[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence surgical results and prognostic factors of locally advanced colorectal cancer.
Cohort study including 679 colorectal cancer patients treated from 1997 to 2007. Clinical, surgical and histological data were analyzed.
Ninety patients (females 61%; median age 59 years) were treated for locally advanced carcinomas (13.2%), either in the colon (66%) or rectum (34%). Extended resections most commonly involved the small bowel (19.8%), bladder (16.4%), uterus (12.9%) and ovaries (11.2%). Postoperative morbidity and mortality occurred in 23 (25.6%) and 3 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Survival and recurrence analysis among 76 R0 (84.4%) procedures revealed a 60% 5-year survival and 34% local recurrence rates. Survival curves demonstrated reduced rates for rectal location (45% vs 65%), tumor depth (50% for T4 vs 75% for T3), vascular/ lymphatic/perineural invasion (35% vs 80%) and lymph node metastasis (35% vs 80%).
Locally advanced carcinomas were found in 13.2% of patients. Survival rates were negatively affected by rectal location and adverse histological features. Number of involved organs and neoplastic adhesions did not influenced chances of survival. A radical R0 extended resection was achieved in a high proportion of cases, resulting in a 60% cancer-free survival under acceptable operative risks.
Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Arquivos de gastroenterologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first Brazilian Consensus on inflammatory bowel disease, carried out by the Brazilian Study Group of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and discusses the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in acute and remission phases. The first part of the text, brings out a review on the main drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, as well as their mechanisms of action and cautions during their use. In the second part, the committee's opinions about the most recommended medical and surgical approaches for both diseases are presented on the basis of disease activity, location and behaviour status. The recommendations here presented were widely discussed in several scientific meetings with active participation of all members of the group and were highly based on scientific evidence covered by the literature.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate, by means of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ), the quality of life of ulcerative colitis patients submitted to proctocolectomy with sphincter preservation using J-pouch reconstruction over ten years ago.
The study consisted of 36 patients interviewed using the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. The score scale, resulting from the addition of each answer, ranged from 32 to 224, where the highest score indicates the best quality of life. The chi square test was used to verify the existence of meaningful differences between the results of the questionnaire and age, and gender proportion. For each section, as well as for all of them combined, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify if there were differences in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire scores among the groups in relation to the proportions.
After applying the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, it was determined that quality of life was considered excellent for 9 (25%), good for 11 (30.6%), regular for 13 (36.1%), and bad for 3 (8.3%) patients. In our study, we determined that 85% of the patients were pleased with and thankful for the surgery that they underwent.
We can conclude that the possibility of sphincter preservation should always be taken into account, since patients remain clinically stable and have a high quality of life even after long periods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Most of women that develops inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are in fertile age, concerning doctors and patients to understand this interaction. We evaluated the influence of IBD on fecundity and pregnancy and vice-versa. METHODS: the protocols of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), from 1984 and 2006, in fertile age, followed at the outpatient clinic were reviewed. Patients were interviewed by the research medical doctor, to complete missing data not found in their protocols. Patients with others colitis, incomplete investigation, not in fertile age or without cognitive capacity were excluded from this study. Preterm delivery, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, stillbirth, miscarriages, types of delivery, disease topography in pregnant patients and drug administration during pregnancy were investigated. The statistic method adopted was the chi-square and Fisher test, with significance level of 5%. No patient refused to participate in this study. RESULTS: 140 pregnancies in 104 patients with IBD were evaluated (UC in 63 and CD in 77 pregnancies). : a reduction of 41.6% in fecundity was observed after beginning of symptoms related to IBD, with influence of the disease in 20.6% (10.3% of patients did not want to have children because of fear related to disease; 6.5% because of medical orientation and 2.2% for poor medical conditions). There was no difference between CD and UC. Most of patients did not want to become pregnant because they already had children, were "underage" or "alone" (53.3%) Most of pregnancies did not altered clinic conditions in UC patients (77.8% / p=0.003). Clinical conditions improved during pregnancies more in CD patients than UC patients (p=0.0007). The incidence of preterm delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth was higher when the whole colon was affected in UC (p < 0.037). The estimated rate of preterm delivery low birth weight was 83.3%[IC 95%: 10.29%; 100.00%]. There was no statistic difference between the disease topography and the fetus alteration in CD (p> 0.6513). In twenty-one and fifteen pregnant women, aminosalicilates and corticosteroids were administered, respectively. In 106 pregnancies, no drugs were administered. There were no higher rates of fetus alteration when aminosalicilates or corticosteroids were administered to mothers with IBD (p> 0.17 and p> 0.1585, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: IBD didn´t have any direct influence on fecundity in most of the patients. Pregnancy influenced positively on CD evolution, independently of drug use. The preterm birth rate was higher in children of mothers with CD. There were higher rates of fetus alteration when the whole colon was affected in mothers with UC. CD influenced the type of delivery only when perianal disease was associated to colonic disease.
Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Revista Brasileira de Coloproctologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local excision is currently being considered as an alternative strategy for ypT0-2 rectal cancer. However, patient selection is crucial to rule out nodal disease and is performed by radiologic studies that consider size as a surrogate marker for positive nodes. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in size between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes and the critical lymph node size after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
The 201 lymph nodes available from 31 patients with ypT0-2 rectal cancer were reviewed and measured. Lymph nodes were compared according to the presence of metastases and size.
There was a mean of 6.5 lymph nodes per patient and 12 positive nodes of the 201 recovered (6%). Ninety-five percent of all lymph nodes were <5 mm, whereas 50% of positive lymph nodes were <3 mm. Metastatic lymph nodes were significantly greater in size (5.0 vs. 2.5mm; P = 0.02). Lymph nodes >4.5 mm had a greater risk of harboring metastases (P = 0.009).
Patients with ypT0-2 rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation have very small perirectal nodes. Individual metastatic lymph nodes are significantly larger. However, a significant number of lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (negative and positive) are <3 mm. Individual lymph node size is not a good predictor of nodal metastases and may lead to inaccurate radiologic staging.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoembriogenic antigen (CEA) is the most frequently used tumor marker in rectal cancer. A decrease in carcinoembriogenic antigen after radical surgery is associated with survival in these patients. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy may lead to significant primary tumor downstaging, including complete tumor regression in selected patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that a decrease in CEA after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy could reflect tumor response to chemoradiotherapy, affecting final disease stage and ultimately survival.
Patients with distal rectal cancer managed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and available pretreatment and postchemoradiotherapy levels of CEA were eligible for the study. Outcomes studied included final disease stage, relapse, and survival, and these were compared according to initial CEA level, post-chemoradiotherapy CEA level, and the reduction in CEA.
Overall 170 patients were included. Post-chemoradiotherapy CEA levels <5 ng/ml were associated with increased rates of complete clinical response and pathologic response. Additionally, postchemoradiotherapy CEA levels <5 ng/ml were associated with increased overall and disease-free survival (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03). There was no correlation between initial CEA level or reduction in CEA and complete response or survival.
A postchemoradiotherapy CEA level <5 ng/ml is a favorable prognostic factor for rectal cancer and is associated with increased rates of earlier disease staging and complete tumor regression. Postchemoradiotherapy CEA levels may be useful in decision making for patients who may be candidates for alterative treatment strategies.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate manometric parameters that may explain improvement in anal incontinence using a silicone bulking agent.
Incontinent patients having internal sphincter defects were prospectively selected and injected with a silicone bulking agent. Manometry and endoanal ultrasound were performed before and 3 months after injections. Twenty continent healthy volunteers were used only for manometric comparison.
Thirty-five patients (28 females; mean age 60.3 years) and 20 controls entered this study. Patients had lower resting and squeeze pressures compared with controls (P < .05). Length of the high-pressure zone increased from 1 to 1.7 cm postinjection (P = .002). Asymmetry index showed a significant change postinjection (P < .001).
Despite considerable clinical improvement, no significant increase in manometric pressures was noted posttreatment. There was significant improvement in both high-pressure zone and asymmetry index, and these findings may explain the mechanism of action of the bulking agent injected.
Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Surgical Innovation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disease characterized by multiple adenomatous colorectal polyps and different extracolonic manifestations (ECM). The present work is aimed to analyze the outcome after surgical treatment regarding complications and cancer recurrence.
Charts from patients treated between 1977 and 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and endoscopic data, results of treatment, pathological reports and information about recurrence were collected.
Eighty-eight patients (41 men [46.6%] and 47 women [53.4%]) were assisted. At diagnosis, associated colorectal cancer (CRC) was detected in 53 patients (60.2%), whose average age was higher than those without CRC (40.0 vs. 29.5 years). At colonoscopy, polyposis was classified as attenuated in 12 patients (14.3%). Surgical treatment consisted in total proctocolectomy with ileostomy (PCI, 15 [17.4%]), restorative proctocolectomy (RPC, 27 [31.4%]), total colectomy with ileal-rectum anastomosis (IRA, 42 [48.8%]), palliative segmental resection (1 [1.2%]) and internal bypass (1 [1.2%]). Two patients were not operated on due to religious reasons and advanced disease. Complications occurred in 25 patients (29.0%), more commonly after RPC (48.1%). There was no operative mortality. Local or distant metastases were detected in six (11.3%) patients with CRC treated to cure. During the follow-up of 36 IRA, cancer developed in the rectal cuff in six patients (16.6%), whose average age was higher than in patients without rectal recurrence (45.8 vs. 36.6 years). Five of them have had colonic cancer in the resected specimen. Among the 26 patients followed after RPC, cancer in the ileal pouch developed in 1 (3.8%).
(1) Within the present series, FAP patients presented a high incidence of associated CRC and diagnosis was generally established after the third decade of life; (2) operative complications occurred in about one third of the patients, being more frequent after the confection of an ileal reservoir; (3) rectal cancer after IRA was detected in 16.6% of patients and it was associated with greater age and previous colonic carcinoma; (4) both continuous and long-term surveillance of the rectal stump and ileal pouch are necessary during follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucinous component is associated with distinct clinical and pathological features and poor survival in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in outcomes of patients with mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma according to the type of mucin expressed.
Immunohistochemistry was performed in all tumors of patients who underwent radical surgery between 1998 and 2003 with mucinous colorectal cancer using antibodies against MUC1, 2, and 5. Correlation between immunoexpression and clinical, pathological features and survival was performed.
Of the 418 patients treated in this period, only 35 had a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Of these, 25 were positive for 1 or more mucin expression. MUC2 expression correlated with tumor site and depth of penetration, while MUC5 expression correlated to tumor site. Overall survival was significantly worse for patients with MUC2 expression, and disease-free survival was significantly worse for patients with MUC1 expression.
Mucin expression may have significant correlation to specific clinical-pathological features and survival of patients with mucinous-type colorectal adenocarcinoma. These differences may reflect distinct molecular mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease