[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated physiological effects of inhaled corticosteroids, which are used widely to treat asthma. Application of fluticasone propionate (FP, 100 µM) induced sustained increases in short-circuit current (I(SC)) in human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells. The FP-induced I(SC) was prevented by the presence of H89 (10 µM, a protein kinase A inhibitor) and SQ22536 (100 µM, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor). The FP-induced responses were composed of bumetanide (a Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter inhibitor)- and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (an inhibitor of HCO(3)(-)-dependent anion transporters)-sensitive components, both of which reflect basolateral anion transport. Further, FP augmented apical membrane Cl(-) current (I(Cl)), reflecting cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated conductance, in the nystatin-permeabilized monolayer. In I(SC) and I(Cl) responses, FP failed to enhance the responses to forskolin (10 µM, an adenylate cyclase activator). Nevertheless, we found that FP synergistically increased cytosolic cAMP levels in combination with forskolin. All these effects of FP were reproduced by the use of budesonide. Collectively, inhaled corticosteroids such as FP and budesonide stimulate CFTR-mediated anion transport through adenylate-cyclase-mediated mechanisms in a non-genomic fashion, thus sharing elements of a common pathway with forskolin. Notwithstanding, the corticosteroids cooperate with forskolin for synergistic cAMP production, suggesting that the corticosteroids and forskolin do not compete with each other to exert their effects on adenylate cyclase. Considering that synergism was also observed in the FP/salmeterol combination, these non-genomic aspects may play therapeutic roles in mucus congestive airway diseases in addition to the genomic ones that are generally recognized.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea. A laboratory examination and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed that he had interstitial pneumonia (IP) with liver dysfunction. Myeloperoxidase-ANCA (MPO-ANCA) was negative. Although his respiratory condition had become stable after initiation of steroid therapy, liver dysfunction had worsened with progressive portal hypertension. He died of hepatic insufficiency about three years after the first medical examination. Autopsy showed that he had vasculitis of medium and small blood vessels of the spleen, lungs, and liver. The final diagnosis was classical polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Microscopically, non-specific interstitial pneumonia was identified in the autopsied lung. The pathological findings of the liver were consistent with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH). We report a case of PAN with IP and NRH preceding findings of systemic vasculitis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. Application of capsaicin (100 μM) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I(SC)), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 μM) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was attributed to suppression of bumetanide (an inhibitor of the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1)- and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (an inhibitor of basolateral HCO(3)(-)-dependent anion transporters)-sensitive components, which reflect anion uptake via basolateral cAMP-dependent anion transporters. In contrast, capsaicin potentiated apical Cl(-) conductance, which reflects conductivity through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channel. All these paradoxical effects of capsaicin were mimicked by capsazepine. Forskolin application also increased phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and the phosphorylation was prevented by capsaicin and capsazepine, suggesting that these capsaicinoids assume aspects of Rho kinase inhibitors. We also found that the increments in apical Cl(-) conductance were caused by conventional Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 (20 μM) and HA-1077 (20 μM), with selective inhibition of basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1. Collectively, capsaicinoids inhibit cAMP-mediated anion transport through down-regulation of basolateral anion uptake, paradoxically accompanied by up-regulation of apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated anion conductance. The latter is mediated by inhibition of Rho-kinase, which is believed to interact with actin cytoskeleton.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study concerns previously unreported effects of menthol, a cyclic terpene alcohol produced by the peppermint herb, on anion transporters in polarized human airway Calu-3 epithelia. Application of menthol (0.01-1mM) attenuated transepithelial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I(SC)), after stimulation by forskolin (10microM) but not before. In contrast, menthol potentiated forskolin-stimulated and -unstimulated apical Cl(-) conductance, which reflected the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR: the cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channel)-mediated conductance, without correlation to changes in cytosolic cAMP levels. These results indicate that menthol-induced attenuation of forskolin-induced I(SC) despite CFTR up-regulation was due to cAMP-independent inhibition of basolateral anion uptake, which is the rate-limiting step for transepithelial anion transport. Analyses of the responsible basolateral anion transporters revealed that forskolin increased both bumetanide (an inhibitor of the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter [NKCC1])- and DNDS (an inhibitor of basolateral HCO(3)(-)-dependent anion transporters [NBC1/AE2])-sensitive I(SC) in the control whereas only the former was prevented by the application of menthol. Neither the bumetanide- nor DNDS-sensitive component was, however, reduced by menthol without forskolin. These heterologous effects of menthol were reproduced by latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. F-actin staining showed that menthol prevented forskolin-stimulated rearrangements of actin microfilaments without affecting the distribution of forskolin-unstimulated microfilaments. Collectively, menthol functions as an activator of CFTR and prevents activation of NKCC1 without affecting NBC1/AE although all of these transporters are commonly cAMP-dependent. The heterologous effects may be mediated by the actin cytoskeleton, which interacts with CFTR and NKCC1.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the mechanisms underlying the ion transport induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), a membrane-permeant oxidant that has been widely used as a model of oxidative stress, in human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). We found that t-BOOH induced a short-circuit current that was composed of two distinct components, a peaked component (PC) and a sustained component (SC). Both components were reduced by the presence of H-89 (N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline) [10 microM, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor] and clofilium (100 microM, a cAMP-dependent K+ channel inhibitor) but not by charybdotoxin (50 nM, a human intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitor), suggesting that both PC and SC were generated through a common PKA-dependent/Ca2+-independent pathway. Notwithstanding, analyses of the physiological properties revealed that PC and SC were attributable to different pathways. PC, but not SC, was correlated with apical membrane Cl- conductance and was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor NS-398 (N-[2-(cyclohexyloxyl)-4-nitrophenyl]-methane sulfonamide; 10 microM). In contrast, SC, but not PC, was composed of a component sensitive to bumetanide (50 microM), an inhibitor of the basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1), and was abolished by the cytoskeleton dysfunction induced by cytochalasin D (10 microM) and (R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexane carboxamide (Y-27632; 20 microM). Collectively, t-BOOH induces PKA-related anion secretion through two independent pathways: rapid activation of apical anion efflux through a COX-2-dependent/cytoskeleton-independent pathway and relatively delayed activation of NKCC1 for basolateral anion uptake through a COX-2-independent/cytoskeleton-dependent pathway.
Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study concerns intriguing effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on cAMP-mediated anion secretion in polarized human airway epithelia. Although H2O2 applied to the apical and basolateral membrane increases short-circuit currents (ISC) with analogous properties, it has opposite effects on subsequent cAMP-activated ISC responses. Namely, forskolin (FK)-induced ISC responses were down-regulated by the apical presence of H2O2, whereas they were up-regulated by its basolateral presence. Despite this contrasting effect, oxidative stimuli from either aspect of the monolayer hindered FK-induced increments in cytosolic cAMP levels and apical membrane Cl- conductance. The site-dependent effects of H2O2 were reproduced in the responses to 8-bromo-cAMP. Estimation of the anionic composition of the ISC revealed that the FK up-regulated both bumetanide [an Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) inhibitor]-sensitive and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid [an HCO3--dependent anion transporter (NBC1/AE2) inhibitor]-sensitive ISC in the control, whereas the up-regulation evidently favored bumetanide-sensitive ISC in the basolateral presence of H2O2. The FK-induced NKCC1 augmentation after exposure to basolateral H2O2 was counteracted by cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of microfilament function, but not by charybdotoxin, a blocker of the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel, whose activation could be related to NKCC1-mediated Cl- secretion. These observations suggest that basolaterally but not apically applied H2O2 potentiates subsequent cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion by an increase in Cl- uptake via basolateral NKCC1, whose sensitivities to cAMP/protein kinase A are up-regulated, overcoming the H2O2-induced inhibition of cAMP-mediated apical anion conductance. The basolateral membrane-specific effects of H2O2 may be relevant to the basolateral cytoskeleton, which is believed to interact with NKCC1.
Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid nodules in dermal or subcutaneous tissues, while indicative of rheumatoid arthritis, are very rare. It is even less common to identify these rheumatoid nodules by biopsy as well as in autopsy materials from lung tissue. These nodules may be single or multiple, which seldom cause respiratory symptoms. Here, a patient with diffuse pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and interstitial fibrosis throughout both lungs, is described. The patient, with articular symptoms and seropositivity, exhibited a rapid clinical course and died of respiratory failure 3 months after the appearance of dyspnea. Chest radiography indicated interstitial pneumonitis with bilateral diffuse peripheral shadows. At autopsy, numerous rheumatoid nodules and interstitial fibrosis had destroyed both lungs, such that no residual normal pulmonary tissue remained. It is believed that this was an extremely rare case exhibiting large numbers of rheumatoid nodules throughout the lungs. Findings with this patient indicate that, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, clinical interstitial pneumonitis confirmed radiologically does not exclude the existence of rheumatoid lung nodules.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Pathology International