[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL) but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.
HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy) with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy). HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223) at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.
miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015), which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032). Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.
HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways links obesity with metabolic disorders. TLR4-mediated activation of MAPKs and NF-κB are 2 such pathways implicated in obesity-induced inflammation. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) exerts anti-inflammatory effects on adipocytes by effluxing cholesterol from the cells via the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). It is not known if these effects involve inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways by apoA-I. This study asks if apoA-I inhibits activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether this inhibition is ABCA1-dependent. Incubation of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with apoA-I decreased cell surface expression of TLR4 by 16 ± 2% and synthesis of the TLR4 adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation primary response 88, by 24 ± 4% in an ABCA1-dependent manner. ApoA-I also inhibited downstream activation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, as well as expression of proinflammatory adipokines in bacterial LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in an ABCA1-dependent manner. ApoA-I, by contrast, suppressed nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-κB by 30 ± 3% in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in an ABCA1-independent manner. In conclusion, apoA-I inhibits TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways in adipocytes by preventing MAPK and NF-κB activation.-Sultana, A., Cochran, B. J., Tabet, F., Patel, M., Torres, L. C., Barter, P. J., Rye, K.-A. Inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by apolipoprotein A-I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
Lymphatic endothelial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known for its role in disrupting the function of the lymphatic vasculature. This study investigates the ability of apo AI, the principal apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins, to preserve the normal function of lymphatic endothelial cells treated with TNF.
Approach and results:
TNF decreased the ability of lymphatic endothelial cells to form tube-like structures. Preincubation of lymphatic endothelial cells with apo AI attenuated the TNF-mediated inhibition of tube formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, apo AI reversed the TNF-mediated suppression of lymphatic endothelial cell migration and lymphatic outgrowth in thoracic duct rings. Apo AI also abrogated the negative effect of TNF on lymphatic neovascularization in an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, this involved downregulation of TNF receptor-1 and the conservation of prospero-related homeobox gene-1 expression, a master regulator of lymphangiogenesis. Apo AI also re-established the normal phenotype of the lymphatic network in the diaphragms of human TNF transgenic mice.
Apo AI restores the neovascularization capacity of the lymphatic system during TNF-mediated inflammation. This study provides a proof-of-concept that high-density lipoprotein-based therapeutic strategies may attenuate chronic inflammation via its action on lymphatic vasculature.
Article · Sep 2015 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes and contribute to metabolic homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-223 (miR-223), an miRNA previously associated with inflammation, also controls multiple mechanisms associated with cholesterol metabolism. miR-223 promoter activity and mature levels were found to be linked to cellular cholesterol states in hepatoma cells. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia was associated with increased hepatic miR-223 levels in athero-prone mice. miR-223 was found to regulate high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) uptake, through direct targeting and repression of scavenger receptor BI, and to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis through the direct repression of sterol enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and methylsterol monooxygenase 1 in humans. Additionally, miR-223 was found to indirectly promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression (mRNA and protein) through Sp3, thereby enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux. Finally, genetic ablation of miR-223 in mice resulted in increased HDL-C levels and particle size, as well as increased hepatic and plasma total cholesterol levels. In summary, we identified a critical role for miR-223 in systemic cholesterol regulation by coordinated posttranscriptional control of multiple genes in lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism.
Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives
Do elevated PCSK9 levels constitute an even greater risk for people who already have reduced LDL receptor (LDLR) levels, such as heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemic (HeFH) patients?
As a circulating inhibitor of the LDLR, PCSK9 is an attractive target to lower LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C).
Circulating PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in non-treated HeFH patients carrying either a D206E (n=237), V408M (n=117), or D154N (n=38) LDLR missense mutation and in normolipidemic controls (n=152). Skin fibroblasts and lymphocytes were isolated from a subset of patients and grown in 0·5% serum and mevastatin with increasing amounts of recombinant PCSK9. LDLR abundance at the cell surface was determined by flow cytometry.
PCSK9 dose-dependently reduced LDLR expression in control and FH fibroblasts to similar extents, by up to 77±8% and 82±7%. Likewise, PCSK9 reduced LDLR abundance by 39±8% in non-FH and by 45±10% in HeFH lymphocytes, irrespective of their LDLR mutation status. We found positive correlations of the same magnitude between PCSK9 and LDL-C in controls (β=0·22, p=0·0003), D206E ( β=0·20, p=0·0002), V408M ( β=0·24, p=0·0002), and D154N ( β=0·25, p=0·048) HeFH patients. The strengths of these associations were all similar.
Elevated PCSK9 levels are equally detrimental for HeFH and non-FH patients: a 100ng/mL increase in PCSK9 will lead to an increase in LDL-C of 0·20-0·25mmol/L in controls and HeFH alike, irrespective of their LDLR mutation. This explains why non-FH and HeFH patients respond equally well to monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9.
Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have many biological functions, including reducing endothelial activation and adhesion molecule expression. We recently reported that HDL transport and deliver functional microRNAs (miRNA). Here we show that HDL suppresses expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) through the transfer of miR-223 to endothelial cells. After incubation of endothelial cells with HDL, mature miR-223 levels are significantly increased in endothelial cells and decreased on HDL. However, miR-223 is not transcribed in endothelial cells and is not increased in cells treated with HDL from miR-223(-/-) mice. HDL inhibit ICAM-1 protein levels, but not in cells pretreated with miR-223 inhibitors. ICAM-1 is a direct target of HDL-transferred miR-223 and this is the first example of an extracellular miRNA regulating gene expression in cells where it is not transcribed. Collectively, we demonstrate that HDL's anti-inflammatory properties are conferred, in part, through HDL-miR-223 delivery and translational repression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Physiological and pathological roles for small non-encoding miRNAs (microRNAs) in the cardiovascular system have recently emerged and are now widely studied. The discovery of widespread functions of miRNAs has increased the complexity of gene-regulatory processes and networks in both the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, it has recently been shown that miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of many of the steps leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. These findings represent novel aspects in miRNA biology and, therefore, our understanding of the role of these miRNAs during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is critical for the development of novel therapies and diagnostic interventions. The present review will focus on understanding how miRNAs are involved in the onset and development of cardiovascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study shows whether high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and apolipoprotein A-I inhibit joint inflammation in streptococcal cell wall peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS)-induced arthritis in female Lewis rats.
Administration of PG-PS to female Lewis rats caused acute joint inflammation after 4 days, followed by remission by day 8. The animals subsequently developed chronic joint inflammation that persisted until euthanized at day 21. Treatment with apolipoprotein A-I 24 hours before and after PG-PS administration reduced the acute and chronic joint inflammation. Treatment with apolipoprotein A-I at days 7, 9, and 11 after PG-PS administration reduced the chronic joint inflammation. Treatment with apolipoprotein A-I or reconstituted HDLs consisting of apolipoprotein A-I complexed with phosphatidylcholine 24 hours before and at days 1, 7, 9, and 11 after PG-PS administration reduced acute and chronic joint inflammation. Treatment with apolipoprotein A-I also reduced the inflammatory white blood cell count, synovial fluid proinflammatory cytokine levels, synovial tissue macrophage accumulation, as well as toll-like receptor 2, and inflammatory cytokine expression. At the molecular level, preincubation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with apolipoprotein A-I or reconstituted HDLs before PG-PS stimulation inhibited the PG-PS-induced increase in toll-like receptor 2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) mRNA levels, nuclear factor-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. The effects of apolipoprotein A-I and reconstituted HDLs were abolished by transfecting the human monocyte-derived macrophages with ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 or G1 siRNA.
Apolipoprotein A-I and reconstituted HDLs attenuate PG-PS-induced arthritis in the rat. Studies in human monocyte-derived macrophages indicate that this benefit may be because of the inhibition of toll-like receptor 2 expression and decreased nuclear factor-κB activation in macrophages.
Article · Dec 2013 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high levels of circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) would increase cardiovascular risk in statin-treated patients.
Statins activate low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene expression, thus lowering plasma LDL levels. But statins also activate the expression of PCSK9, a secreted inhibitor of the LDL receptor, thereby limiting their beneficial effects.
We have measured the plasma PCSK9 levels of 1,613 patients with stable coronary heart disease enrolled in the Treating to New Targets study, a randomized trial that compared the efficacy of high- versus low-dose atorvastatin. After a run-in period with atorvastatin 10 mg daily, patients were randomized to either continue with 10 mg or be up-titrated to 80 mg of atorvastatin, and followed during 5 years for major cardiovascular events (MCVEs).
Circulating PCSK9 levels measured at randomization were predictive of clinical outcomes in the group randomized to remain on atorvastatin 10 mg (p = 0.039), but not in the group that intensified atorvastatin treatment to 80 mg (p = 0.24). Further, PCSK9 levels measured 1 year post-randomization did not change upon increase of the statin dose.
PCSK9 levels predict cardiovascular events in patients treated with low-dose atorvastatin. (A Study to Determine the Degree of Additional Reduction in CV Risk in Lowering LDL Below Minimum Target Levels [TNT]; NCT00327691).
Full-text Article · May 2012 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The functional significance and regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) isoforms by angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was studied. Expression of Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 (gene and protein) and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were increased in SHR. Basal NAD(P)H oxidase activity was blocked by GKT136901 (Nox1/4 inhibitor) and by Nox1 siRNA in WKY cells and by siNOX1 and siNOX2 in SHR. Whereas Ang II increased expression of all Noxes in WKY, only Nox1 was influenced in SHR. Ang II-induced NAD(P)H activity was inhibited by siNOX1 in WKY and by siNOX1 and siNOX2 in SHR. ET-1 upregulated Nox expression only in WKY and increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity, an effect inhibited by siNOX1 and siNOX2. Nox1 co-localized with Nox2 but not with Nox4, implicating association between Nox1 and Nox2 but not between Nox1 and Nox4. These data highlight the complexity of Nox biology in VSMCs, emphasising that more than one Nox member, alone or in association, may be involved in NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated •O(2)(-) production. Nox1 regulation by Ang II, but not by ET-1, may be important in •O(2)(-) formation in VSMCs from SHR.
Full-text Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, in the lipid-free form or as a constituent of discoidal reconstituted high-density lipoproteins ([A-I]rHDL), inhibits high-glucose-induced redox signaling in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM).
HMDM were incubated under normal (5.8 mmol/L) or high-glucose (25 mmol/L) conditions with native high-density lipoproteins (HDL) lipid-free apoA-I from normal subjects and from subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or (A-I)rHDL. Superoxide (O2-) production was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence. NADPH oxidase activity was assessed using lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence and a cyotochrome c assay. p47phox translocation to the plasma membrane, Nox2, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Native HDL induced a time-dependent inhibition of O2- generation in HMDM incubated with 25 mmol/L glucose. Lipid-free apoA-I and (A-I)rHDL increased SOD1 and SOD2 levels and attenuated 25 mmol/L glucose-mediated increases in cellular O2-, NADPH oxidase activity, p47 translocation, and Nox2 expression. Lipid-free apoA-I mediated its effects on Nox2, SOD1, and SOD2 via ABCA1. (A-I)rHDL-mediated effects were via ABCG1 and scavenger receptor BI. Lipid-free apoA-I from subjects with T2D inhibited reactive oxygen species generation less efficiently than normal apoA-I.
Native HDL, lipid-free apoA-I and (A-I)rHDL inhibit high-glucose-induced redox signaling in HMDM. The antioxidant properties of apoA-I are attenuated in T2D.
Article · Feb 2011 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired beta-cell secretory function, insulin resistance, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and increased cardiovascular risk. Given the current interest in therapeutic interventions that raise HDLs levels, this study investigates the effects of HDLs on insulin secretion from beta-cells.
Incubation of Min6 cells and primary islets under basal or high-glucose conditions with either apolipoprotein (apo) A-I or apoA-II in the lipid-free form, as a constituent of discoidal reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs), or with HDLs isolated from human plasma increased insulin secretion up to 5-fold in a calcium-dependent manner. The increase was time and concentration dependent. It was also K(ATP) channel and glucose metabolism dependent under high-glucose, but not low-glucose, conditions. The lipid-free apolipoprotein-mediated increase in insulin secretion was ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 and scavenger receptor-B1 dependent. The rHDL-mediated increase in insulin secretion was ABCG1 dependent. Exposure of beta-cells to lipid-free apolipoproteins also increased insulin mRNA expression and insulin secretion without significantly depleting intracellular insulin or cholesterol levels.
These results establish that lipid-free and lipid-associated apoA-I and apoA-II increase beta-cell insulin secretion and indicate that interventions that raise HDLs levels may be beneficial in type 2 diabetes.
Article · May 2010 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of nonenzymatic glycation on the antiinflammatory properties of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.
Rabbits were infused with saline, lipid-free apoA-I from normal subjects (apoA-I(N)), lipid-free apoA-I nonenzymatically glycated by incubation with methylglyoxal (apoA-I(Glyc in vitro)), nonenzymatically glycated lipid-free apoA-I from subjects with diabetes (apoA-I(Glyc in vivo)), discoidal reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) containing phosphatidylcholine and apoA-I(N), (A-I(N))rHDL, or apoA-I(Glyc in vitro), (A-I(Glyc in vitro))rHDL. At 24 hours postinfusion, acute vascular inflammation was induced by inserting a nonocclusive, periarterial carotid collar. The animals were euthanized 24 hours after the insertion of the collar. The collars caused intima/media neutrophil infiltration and increased endothelial expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). ApoA-I(N) infusion decreased neutrophil infiltration and VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression by 89%, 90%, and 66%, respectively. The apoA-I(Glyc in vitro) infusion decreased neutrophil infiltration by 53% but did not reduce VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 expression. ApoA-I(Glyc in vivo) did not inhibit neutrophil infiltration or adhesion molecule expression. (A-I(Glyc in vitro))rHDL also inhibited vascular inflammation less effectively than (A-I(N))rHDL. The reduced antiinflammatory properties of nonenzymatically glycated apoA-I were attributed to a reduced ability to inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation and reactive oxygen species formation.
Nonenzymatic glycation impairs the antiinflammatory properties of apoA-I.