Elizabeth R Didie

Auburn University, AUO, Alabama, United States

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Publications (34)104.68 Total impact

  • Megan M. Kelly · Elizabeth R. Didie · Katharine A. Phillips
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although rejection sensitivity may be an important feature of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), no studies have examined rejection sensitivity in a clinical sample and compared types of rejection sensitivity in individuals with BDD. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity scores in forty-six patients diagnosed with BDD were compared with published norms. Associations between rejection sensitivity, BDD severity, and other clinical variables were examined. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity scores were 0.6 and 1.1 standard deviation units above published norms, respectively. Greater personal rejection sensitivity was associated with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms, poorer mental health, general health, and physical and social functioning. Greater appearance-based rejection sensitivity was associated with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms, and poorer general health. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity contributed more unique variance to BDD severity than personal rejection sensitivity did; however, personal rejection sensitivity contributed more unique variance to general health than appearance-based rejection sensitivity did.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Body Image
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few effective treatments for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and a pressing need to develop such treatments. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a manualized modular cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD (CBT-BDD). CBT-BDD utilizes core elements relevant to all BDD patients (e.g., exposure, response prevention, perceptual retraining) and optional modules to address specific symptoms (e.g., surgery seeking). Thirty-six adults with BDD were randomized to 22 sessions of immediate individual CBT-BDD over 24 weeks (n=17) or to a 12-week waitlist (n=19). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS), Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were completed pretreatment, monthly, posttreatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The Sheehan Disability Scale and Client Satisfaction Inventory (CSI) were also administered. Response to treatment was defined as ≥30% reduction in BDD-YBOCS total from baseline. By week 12, 50% of participants receiving immediate CBT-BDD achieved response versus 12% of waitlisted participants (p=0.026). By posttreatment, 81% of all participants (immediate CBT-BDD plus waitlisted patients subsequently treated with CBT-BDD) met responder criteria. While no significant group differences in BDD symptom reduction emerged by Week 12, by posttreatment CBT-BDD resulted in significant decreases in BDD-YBOCS total over time (d=2.1, p<0.0001), with gains maintained during follow-up. Depression, insight, and disability also significantly improved. Patient satisfaction was high, with a mean CSI score of 87.3% (SD=12.8%) at posttreatment. CBT-BDD appears to be a feasible, acceptable, and efficacious treatment that warrants more rigorous investigation.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Behavior therapy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Age at onset is an important clinical feature of all disorders. However, no prior studies have focused on this important construct in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In addition, across a number of psychiatric disorders, early age at disorder onset is associated with greater illness severity and greater comorbidity with other disorders. However, clinical correlates of age at onset have not been previously studied in BDD. Methods: Age at onset and other variables of interest were assessed in two samples of adults with DSM-IV BDD; sample 1 consisted of 184 adult participants in a study of the course of BDD, and sample 2 consisted of 244 adults seeking consultation or treatment for BDD. Reliable and valid measures were used. Subjects with early-onset BDD (age 17 or younger) were compared to those with late-onset BDD. Results: BDD had a mean age at onset of 16.7 (SD=7.3) in sample 1 and 16.7 (SD=7.2) in sample 2. 66.3% of subjects in sample 1 and 67.2% in sample 2 had BDD onset before age 18. A higher proportion of females had early-onset BDD in sample 1 but not in sample 2. On one of three measures in sample 1, those with early-onset BDD currently had more severe BDD symptoms. Individuals with early-onset BDD were more likely to have attempted suicide in both samples and to have attempted suicide due to BDD in sample 2. Early age at BDD onset was associated with a history of physical violence due to BDD and psychiatric hospitalization in sample 2. Those with early-onset BDD were more likely to report a gradual onset of BDD than those with late-onset in both samples. Participants with early-onset BDD had a greater number of lifetime comorbid disorders on both Axis I and Axis II in sample 1 but not in sample 2. More specifically, those with early-onset BDD were more likely to have a lifetime eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) in both samples, a lifetime substance use disorder (both alcohol and non-alcohol) and borderline personality disorder in sample 1, and a lifetime anxiety disorder and social phobia in sample 2. Conclusions: BDD usually began during childhood or adolescence. Early onset was associated with gradual onset, a lifetime history of attempted suicide, and greater comorbidity in both samples. Other clinical features reflecting greater morbidity were also more common in the early-onset group, although these findings were not consistent across the two samples.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Comprehensive psychiatry
  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Biological psychiatry
  • K A Phillips · W Menard · E Quinn · E R Didie · R L Stout
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This report prospectively examines the 4-year course, and predictors of course, of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a common and often severe disorder. No prior studies have prospectively examined the course of BDD in individuals ascertained for BDD. Method The Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (LIFE) assessed weekly BDD symptoms and treatment received over 4 years for 166 broadly ascertained adults and adolescents with current BDD at intake. Kaplan-Meier life tables were constructed for time to remission and relapse. Full remission was defined as minimal or no BDD symptoms, and partial remission as less than full DSM-IV criteria, for at least 8 consecutive weeks. Full relapse and partial relapse were defined as meeting full BDD criteria for at least 2 consecutive weeks after attaining full or partial remission respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression examined predictors of remission and relapse. Results: Over 4 years, the cumulative probability was 0.20 for full remission and 0.55 for full or partial remission from BDD. A lower likelihood of full or partial remission was predicted by more severe BDD symptoms at intake, longer lifetime duration of BDD, and being an adult. Among partially or fully remitted subjects, the cumulative probability was 0.42 for subsequent full relapse and 0.63 for subsequent full or partial relapse. More severe BDD at intake and earlier age at BDD onset predicted full or partial relapse. Eighty-eight percent of subjects received mental health treatment during the follow-up period. Conclusions: In this observational study, BDD tended to be chronic. Several intake variables predicted greater chronicity of BDD.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Psychological Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and often severe disorder. Although individuals with BDD have markedly poor psychosocial functioning, the nature of interpersonal problems has been only minimally investigated. This study examined the severity, domains, and correlates of interpersonal problems in 51 individuals with BDD using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64 (IIP-64) and other reliable and valid measures. Compared to norms for a U.S. community sample, individuals with DSM-IV BDD reported greater severity of interpersonal problems across most IIP-64 domains. BDD subjects' scores were most elevated on the Socially Inhibited and Nonassertive subscales. More severe BDD symptoms were significantly correlated with higher scores on the Socially Inhibited, Nonassertive, and Vindictive/Self-Centered subscales and with IIP-64 total score. In a logistic regression analysis, BDD severity and a personality disorder were independently associated with severity of interpersonal problems. These findings suggest that individuals with BDD have significant problems with interpersonal relationships, particularly in the areas of social inhibition and nonassertiveness.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of personality disorders
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors (e.g., cosmetic surgery, restrictive eating) would be associated with suicide attempts but not suicide-related ideation because these behaviors increase capability for, but not thoughts about, suicide. Our hypothesis was partially confirmed, as BDD-related restrictive food intake was associated with suicide attempts (but not suicide-related ideation) even after controlling for numerous covariates.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior
  • Elizabeth R. Didie · Mark A. Reinecke · Katharine A. Phillips
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders often co-occur and share some clinical features. In addition, the co-occurrence of BDD and an eating disorder may be associated with greater impairment in functioning. Furthermore, clinical impressions suggest that this comorbidity may be more treatment resistant than either disorder alone. The current article discusses the treatment of a 48-year-old female diagnosed with BDD and comorbid bulimia. We attempted to address these co-occurring disorders in a strategic, formulation-based manner using a variety of cognitive-behavioral strategies such as cognitive restructuring, rational disputation, exposure with response prevention, and mirror retraining. Despite the complexity of this case, results suggest that comorbid BDD and bulimia nervosa can be effectively managed with cognitive behavioral therapy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
  • Elizabeth R. Didie · Megan M. Kelly · Katharine A. Phillips
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Psychiatric Annals
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    Andri S Bjornsson · Elizabeth R Didie · Katharine A Phillips
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidality rates. In this review, we provide an overview of research findings on BDD, including its epidemiology, clinical features, course of illness, comorbidity, psychosocial functioning, and suicidality. We also briefly review recent research on neural substrates and cognitive processing. Finally, we discuss treatment approaches that appear efficacious for BDD, with a focus on serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This article provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; (2) There are both advantages and disadvantages to adding a new criterion to reflect compulsive BDD behaviors; this possible addition requires further consideration; (3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; (4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV's criterion C are suggested; (5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; (6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; (7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and (8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD's delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate article. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Depression and Anxiety
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body image is an important aspect of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) which has received little investigation. Ninety-two BDD participants who participated in one of three BDD pharmacotherapy studies completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, which assesses attitudinal body image, specifically evaluations of and investment in appearance, health/illness, and physical fitness. Scores were compared to population norms. Compared to norms, BDD participants were significantly less satisfied with their appearance. Less satisfaction was associated with more severe BDD and greater delusionality. Men with BDD were significantly more invested in their appearance compared to male population norms. Compared to population norms, males and females with BDD felt less physically healthy and females were less invested in a healthy lifestyle. However, compared with population females, females with BDD were less alert to being ill. These findings suggest that patients with BDD differ from population norms in a number of important aspects of body image.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Body image
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between patterns of meal replacement (MR) adherence and changes in outcomes during a behaviorally-oriented weight loss program. Data from the present study are based on sixty female participants (age: 29-62 years, BMI: 27.99-37.50 kg/m(2)). Participants were randomized into either a control or experimental condition, which tested the use of MRs during weight loss maintenance. Outcome measures included body weight, depression, physical activity, cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating collected at four assessment points. Within the experimental condition, we further examined adherence to MRs and its relationship with the outcome measures. We found evidence of differences at baseline on some measures (e.g., weight, physical activity and depression) while on others (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger), differences that emerged over the course of treatment. Further research is necessary to determine if there are measures associated with successful MR use that can be detected at baseline and if MR adherence itself leads to changes in eating behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Eating behaviors
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the psychometric evaluation of a new measure called the Power of Food Scale (PFS). The PFS assesses the psychological impact of living in food-abundant environments. It measures appetite for, rather than consumption of, palatable foods, at three levels of food proximity (food available, food present, and food tasted). Participants were 466 healthy college students. A confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor solution found previously by Capelleri et al. [Capelleri, J. C., Bushmakin, A. G., Gerber, R. A., Leidy, N. K., Sexton, C., Karlsson, J., et al. (in press). Discovering the structure of the Power of Food Scale (PFS) in obese patients. International Journal of Obesity, 11, A165]. The PFS was found to have adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The PFS and the Restraint Scale were regressed on four self-report measures of overeating. The PFS was independently related to all four whereas the Restraint Scale was independently related to two. Expert ratings of items suggested that the items are an acceptable reflection of the construct that the PFS is designed to capture. The PFS may be useful as a measure of the hedonic impact of food environments replete with highly palatable foods.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Appetite
  • Elizabeth R Didie · William Menard · Adam P Stern · Katharine A Phillips
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is relatively common and appears to be associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning. Previous reports, however, did not investigate occupational functioning in detail, assess impairment specifically in occupational functioning using standardized measures in a nontreatment seeking sample, or examine correlates of occupational impairment. Occupational functioning and other clinical variables were assessed in 141 adults with BDD. Measures included the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool and other reliable and valid self-report and interviewer-administered measures. Fewer than half of subjects were working full-time, and 22.7% were receiving disability pay. Thirty-nine percent of the sample reported not working in the past month because of psychopathology. Of those subjects who worked in the past month, 79.7% reported impairment in work functioning because of psychopathology. Adults with BDD who were not working because of psychopathology were comparable to subjects who were working in most demographic variables, delusionality of BDD beliefs, and duration of BDD. However, compared to subjects who worked in the past month, those not currently working because of psychopathology had more severe BDD and more chronic BDD. They also were more likely to be male, had less education, and had more severe depressive symptoms, a higher rate of certain comorbid disorders, poorer current social functioning and quality of life, a higher rate of lifetime suicidality, and were more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized. A high proportion of individuals with BDD were unable to work because of psychopathology; most who worked reported impairment in occupational functioning. Certain clinical variables, including more severe and chronic BDD, were associated with not working.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Comprehensive psychiatry
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure to maintain weight losses in lifestyle change programs continues to be a major problem and warrants investigation of innovative approaches to weight control. The goal of this study was to compare two novel group interventions, both aimed at improving weight loss maintenance, with a control group. A total of 103 women lost weight on a meal replacement-supplemented diet and were then randomized to one of three conditions for the 14-week maintenance phase: cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT); CBT with an enhanced food monitoring accuracy (EFMA) program; or these two interventions plus a reduced energy density eating (REDE) program. Assessments were conducted periodically through an 18-month postintervention. Outcome measures included weight and self-reported dietary intake. Data were analyzed using completers only as well as baseline-carried-forward imputation. Participants lost an average of 7.6 +/- 2.6 kg during the weight loss phase and 1.8 +/- 2.3 kg during the maintenance phase. Results do not suggest that the EFMA intervention was successful in improving food monitoring accuracy. The REDE group decreased the energy density (ED) of their diets more so than the other two groups. However, neither the REDE nor the EFMA condition showed any advantage in weight loss maintenance. All groups regained weight between 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Although no incremental weight maintenance benefit was observed in the EFMA or EFMA + REDE groups, the improvement in the ED of the REDE group's diet, if shown to be sustainable in future studies, could have weight maintenance benefits.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Obesity
  • No preview · Article · Oct 2007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are possibly related disorders characterized by poor functioning and quality of life. However, few studies have compared these disorders in these important domains. We compared functioning and quality of life in 210 OCD subjects, 45 BDD subjects, and 40 subjects with comorbid BDD+OCD using reliable and valid measures. OCD and BDD subjects had very poor scores across all measures, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. However, comorbid BDD+OCD subjects had greater impairment than OCD subjects on 11 scales/subscales, which remained significant after controlling for OCD severity. Comorbid BDD+OCD subjects had greater impairment than BDD subjects on 2 scales/subscales, which were no longer significant after controlling for BDD severity, suggesting that BDD severity may have accounted for greater morbidity in the comorbid BDD+OCD group. Functioning and quality of life were poor across all three groups, although individuals with comorbid BDD+OCD had greater impairment on a number of measures. It is important for clinicians to be aware that patients with these disorders--and, in particular, those with comorbid BDD and OCD--tend to have very poor functioning and quality of life across a broad range of domains.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Annals of Clinical Psychiatry
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    Elizabeth R Didie · Katharine A Phillips
    Preview · Article · May 2007 · American Journal of Epidemiology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
104.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Auburn University
      • Department of Psychology
      AUO, Alabama, United States
  • 2007-2010
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior
      Providence, RI, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • Drexel University
      • Department of Psychology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • Butler Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States