[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratinocyte terminal differentiation is the process that ultimately forms the epidermal barrier that is essential for mammalian survival. This process is controlled, in part, by signal transduction and gene expression mechanisms, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be an important regulator of multiple epidermal functions. Using microarray analysis of a confluent cell density-induced model of keratinocyte differentiation, we identified 2,676 genes that are regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of the EGFR. We further discovered, and separately confirmed by functional assays, that EGFR activation abrogates all of the known essential processes of keratinocyte differentiation by 1) decreasing the expression of lipid matrix biosynthetic enzymes, 2) regulating numerous genes forming the cornified envelope, and 3) suppressing the expression of tight junction proteins. In organotypic cultures of skin, EGF acted to impair epidermal barrier integrity, as shown by increased transepidermal water loss. As defective epidermal differentiation and disruption of barrier function are primary features of many human skin diseases, we used bioinformatic analyses to identify genes that are known to be associated with skin diseases. Compared with non-EGF-regulated genes, EGF-regulated genes were significantly enriched for skin disease genes. These results provide a systems-level understanding of the actions of EGFR signaling to inhibit keratinocyte differentiation, providing new insight into the role of EGFR imbalance in skin pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Physiological Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this methods article, we describe collection and storage of clinically acquired blood and adipose samples for transcript analysis in an ongoing study exploring obesity in renal transplant recipients. Total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was isolated from whole blood using the LeukoLOCK™ Total RNA Isolation System (n = 4), and comparisons between fresh and frozen samples were made. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose samples (n = 4) were obtained during kidney transplantation, flash frozen, and stored at -80°C. Adipose RNA was extracted using either the STAT-60 method modified for lipids or Trizol plus RNeasy extraction. Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 arrays and Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays were used for both blood and adipose transcriptome analysis. Purity, quality, and quantity of RNA were high with comparable results using both array platforms.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Research in Nursing & Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Yap1 mediates an adaptive response to oxidative stress by regulating protective genes. H(2)O(2) activates Yap1 through the Gpx3-mediated formation of a Yap1 Cys303-Cys598 intramolecular disulfide bond. Thiol-reactive electrophiles can activate Yap1 directly by adduction to cysteine residues in the C-terminal domain containing Cys598, Cys620, and Cys629. H(2)O(2) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) showed no cross-protection against each other, whereas another thiol-reactive chemical, acrolein, elicited Yap1-dependent cross-protection against NEM, but not H(2)O(2). Either Cys620 or Cys629 was sufficient for activation of Yap1 by NEM or acrolein; Cys598 was dispensable for this activation mechanism. To determine whether Yap1 activated by H(2)O(2) or thiol-reactive chemicals elicits distinct adaptive gene responses, microarray analysis was performed on the wild-type strain or its isogenic single-deletion strain Δyap1 treated with control buffer, H(2)O(2), NEM, or acrolein. Sixty-five unique H(2)O(2) and 327 NEM and acrolein Yap1-dependent responsive genes were identified. Functional analysis using single-gene-deletion yeast strains demonstrated that protection was conferred by CTA1 and CTT1 in the H(2)O(2)-responsive subset and YDR042C in the NEM- and acrolein-responsive subset. These findings demonstrate that the distinct mechanisms of Yap1 activation by H(2)O(2) or thiol-reactive chemicals result in selective expression of protective genes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in gene expression in the CNS influence behavior and disease susceptibility. To systematically explore the role of normal variation in expression on hippocampal structure and function, we generated an online microarray database for a diverse panel of strains of mice, including most common inbred strains and numerous recombinant inbred lines (www.genenetwork.org). Using this resource, coexpression networks for families of genes can be generated rapidly to test causal models related to function. The data set is optimized for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and was used to identify over 5500 QTLs that modulate mRNA levels. We describe a wide variety of analyses and novel synthetic approaches that take advantage of this resource, and demonstrate how both the data and associated tools can be applied to the study of gene regulation in the hippocampus and relations to structure and function.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxicogenomics has great potential for enhancing our understanding of environmental chemical toxicity, hopefully leading to better informed human health risk assessments. This study employed toxicogenomic technology to reveal species differences in response to two prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener PCB 126. Dose-responses of primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes were determined using species-specific microarrays sharing over 4000 gene orthologs. Forty-seven human and 79 rat genes satisfied dose-response criteria for both chemicals and were subjected to further analysis including the calculation of the 50% effective concentration and the relative potency (REP) of PCB 126 for each gene. Only five responsive orthologous genes were shared between the two species; yet, the geometric mean of the REPs for all rat and human modeled responsive genes were 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.03-0.1) and 0.002 (95% CI; 0.001-0.005), respectively, suggesting broad species differences in the initial events that follow AHR activation but precede toxicity. This indicates that there are species differences in both the specific genes that responded and the agonist potency and REP for those genes. This observed insensitivity of human cells to PCB 126 is consistent with more traditional measurements of AHR activation (i.e., cytochrome P450 1A1 enzyme activity) and suggests that the species difference in PCB 126 sensitivity is likely due to certain aspects of AHR function. That a species divergence also exists in this expanded AHR-regulated gene repertoire is a novel finding and should help when extrapolating animal data to humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post hoc assignment of patterns determined by all pairwise comparisons in microarray experiments with multiple treatments has been proven to be useful in assessing treatment effects. We propose the usage of transitive directed acyclic graphs (tDAG) as the representation of these patterns and show that such representation can be useful in clustering treatment effects, annotating existing clustering methods, and analyzing sample sizes. Advantages of this approach include: (1) unique and descriptive meaning of each cluster in terms of how genes respond to all pairs of treatments; (2) insensitivity of the observed patterns to the number of genes analyzed; and (3) a combinatorial perspective to address the sample size problem by observing the rate of contractible tDAG as the number of replicates increases. The advantages and overall utility of the method in elaborating drug structure activity relationships are exemplified in a controlled study with real and simulated data.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the mechanisms involved in aluminum toxicity and tolerance in plants, microarray technology was used
to evaluate changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana under Al stress. With the use of Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 Genechip, a comparison of RNA expression profiles was made between control and Al-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. A total of 256 genes were identified as Al-responsive. Ninety-four genes were shown to be up-regulated and 162
were down-regulated; comprising 1.1 % of the 24 000 Arabidopsis genes. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the microarray data. The analysis showed that a large number of transcription
factors and several putative signaling components were up-regulated by aluminum. Chloroplast structural and photosynthetic
genes were, in general, down-regulated. A number of previously identified Al-responsive genes, e.g. GST, Auxin-regulated, Peroxidase, and Chitinase, were up-regulated by Al-stress, whereas Wali 3 and Wali 4 were down-regulated. We also identified several up-regulated genes involved in vacuolar signaling, sorting and docking. Three
genes were also up-regulated by Al-stress, Ras GTP-binding protein, ABC-cassette binding, and the AtELP1 receptor genes, have previously been documented as responsive to drought and/or oxidative stress and may play important roles
the detoxification of Al ions by transportation and storage into root vacuoles. Ultrastructural changes in the roots tips
cells of Arabidopsis were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis with scanning electron microscopy
and results showed Al accumulation in the root tips of Arabidopsis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Biologia Plantarum
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) and its analogues 4-methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (OLT) and 5-tert-butyl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (TBD) are chemopreventive agents that block or diminish early stages of carcinogenesis by inducing activities of detoxication enzymes. While OLT has been used in clinical trials, TBD has been shown to be more efficacious and possibly less toxic than OLT in animals. Here, we utilize a robust and high-resolution chemical genomics procedure to examine the pharmacological structure-activity relationships of these compounds in livers of male rats by microarray analyses. We identified 226 differentially expressed genes that were common to all treatments. Functional analysis identified the relation of these genes to glutathione metabolism and the nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 pathway (Nrf2) that is known to regulate many of the protective actions of dithiolethiones. OLT and TBD were shown to have similar efficacies and both were weaker than D3T. In addition, we identified 40 genes whose responses were common to OLT and TBD, yet distinct from D3T. As inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) has been associated with the effects of OLT on CYP expression, we determined the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values for inhibition of CYP1A2. The rank order of inhibitor potency was OLT > TBD > D3T, with IC(50) values estimated as 0.2, 12.8 and >100 microM, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that OLT and TBD, in addition to their effects on CYP, modulate liver lipid metabolism, especially fatty acids. Together, these findings provide new insight into the actions of clinically relevant and lead dithiolethione analogues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or Aroclor 1254 results in female-selective induction of hepatic tumors. The relative potency of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, such as Aroclor 1254, is often estimated using the internationally endorsed toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach. Comparing the genome wide changes in gene expression in both genders following exposure to TEQ doses of these chemicals should identify critical sets of early response genes while further defining the concept of the TEQ of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Aroclor 1254 at 0.6, 6.0, and 60 mg/kg body weight and TEQ doses of TCDD (0.3 and 3.0 mug/kg), calculated to match the top two Aroclor 1254 doses, were orally administered to SD rats for three consecutive days. Day 4 gene expression in hepatic tissue was determined using microarrays. A linear mixed-effects statistical model was developed to analyze the data in relation to treatment, gender, and gender * treatment (G*T) interactions. The genes most changed included 54 genes with and 51 genes without a significant model G*T term. The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) battery genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Aldh3a1), and novel genes, responded in a TEQ dose-dependent manner in both genders. However, an important observation was the apparent disruption of sexually dimorphic basal gene expression, particularly for female rats. Because many of these genes are involved in steroid metabolism, exposure to either TCDD or Aroclor 1254 could disrupt proliferative signals more in female rats as a possible consequence of altered estrogen metabolism. This study extends the findings of previous rodent bioassays by identifying groups of genes, other than the well-characterized AHR response genes, whose disruption may be important in the tumorigenic mechanism in this rat strain.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify distinct transcriptional patterns between the major subcortical dopamine targets commonly studied in addiction we studied differences in gene expression between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dorsal striatum (dStr) using microarray analysis. We first tested for differences in expression of genes encoding transcripts for common neurotransmitter systems as well as calcium binding proteins routinely used in neuroanatomical delineation of brain regions. This a priori method revealed differential expression of corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh), the GABA transporter (Slc6a1), and prodynorphin (Pdyn) mRNAs as well as several others. Using a gene ontology tool, functional scoring analysis, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we further identified several physiological pathways that were distinct among these brain regions. These two different analyses both identified calcium signaling, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and adenylate cyclase-related signaling as significantly different among the BNST, NAc, and dStr. These types of signaling pathways play important roles in, amongst other things, synaptic plasticity. Investigation of differential gene expression revealed several instances that may provide insight into reported differences in synaptic plasticity between these brain regions. The results support other studies suggesting that crucial pathways involved in neurotransmission are distinct among the BNST, NAc, and dStr and provide insight into the potential use of pharmacological agents that may target region-specific signaling pathways. Furthermore, these studies provide a framework for future mouse-mouse comparisons of transcriptional profiles after behavioral/pharmacological manipulation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Physiological Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The estrogen dependence of breast cancer has long been recognized; however, the role of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in cancer initiation was not known until we showed that it induces complete neoplastic transformation of the human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F. E(2) treatment of MCF-10F cells progressively induced high colony efficiency and loss of ductulogenesis in early transformed (trMCF) cells and invasiveness in Matrigel invasion chambers. The cells that crossed the chamber membrane were collected and identified as bsMCF; their subclones were designated bcMCF; and the cells harvested from carcinoma formation in severe combined immunodeficient mice were designated caMCF. These phenotypes correlated with gene dysregulation during the progression of the transformation. The highest number of dysregulated genes was observed in caMCF, being slightly lower in bcMCF, and lowest in trMCF. This order was consistent with the extent of chromosome aberrations (caMCF > bcMCF > trMCF). Chromosomal amplifications were found in 1p36.12-pter, 5q21.1-qter, and 13q21.31-qter. Losses of the complete chromosome 4 and 8p11.21-23.1 were found only in tumorigenic cells. In tumor-derived cell lines, additional losses were found in 3p12.1-14.1, 9p22.1-pter, and 18q11.21-qter. Functional profiling of dysregulated genes revealed progressive changes in the integrin signaling pathway, inhibition of apoptosis, acquisition of tumorigenic cell surface markers, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In tumorigenic cells, the levels of E-cadherin, epithelial membrane antigen, and various keratins were low and CD44E/CD24 were negative, whereas SNAI2, vimentin, S100A4, FN1, HRAS, transforming growth factor beta1, and CD44H were high. The phenotypic and genomic changes triggered by estrogen exposure that lead normal cells to tumorigenesis confirm the role of this steroid hormone in cancer initiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Applying quantitative trait analysis methods to genome-wide microarray-derived mRNA expression phenotypes in segregating populations is a valuable tool in the attempt to link high-level traits to their molecular causes. The massive multiple-testing issues involved in analyzing these data make the correct level of confidence to place in mRNA abundance quantitative trait loci (QTL) a difficult problem. We use a unique resource to directly test mRNA abundance QTL replicability in mice: paired recombinant inbred (RI) and F(2) data sets derived from C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred strains and phenotyped using the same Affymetrix arrays. We have one forebrain and one striatum data set pair. We describe QTL replication at varying stringencies in these data. For instance, 78% of mRNA expression QTL (eQTL) with genome-wide adjusted p < or = 0.0001 in RI data replicate at a genome-wide adjusted p < 0.05 or better. Replicated QTL are disproportionately putatively cis-acting, and approximately 75% have higher apparent expression levels associated with B6 genotypes, which may be partly due to probe set generation using B6 sequence. Finally, we note that while trans-acting QTL do not replicate well between data sets in general, at least one cluster of trans-acting QTL on distal Chr 1 is notably preserved between data sets.