. The O and H antigens of delta asdC500 mutant, delta asdC500 (pYA3493) and delta asdC500 (pYA-F1P2) were 6,7:C:1,5, identical to the parent strain C500. By the method of Reed and Muench, groups of mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route with different amounts of delta asdC500 (pYA3493) or the parent C500 strain, and the virulence of delta asdC500 (pYA3493) with LD50 of 1.1 x 10(7) CFU was a little lower than C500 with LD50 of 4.4 x 10(6) CFU. All piglets inoculated with delta asdC500 (pYA3493) or C500 survived, and no signs of disease were observed during the entire experimental period. No major differences were found in these two groups. In addition, the recombinant pYA-F1P2 plasmid was very stable in the recombinant delta asdC500 (pYA-F1P2) strain, which expressed secretorily a large amount of the recombinant filamentous hemagglutinin type I domain and pertactin region 2 domain antigen (rF1P2) of Bordetella bronchiseptica. In this study, we have shown that the delta asdC500 mutant had a series of biological characteristics similar to the parent vaccine strain C500. Furthermore, the strain could express secretorily a large amount of heterologous antigen. It is likely that this Salmonella expression and delivery system could be easily adapted to develop multivalent recombinant Salmonella vaccines against infectious agents using the Asd+ balanced-lethal host-vector system.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology