[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of the present study were to study the prevalence of the parietal emissary vein in adult South Indian population and to study the distance of foramen from the sagittal suture. There were 58 adult human skulls in the present study which were available at the anatomy department of our institution. The study included 116 parietal bones which have been observed macroscopically for the number, prevalence and topography of the emissary foramen. The emissary foramen was present in 83 parietal bones (71.5%) of the present study. It was present at the junction between the middle 1/3 and posterior 1/3 region of the parietal bone. The foramen was observed solitary in 73 parietal bones (62.9%), double in 8 bones (6.9%), and triple in 2 parietal bones (1.7%). The foramen was not observed in 33 parietal bones (28.4%). The bilateral absence of parietal emissary foramen was seen in 7 skulls (12.1%). It was absent unilaterally in 19 skulls (32.7%). The accessory foramina were seen in only 8 skulls (13.8%). The mean distance of the foramen from the sagittal suture was 6.7±2.9 mm and 6.8±2.8 mm on the right and left sides respectively. The prevalence of parietal emissary vein in the present study was 71.5%. The present study has observed important data about the morphology and morphometry of the parietal emissary vein in South Indian population. The identification of parietal emissary veins and accessory veins is important in the operation room to prevent the blood loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The skeleton plays an important role in sex determination in forensic anthropology. The skull bone is considered as the second best after the pelvic bone in sex determination due to its better retention of morphological features. Different populations have varying skeletal characteristics, making population specific analysis for sex determination essential. Hence the objective of this investigation is to obtain the accuracy of sex determination using cranial parameters of adult skulls to the highest percentage in South Indian population and to provide a baseline data for sex determination in South India. Seventy adult preserved human skulls were taken and based on the morphological traits were classified into 43 male skulls and 27 female skulls. A total of 26 craniometric parameters were studied. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS discriminant function. The analysis of stepwise, multivariate, and univariate discriminant function gave an accuracy of 77.1%, 85.7%, and 72.9% respectively. Multivariate direct discriminant function analysis classified skull bones into male and female with highest levels of accuracy. Using stepwise discriminant function analysis, the most dimorphic variable to determine sex of the skull, was biauricular breadth followed by weight. Subjecting the best dimorphic variables to univariate discriminant analysis, high levels of accuracy of sexual dimorphism was obtained. Percentage classification of high accuracies were obtained in this study indicating high level of sexual dimorphism in the crania, setting specific discriminant equations for the gender determination in South Indian people.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to study the morphometry of the styloid process of temporal bone and prevalence of elongated styloid process. The morphology of elongated styloid process along with its embryological and clinical importance are discussed. The present study included 110 human dry skulls which were procured from the bone collections of the department of anatomy. The styloid process was observed macroscopically on both sides of all the skulls, the elongations if any were noted. All the styloids were measured for their length, thickness at different levels and interstyloid distance at various levels. Out of 110 specimens, only 5 skulls (4.5%) exhibited the elongated styloid process. Among them, 3 skulls (2.7%) had unilateral elongation and 2 skulls (1.8%) had bilateral elongation of the styloid process. The mean length of the styloid process was 17.8±9.3 mm and 18.2±5.6 mm for the right and left sides, respectively. The prevalence of elongated styloid process in the present study was 4.5%. The clinical anatomy of this congenital variant is important to the neurosurgeon and radiologist, while interpreting the computed tomogram and magnetic resonance image scans. The morphological knowledge of elongated styloid process is clinically important since the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted in such situations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: During the development, 7th cervical intersegmental artery would lead to the axis artery. Axis artery is the major artery from which all other branches of the upper limb arteries arise. Materials and Methods: In the present case, variation in the branching pattern of the axis artery of upper limb was observed in an adult male cadaver. Results: There was an additional branch arising from the brachial artery and it was running in the forearm. As usual, the brachial artery bifurcated into ulnar and radial arteries. Conclusions: The knowledge of variations reported here is important to the operating surgeons and radiologists.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Morphological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sphenoid sinus is deeply situated in the skull and is the least accessible paranasal sinus. The sphenoid sinus is surrounded by vital structures such as the optic nerve and internal carotid artery, and therefore additional radiological assessment of the sphenoid sinus and the related neurovascular structures is inevitable before surgery. The aim of this study was to note the anatomic variations in the relationship of these structures with the sphenoid sinus by analyzing the coronal computed tomography (CT) scans.
The consecutive coronal CT scans of 100 patients that included 43 males and 57 females were evaluated.
Variations in the neurovascular boundaries of the sphenoid sinus were a common finding in the present study and were seen in as many as 66% of the cases. Variations involving the Vidian canal were the commonest in our study and were seen in around 42%, followed by those involving the bony canal for internal carotid artery, 33%; maxillary nerve, 21 % and optic nerve, 9%.
These variations do not represent disease as such, but may increase the risk of endoscopic mishaps. CT of the paranasal sinus region is therefore an essential prerequisite prior to sinonasal and trans-sphenoidal surgeries.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · Turkish neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the various patterns in the extra muscular part of arterial supply to the soleus muscle.
The study was carried out using 38 adult cadaveric lower limbs which were available from the Department of Anatomy of our institution. The vascular branches to the soleus were identified and traced till their point of entry into the soleus. These were considered as extramuscular branches (EMB) to the soleus. The distances of first and last branches from each artery were measured from the apex of head of fibula to their point of entry into the soleus and were expressed as proportion to the length of soleus.
The present study observed that the soleus muscle is supplied by EMB of popliteal, posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. In 42.1 % cases, there was no direct EMB from the popliteal artery to the soleus. The EMB of popliteal artery were located between 3.2 and 24.6 % of the length of soleus. The EMB from the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries were located between 6.8-97.1 % and 5.7-94.9 % of the length of soleus, respectively. The proximal 25 % of length of soleus received EMB from all the three arteries.
The present study has provided additional information on the various patterns in the extra muscular part of arterial supply to the soleus muscle. This knowledge is important to the plastic and orthopedic surgeons while performing the pedicle flap surgeries. Our opinion is that the proximally based soleal muscle flaps are more beneficial in the surgical practice.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Anatomia Clinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Ethmoidal foramina on the medial orbital wall show a higher incidence of variation. Surgeons performing endonasal, anterior cranial fossa and medial orbital wall surgeries must be aware of these variations as they are a source of hemorrhage and also serve as landmark in proximity to the orbital apex. Aim The present study aims to describe the morphometric distances of various ethmoidal foramina between anterior lacrimal crest to optic canal in south Indian dry human skulls. Materials and method The study was done on 44 adult dry human skulls. The occurrence of Ethmoidal foramina was noted by direct inspection. The distance of Ethmoidal foramina from anterior lacrimal crest to optic canal was measured with the help of ruler, probe and magnifying glass. Results The Posterior ethmoidal foramina were found in all 44 skulls bilaterally. Middle ethmoidal foramen was present in 12 and 13 skulls on right and left, respectively. Anterior ethmoidal foramen was found in 38 and 37 skulls on right and left, respectively. The distance between anterior lacrimal crest (ALC) and posterior lacrimal crest (PLC) was in the range of 3–8 mm and that of ALC to anterior ethmoidal foramen was in the range of 24–30 mm. The range of distance between anterior ethmoidal foramen to posterior ethmoidal foramen was 9–17 mm and that between posterior ethmoidal foramen to optic canal was 5–13 mm. Conclusion These observations would help to predict the anatomical variations in the position of ethmoidal foramina with respect to anterior and posterior lacrimal crest and ensure the safe and precise performance of medial orbital wall surgeries to avoid injuries to the important neurovascular bundles passing through various foramina and fissures.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The age related structural changes in human vocal fold are known, but gender related differences in middle aged group are not precisely documented. This study is aimed to compare and evaluate the collagen, elastic fibre content of the lamina propria of middle aged male and female vocal folds. Cross sectional analysis of human cadaveric male and female vocal folds were performed. Haematoxylin & Eosin staining was used for the morphometric analysis and Verhoeff's & van Giesen stain for the collagen and elastic content evaluations. The collagen and elastic fibres morphology in the lamina propria, and thickness of the epithelium, the lamina propria were compared using the trinocular microscope, which was configured with image analysis software. It was observed that, there was a considerable difference in the lamina propria thickness, the female vocal cords being thinner. The content of collagen fibres were higher in the deeper and superficial lamina propria layers in both the sexes without any gender related differences. The elastic fibre content was more in the intermediate layer and better pronounced in females. The knowledge of lamina propria in middle aged group is important in understanding the pathophysiology of vocal fold and surgical procedures associated with it.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of mastoidal emissary veins is of importance in the neurosurgical practice to diagnose abnormal and normal structures. In the present study, the objectives were to estimate the prevalence rate of mastoidal emissary foramina in the temporal bones of the adult skull and to study their number and morphology. The present study included 48 adult human skulls which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The mastoid parts of 96 temporal bones were macroscopically observed for the prevalence, number and morphology of the emissary foramina. It is observed that, the mastoidal emissary foramen was present in 88 temporal bones (91.7%) of our specimens. The foramen was observed single in 60 temporal bones (62.5%), double in 22 bones (22.9%), and triple in 6 temporal bones (6.2%). The mastoidal emissary foramen was absent in 8 (8.3%) temporal bones. The foramen was bilaterally absent in 3 (3.1%) skulls. It was unilaterally absent in 2 (2.1%) skulls and both were on the left side. The mastoidal emissary vein is prevalent in a large number (91.7%) of cases. It was observed that the accessory mastoidal emissary foramina were present in 29.1% of cases. Recognition of the mastoid emissary veins and accessory mastoid emissary veins during the otologic surgery is critical to avoid the significant bleeding. In the neurosurgical practice, the knowledge is important due to variability in the number of mastoidal emissary veins and their connection to the venous sinuses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomic parameters of the kidney in adults. The Renal lengths, width at superior and inferior poles, thickness at the superior and inferior poles were measured in 151 adult cadaver kidneys. A digital vernier caliper was used for performing the measurements. The data were statistically analyzed. The mean renal length was 8.9 ± 0.9 cm on the right side and 9.1 ± 0.9 cm on the left side. The mean width of the superior pole of the right kidney was 4.9 ± 0.6 cm and the left kidney was 5 ± 0.7 cm. The width of inferior pole of the right and left kidneys were 4.8 ± 0.6 cm and 4.5 ± 0.7 cm respectively. The mean thickness of the superior pole of the right kidney was 3 ± 0.4 cm and left kidney was 3.2 ± 0.5 cm. The mean thickness of the inferior pole of the right and left kidneys were 3.1 ± 0.4 cm and 3.2 ± 0.5 cm respectively. There was no statistical significance with respect to the length of both the kidneys. However there was some data on width and thickness among the right and left side showed the difference which was significant statistically. The present study has provided additional information on the renal morphometry which will be of use to the surgeons and radiologists.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Morphology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Since the in vivo morphometric data on the menisci of the knee joint of Indian subjects are scarce, we hereby studied the width and thickness of the menisci using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to establish standard dimensions of the normal medial and lateral meniscus as an aid to orthopaedic surgery.
Eighty menisci from 40 knee joints were analysed in each of three regions, the anterior horn, the mid body and the posterior horn. The thickness and width of the menisci were measured in sagittal and coronal T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI images and analysed statistically.
The mean thickness of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 6.3 ± 1.1 mm, 5.2 ± 1.3 mm, and 6.9 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The respective values for the lateral meniscus were 4.8 ± 0.7 mm, 6.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 7.0 ± 0.9 mm. The mean width of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 10.5 ± 1.2 mm, 7.8 ± 1 mm and 13.9 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The widths of lateral meniscus at the same regions were 11.8 ± 1.4 mm, 8.6 ± 1.2 mm, and 12.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The lateral meniscus was significantly wider than medial at the anterior horn and mid body (p = 0.00). In contrast, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was significantly wider than lateral meniscus. Both menisci were significantly wider at their posterior horn, followed by the anterior horn and were significantly narrower at their mid body.
The present study provides new information on the meniscal thickness and width in South Indians that can be used in planning of orthopaedic and arthroscopic surgeries of the knee joint. However, the study needs to be analyzed with a large sample size for the better interpretation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The knowledge of the vasculature around the paracondylar region is important in neurosurgical procedures such as the paracondylar and lateral supracondylar approaches. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of paracondylar emissary foramina in the adult skull bases and to study the morphology of condylar canals and hypoglossal canals. Material and Methods: The present study included 48 adult human skulls that were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The paracondylar region was macroscopically observed for the variant foramina, canals and grooves. Results: It was observed that the paracondylar emissary foramen was present in 16 skulls (33.3%). The foramen was found bilaterally in 7 skulls (14.6%) and unilaterally in 9 skulls (18.7%). The hypoglossal canal was single in 35 (72.9%) skulls, double in 11 skulls (22.9%), and triple in 2 skulls (4.2%). The paracondylar process (2.1%) and the paracondylar groove (2.1%) were seen in 1 skull each. The posterior condylar canal was found to be patent in 19 (39.6%) skulls. Conclusion: The present study observed that, the paracondylar emissary vein is not rare in occurrence as it is observed in 33.3% of cases. The identification of the paracondylar emissary veins and accessory vessels is important to avoid dangerous bleeding during the surgery. The morphological knowledge of the foramina around the paracondylar region is enlightening to the chiropractors, neurosurgeons and radiologists.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Turkish neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:Restraint stress in rats is known to adversely affect the behavior especially memory dysfunctions in rats. Though there are many factors involved in this stress-induced memory impairment, damage to the antioxidant system in the brain is also known to be a causative factor. Resveratrol is known to exert its neuroprotective potentials by up regulating several antioxidant systems. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against stress-induced cognitive impairment and involvement of brain antioxidant enzymes. Methods: Male rats were subjected to restraint stress for 6 hours consecutively for 21 days. Another sets of rats received similar intensity and duration of stress along with either 10 or 20mg/kg dose of resveratrol for 28 days with its administration before a weak of stressing procedure. A control group of rats was also served in the experiment. The behavioural studies include active avoidance and open field tests. Thereafter the rats were sacrificed and the whole brain homogenate was subjected to lipid peroxidation and total antioxidants (TAO)estimation. Results: Restraint stress has impaired motor activity, learning and memory activities and resveratrol treatment has reversed this cognitive dysfunction. Restraint stress caused an alteration in oxidative stress markers with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of total antioxidant activities, which was reversed by resveratrol. Conclusion: Results of the present study confirm that resveratrol can reverse the stress induced memory dysfunction by exerting its antioxidant potentials.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular arteries are the branches of the abdominal aorta below the level of origin of renal arteries. They may originate at a higher or a lower level from the aorta. However, when they originate from some other artery, they become surgically significant, since the ligature of the main artery giving rise to the testicular artery might lead to testicular atrophy. The present report is about the origin of the left testicular artery from the superior polar artery, which is a branch directly from the abdominal aorta above the renal artery. With the advent of novel surgical techniques, prior knowledge of rare variation in the testicular arteries becomes significantly important during surgery for renal transplant procedures, as well as for undescended testis or varicocele.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · European Journal of Anatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To study the morphological and topographic anatomy of nutrient foramina and to determine the foraminal index of metacarpal bones.
Materials and methods:
The study consisted of 438 unpaired, human metacarpal bones of unknown age and sex. Nutrient foramina in each of the bones were grossly identified in relation to their number and location. The foraminal index was calculated by applying the Hughes formula. A digital vernier caliper was used to perform the measurements.
Among our specimens, 93.1% of metacarpals had single foramen, 2% had double foramina, 0.3% of the bones had triple foramina and in 4.6% of cases the foramen was absent. The mean foraminal indexes of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpal were 60.1, 53, 43.1, 43.7 and 45.9 respectively.
It was observed that the morphology and topography of nutrient foramina vary among different metacarpals. In 1st and 2nd metacarpals, foramina were more common at the medial surface and in other metacarpals, mostly seen on the lateral surface. The knowledge about these foramina is important in certain surgical procedures to preserve the circulation. This data is important to the plastic surgeon for microvascular bone transfer surgeries.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · La Clinica terapeutica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sildenafil citrate, one of the selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, is considered the best treatment for erectile dysfunction, studies have shown that it has also a beneficial effect on a variety of cardiovascular conditions. In spite of reports of a significant protective effect of sildenafil against necrosis in intact hearts, there are also contradictory reports regarding its beneficial effect on the heart. Since there are not enough reports regarding the histomorphological changes in the cardiomyocytes after exposure to sildenafil citrate, the present study was conducted to observe the same along with other biochemical parameters.
Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were used in the present study. The animals were divided into a control group and two experimental groups containing six rats each. The animals were treated with a solution of sildenafil citrate dissolved in distilled water. Histomorphological changes were observed by light microscopy and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and PDE in the heart were measured by spectrophotometry.
It was observed that animals treated with sildenafil citrate showed a highly significant increase in NO and a decrease in PDE level, but the histological architecture of the cardiomyocytes did not show much change other than a slightly elongated and swollen nucleus.
This study shows that sildenafil citrate at low dosage is well tolerated by cardiac muscle cells, but as dosage increases, it may become detrimental through its NO and PDE activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives were to study the morphology of fused vertebrae in thoracolumbar region.
The study included 729 thoracolumbar vertebrae which were macroscopically observed for the fusion and morphological details were observed.
It was observed that, there was fusion in three of our specimens. One specimen was having fusion between the two typical thoracic vertebrae. The other one had fusion among the three typical thoracic vertebrae. The third specimen had fusion between the twelveth thoracic vertebrae and the first lumbar vertebra. The average length of body of thoracic vertebrae was 1.8 mms, vertebral foramen diameter was 1.4mms, length of lamina was 1.9 mms and the length of spinous process was 2.6 mms. The same parameters for the fused vertebrae of two typical thoracic was 3.2 mms, 1.1 mms, 4 mms and 4.7 mms respectively. The parameters of fused three typical thoracic vertebrae were 5.2 mms, 1.4 mms, 6.6 mms and 7.9 mms respectively. The average morphometric parameters of the fused thoracolumbar vertebrae were 3.7 mms, 1.4 mms, 4 mms and 3.5 mms respectively.
The present study has provided additional information on the anatomy and morphology of dorsolumbar spine synostosis with their embryological basis and clinical implications. We believe that the details are clinically important as they might be associated with neurological signs and symptoms.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · La Clinica terapeutica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The objective was to find incidence of "vermian fossa" of skull in Indian population and to study its morphology and morphometry. Materials and Methods: The present study included 35 specimens which comprised 20 cranial bases and 15 occipital bones. The inner aspects of posterior cranial fossa were examined to find the presence of the vermian fossa. The fossae were macroscopically classified as triangular (type 1) and quadrangular shapes (type 2) and atypical, i.e., than triangular or quadrangular (type 3). The length and width of the fossa were determined by using digital vernier caliper. Results: It was observed that the fossa was present in 25 specimens (71.4%). Its shape was triangular in 19 skulls (76%), quadrangular in 2 (8%) and atypical (type 3) in 4 (16%). The mean length and width of the fossa (± SD) were "13.6 ± 4.4 mm" and "11.9 ± 3.3 mm" respectively. Conclusion: The triangular morphology was observed in the overwhelming majority of the vermian fossae. We believe that the details about this bony landmark are of importance for neurosurgery and are also enlightening for neuroanatomy and neuroradiology.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Morphological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the routine anatomical cadaveric dissections performed for medical students, it was observed that, an unusual morphology of the right crus of diaphragm was present. There were two crura on the right side of diaphragm and the left side was normal. We believe that this case is of worth reporting, since it will be enlightening to the clinicians and researchers. The embryological basis and clinical implications are discussed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Morphological Sciences