[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity has been reported to be higher in African Americans (AA) than Caucasians (Cau). COMT converts 2- and 4-hydroxy (OH) estrogens to 2- and 4-methoxyestrogens, respectively, and can increase estrogenic milieu locally in tissues. To assess whether the increased incidence of preterm birth (PTB) among AA women is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COMT gene, we examined variations in maternal and fetal COMT genes and their association with pregnancy outcomes (term vs preterm pregnancies) using 4 functional SNPs: rs4633, rs4680, rs4818, and rs6269 in both AA and Cau. We analyzed samples from 267 AA women (191 term and 76 preterm pregnancies) and 339 Cau (194 term and 145 preterm pregnancies) in this study. The results showed a significant difference (P < .05) in allele and genotype frequencies between term and preterm AA and Cau women in 3 SNPs in both maternal and fetal DNA. The analysis revealed that in AA fetal COMT genes, SNP rs4818 is associated with PTB at the allele (C; P < .001), genotype (C/C; P < .01), and 2- (P < .03) and 3 (P < .04)-window haplotype levels. Multidimensionality reduction analysis also showed a significant (P < .01) association between rs4818 and PTB. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that a synonymous polymorphism, rs4818 in the fetal COMT gene, is associated with PTB in AA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with incomplete recovery from obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) usually develop secondary muscle imbalances and bone deformities at the shoulder joint. Considerable efforts have been made to characterize and correct the glenohumeral deformities, and relatively less emphasis has been placed on the more subtle ones, such as those of the coracoid process. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the relationship between coracoid abnormalities and glenohumeral deformities in OBPI patients. We hypothesize that coracoscapular angles and distances, as well as coracohumeral distances, diminish with increasing glenohumeral deformity, whereas coracoid overlap will increase.
39 patients (age range: 2-13 years, average: 4.7 years), with deformities secondary to OBPI were included in this study. Parameters for quantifying coracoid abnormalities (coracoscapular angle, coracoid overlap, coracohumeral distance, and coracoscapular distance) and shoulder deformities (posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion) were measured on CT images from these patients before any surgical intervention. Paired Student t-tests and Pearson correlations were used to analyze different parameters.
Significant differences between affected and contralateral shoulders were found for all coracoid and shoulder deformity parameters. Percent of humeral head anterior to scapular line (PHHA), glenoid version, coracoscapular angles, and coracoscapular and coracohumeral distances were significantly lower for affected shoulders compared to contralateral ones. Coracoid overlap was significantly higher for affected sides compared to contralateral sides. Significant and positive correlations were found between coracoscapular distances and glenohumeral parameters (PHHA and version), as well as between coracoscapular angles and glenohumeral parameters, for affected shoulders. Moderate and positive correlations existed between coracoid overlap and glenohumeral parameters for affected shoulders. On the contrary, all correlations between the coracoid and glenohumeral parameters for contralateral shoulders were only moderate or relatively low.
These results indicate that the spatial orientation of the coracoid process differs significantly between affected and contralateral shoulders, and it is highly correlated with the glenohumeral deformity. With the progression of glenohumeral deformity, the coracoid process protrudes more caudally and follows the subluxation of the humeral head which may interfere with the success of repositioning the posteriorly subluxed humeral head anteriorly to articulate with the glenoid properly.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPI) result in bony derangements that include posterior humeral head subluxation, glenoid retroversion, and joint incongruity. Often these deformities are accompanied by scapular hypoplasia, elevation, and rotation, which further exacerbate shoulder dysfunction. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of triangle tilt surgery on glenohumeral joint anatomy in 100 OBPI patients. The triangle tilt surgery restores the distal acromioclavicular triangle from an abnormal superiorly angled position to a neutral position, thereby restoring normal glenohumeral anatomic relationships.Axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance images taken before and 12- to 38-months after surgery showed significant improvements in both posterior subluxation and glenoid version. Patients with complete posterior glenohumeral dislocation improved from 19% preoperatively, to 11% postoperatively. Glenoid shape was also improved, with 81% of patients classified as concave or flat after surgery compared with 53% before surgery.Triangle tilt surgery allows for both repositioning and remodeling of the glenohumeral joint. These anatomic improvements after triangle tilt surgery hold promise for improving shoulder function and quality of life for OBPI patients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Annals of plastic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression and function of catechol-O-methyltransferase in human fetal membranes at term.
Fetal membranes obtained from women between 38-42 weeks of gestation, after (1) vaginal delivery with spontaneous labor and (2) prelabor elective cesarean section (no labor), were assayed for catechol-O-methyltransferase expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Prostaglandin E(2) secretion from amnion and choriodecidua explants treated with or without catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis.
Amnion layer of fetal membranes from laboring women expressed significantly higher levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase, compared with those from women with no labor. Catechol-O-methyltransferase was higher in the amnion layer than in choriodecidua. Selective catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition significantly decreased prostaglandin E(2) production from fetal membranes.
Labor increases catechol-O-methyltransferase expression in the amnion of human fetal membranes. Selective catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition decreased prostaglandin E(2) secretion in fetal explant cultures, suggesting a role for catechol-O-methyltransferase in human labor and delivery.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients who have suffered obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) have a high incidence of musculoskeletal complications stemming from the initial nerve injury. The presence of muscle imbalances and contractures leads to typical bony changes affecting the shoulder, including the SHEAR (Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation and Rotation) deformity. The SHEAR deformity commonly occurs in conjunction with Medial Rotation Contracture (MRC) of the arm. OBPI also causes muscle imbalances at the level of the forearm, that lead to a fixed supination deformity (SD) in a small number of patients. Both MRC and SD will cause severe functional limitations without surgical intervention.
Fourteen OBPI patients were diagnosed with MRC of the shoulder and SD of the forearm along with SHEAR deformity during a 16 month study period, with eight patients available to long-term follow-up (age range 2.2 - 18 years). Surgical correction of the MRC was performed as a triangle tilt or humeral osteotomy depending on the age of the child, after which, the patients were treated with a radial osteotomy to correct the fixed supination deformity. Function was assessed using the modified Mallet scale, examination of apparent supination and appearance of the extremity at rest.
Significant functional improvements were observed in patients with surgical reconstruction. Mallet score increased by an average of 5.2 (p < 0.05). Overall forearm position was not significantly changed from an average of 5 degrees to an average of 34 degrees maximum apparent supination after both shoulder rotation and forearm rotation corrective surgeries.
The simultaneous presence of two opposing deformities in the same limb will visually offset each other at the level of the wrist and hand, giving the false impression of neutral positioning of the limb. In reality, the neutral-appearing position of the hand indicates a fixed supination posture of the forearm in the face of a medial rotation contracture of the shoulder. Both of these deformities require surgical attention, and the presence of concurrent MRC and SD should be monitored for in OBPI patients.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that germline stem cells may generate new follicles in the adult murine ovary. In this study, the authors use a pou5f1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mouse model to study the expression of stem and germ cell markers in adult murine ovaries. Immunohistochemical analyses and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the expression of mouse vasa homologue, stem cells factor receptor, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, synaptonemal complex proteins, disrupted meiotic, and growth differentiation factor-9 in GFP+ ovarian tissues. GFP+ cell aggregates of nonfollicle structures were identified and isolated from adult B6.CBA-Tg(pou5f1-EGFP)2Mnn/J transgenic mouse ovaries. This study shows the presence of cell aggregates that are distinct from ovarian follicles and are coexpressing germline and stem cell surface markers in adult murine ovaries. These cell aggregates may represent a mixed population of germ cells and germline stem cells. Further research is necessary to evaluate the plasticity of the potential stem cell population in these cell aggregates.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme catalyzes the methylation of the 2- or 4-hydroxyestrogens to 2- or 4-methoxyestrogens. Both the hydroxyestrogens and methoxyestrogens have been shown to block or enhance the effects of estrogen respectively. Our objective was to investigate the potential role of COMT in parturition and cervical ripening using a rat model. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect and localize the COMT protein in rat uterine tissues during pregnancy. We measured the longitudinal changes in urinary 2-hydroxyestrogen before, during, and after pregnancy in rats. Animal studies were conducted to determine the effect of treatment with a selective COMT inhibitor on (1) mifepristone-induced preterm birth and (2) cervical resistance to stretch in pregnant rats. The intensity of staining for the COMT protein differed within the luminal epithelium, uterine gland epithelium, endometrium, and myometrium during pregnancy. Levels of staining for the COMT protein in rat myometrium were highest on day 1 and lowest on days 8 and 13, but high levels returned by days 16 and 19 of pregnancy. The levels of urinary 2-hydroxyestrogen gradually increased in the first 2 weeks of pregnancy, peaked from days 16 to 18 of pregnancy, and then gradually returned to pre-pregnancy levels after delivery. The percentage of pups retained in the uterus of pregnant rats treated with both mifepristone and COMT inhibitor (48 +/- 15%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when compared with the value of pregnant rats treated with mifepristone alone (12 +/- 4%). The resistance to stretch was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cervical tissues from the pregnant rats treated with COMT inhibitor (0.28) when compared with cervical tissues taken from rats treated with vehicle control (0.18). Modulation of COMT activity may play a role in the regulation of myometrial contractility and cervical ripening during pregnancy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study if spontaneous contractions augmented by proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2)-activating peptide serine-leucine-isoleucine-glycine-arginine-leucine (SLIGRL) involve coactivation of membrane chemoceptors and are associated with expression of PAR-2 mRNA in non-pregnant and pregnant rat myometrium.
Non-pregnant, mid-pregnant, and late pregnant rat uterine horn and small intestine segments were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine PAR-2 mRNA levels by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Uterine rings were used for isometric tension recording. Effect of SLIGRL (0.1 mM) on spontaneous contractions before and after exposure to ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 1.0 microM), SQ-29548 (thromboxane A(2) receptor inhibitor, 1.0 microM), ketotifen (histamine 1 receptor inhibitor, 10 microM), WEB-2170BS (platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor inhibitor, 10 microM), atropine (muscarinic receptor inhibitor, 0.1 microM), or ketanserin (serotonin receptor inhibitor, 10 microM) were compared. Paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's or Newman-Keuls post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis when appropriate.
The agents did not significantly affect time-associated decay in spontaneous contractile activity in any group of the tissues. Activation of spontaneous contractions induced by SLIGRL in non-pregnant rat myometrium did not involve coactivation of membrane chemoceptors, while in mid-pregnant rat myometrium coactivation of prostanoid, histamine, and serotonin receptors and in late pregnant rat myometrium coactivation of thromboxane receptors was noted. Expression of PAR-2 mRNA was similar in non-pregnant, mid-pregnant, and late pregnant rat myometrium.
Expression of PAR-2 in rat myometrium is not dependent on gestational age. Stimulation of PAR-2 is associated with production/release of cyclooxygenase pathway product(s) activating thromboxane/prostaglandin H2 receptors, partial involvement of histamine H1 receptors and serotonin receptors in midpregnancy and thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptors in late pregnancy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme catalyzes the methylation of the catechol estrogens, 2- or 4-hydroxyestrogen, to 2- or 4-methoxyestrogen. Both the hydroxy estrogens and methoxy estrogens were shown to modulate the effects of estrogen. Because catechol-O-methyltransferase activity controls levels of these metabolites, it may help regulate the cellular estrogenic milieu. In this study, we examined the regulation of catechol-O-methyltransferase expression in human myometrial cells.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and luciferase assays in human myometrial cells after treatment with estrogen or progesterone. Catechol-O-methyltransferase expression was measured in cells after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) alone or with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor. Luciferase assays were also conducted using human myometrial cells containing an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter gene to measure levels of estrogen-mediated transactivation after treatment with estrogen and increasing concentrations of 2-hydroxestrogen.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase expression was down-regulated by progesterone or estrogen. Tumor necrosis factor alpha upregulated catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, whereas cotreatment with lactacystin attenuated this response, suggesting that TNFalpha activated nuclear factor kappa B to induce catechol-O-methyltransferase expression. Increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyestrogen attenuated estrogen-mediated transcription in the myometrial cells.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase expression may be regulated in the myometrium to control the local action of estrogen. Low levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase in the myometrium would result in an accumulation of 2-hydroxyestrogen and may antagonize the local effect of estrogen. High levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase in the myometrium would result in lower levels of 2-hydroxyestrogen and may increase sensitivity to estrogen.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the control of cervical ripening and parturition under normal (normal term pregnancy) and abnormal (preterm labor and prolongation of pregnancy) conditions by (a) measuring changes in the collagen both visually and quantitatively, (b) localizing and characterizing iNOS and COX-2 under normal conditions, and (c) characterizing the changes in iNOS and COX-2 under abnormal conditions. Cervices are obtained from estrus and timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=4-10 per group). Preterm labor is induced with Onapristone (3 mg/rat; progesterone antagonist) and the prolongation of pregnancy with progesterone (2.5 mg, twice daily). Collagen changes are measured and visualized with the picrosirius polarization method. RT-PCR is used to characterize the mRNA expression (p<0.05), and immunohistochemistry is used to localize the protein expression for iNOS and COX-2. The organization and birefringence of the collagen during pregnancy decreased and is supported by changes in the luminosity (p<0.001). The iNOS and COX-2 enzymes were localized in cervical smooth muscle, vascular smooth muscle, and epithelium. Under normal conditions, iNOS mRNA levels decreased as COX-2 mRNA levels increased demonstrating an inverse correlation (Spearman r = -0.497; p=0.00295). Onapristone stimulated preterm labor, increasing the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA (p<0.05). The increase demonstrated a positive correlation (Spearman r = 0.456; p=0.03). Progesterone prolonged pregnancy, decreasing the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA (p=0.036). In conclusion, there may be an interaction between the nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in cervical ripening and parturition.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that oxytocin (OT) contracts blood vessels via vasopressin V1A (VP) receptors, and that this depends on pregnancy.
Concentration-contraction relationships (CCR) to OT and VP (10(-12)-10(-6) mol/L) were obtained in different blood vessels. CCR were obtained in uterine arteries (UA) from nonpregnant, mid-pregnant, and late pregnant rats (n = 6-10 per group) in the absence and presence of selective antagonists (10(-7) mol/L).
Sensitivity to OT, but not to VP, is attenuated in pregnant rat UA. Antagonists shifted CCR of OT and VP to the right, and, to a lesser extent, of the counterpart, in all UA. VP antagonist depresses oxytocin CCR much more than OT antagonist in pregnant rat UA.
OT and VP contract UA via their own receptors, although partial cross-activation is evident. Adaptation to pregnancy led to attenuated sensitivity of UA smooth muscle to OT and transformed OT receptors into VP-like ones.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology